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CONTEXT

use physics equations to

produce realistic motion

in computer graphics.

MOVING

ABOUT

Why can computers generate graphical images of things that look, move and

behave realistically? How can they accurately predict and control the motions

of interplanetary spacecraft across many millions of kilometres? In physics, the

motions of almost everything in the universe can be described by the equations

of motion. Once you know the right equations, in theory, you can use a computer

(or even a pen and paper) to mimic or predict the motions of almost anything.

Part of the job of a physicist is to translate words and ideas into those equations,

so important words need to be carefully defined. Many words from physics describing

motion are used in everyday conversation, such as distance, speed, time,

acceleration, velocity, displacement, power, momentum, energy and force.

In this module, we will learn more precisely what these words mean and how

the equations of motion can be used to describe, predict and explain how and why

people, planets, vehicles and everything else move and how they behave when they

pull, push or crash into each other.

elastic collisions to create

hypnotic patterns of motion.

INQUIRY ACTIVITY

HIGHLY ELASTIC COLLISIONS

Materials, like glass and hardened steel, that rebound quickly after collision

without permanent deformation are called highly elastic. If two identical balls

undergo a highly elastic head-on collision, they swap motions. For example, a

moving ball colliding head-on into a second stationary ball should stop dead,

while the second ball should acquire the speed and direction of the first.

Perfectly elastic collisions only occur between subatomic particles, but

you come close with a bunch of marbles. Try the following activity:

1 Get 7 or 8 glass marbles of identical size and 1 or 2 larger ones.

Find a smooth, horizontal track along which marbles can roll freely.

2 Line up some small stationary marbles on the track and flick one

small marble quickly towards them. What happens?

3 Flick a group of 2 small marbles towards them. Now try 3. Is a

pattern emerging?

4 Predict what happens if you flick 3 towards a stationary group of

2 (or 4 towards a stationary group of 3). Now test it.

5 Redo steps 24 but leave small gaps between the marbles.

6 Does including a larger marble anywhere give the same results?

7 Retry the experiments on smooth carpet.

8 Retry the experiments with tennis balls or rubber balls. Are these collisions

highly elastic?

Getting from

A to B: kinematics

What is kinematics?

speed, rate, uniform, average speed,

instantaneous speed, displacement,

magnitude, direction, vectors,

scalars, velocity, relative velocity,

frame of reference, acceleration,

sign convention, air resistance, g,

braking distance

GREEK GEEK

elow is an image of a

millennium-old copy of a

book by Greek mathematician and

physicist Archimedes (287212

BC). The pages had been erased

and overwritten with a medieval

prayer book. Intense synchrotron

X-rays were used to enhance the

traces of the original text.

Archimedes manuscript

But before writing down equations, we must carefully define the terms.

Many words in physics are derived from Latin, Greek or Arabic,

which were the international languages of science for nearly

2000 years. The term kinematics comes from kineo, the Greek

word for movement, as does the word for moving picturescinema.

Luckily for most of you, the international language of physics

is now English!

Units are labels added to numbers to indicate what they measure, such as

metres, kilograms or seconds. In 1960, an international scientific agreement was

undertaken to adopt a set of units based on metres, kilograms and seconds called

Normally, answers

(in French) Systme International dUnits or SI units.

to problems and working should be in SI units. (You will learn about this in

more detail in Chapter 17.)

Time

Perhaps the most important word used in describing motion is timenothing

can move unless time passes. Time is surprisingly difficult to define scientifically,

however, so well just rely on your watch to measure it. In equations, well use

the letter t for time and delta (), the Greek D, to represent difference or change.

Usually, t represents a time interval between an initial time ti and final time tf ,

so t = tf ti. The SI unit for time is seconds (s).

MOVING

ABOUT

Distance

If you travel along a straight pathway from A to B, the distance you travelled can

be measured with a ruler or tape measure. If the path is curved, imagine running

a string along your path between A and B and then measuring the length of the

straightened string. That length is the distance. Well use d to represent distance.

The SI unit is metres (m).

Speed

Distance travelled per unit of time is called speed. Well use S for speed. The

SI unit is metres per second (m s1).

How much a quantity changes per unit time is called rate. So speed is the

rate of distance travelled.

Suppose for a time period t, you travel at a constant (uniform) speed S.

During that time, you travel a distance d. The formula for your speed is:

S=

involves speed changes.

distance travelled

d

=

time taken

t

However, during the time t, your speed might change. In fact, for most

journeys you take, speed is not constant, such as when a bus slows down and

stops to pick up passengers and speeds up again. Therefore if speed is changing,

you can still use the above formula, except now it calculates average speed Sav

over the time period t :

Sav =

instantaneous and average

speed of vehicles and other

bodies.

d

t

If speed is constant over the time t, average speed equals

speed.

instantaneous speed.

Note that you can rearrange the speed equation to make either d or t

the subject.

Worked example

QUESTION

If you drive at an average speed of 92 km h1 for 56 min, what distance have you travelled?

SOLUTION

First convert into consistent units: 56 min =

56

h.

60

d = S t

56

= 92

60

= 85.867 86 km

CHECKPOINT 1.1

1

2

3

Define .

Define speed.

Explain the difference between average and instantaneous speed.

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acceleration

Displacement

Displacement is similar to distance, but theres more to it. Moving from A to B,

displacement is defined as an overall change in position. In other words,

displacement is the straight-line distance between A and B, even if you didnt

walk in a straight line (Figure 1.2.1). The SI unit for displacement is metres (m).

path

8

9

distance

10

10

displacement

t

as

-e

20

20 m north

rth

no

A

20 m east

N

For example, if two people walk from A to B, one on a winding path and the

other on a straight path, both undergo the same displacement even though the

winding path is a longer distance. If you walk in a circle back to where you

started, you have travelled a distance equal to the circumference but your

displacement is zero.

However, this isnt the whole story. Displacement has two parts: first, size

or magnitude (the straight-line distance); and second, the direction of the line

joining A to B. You must therefore write both parts of displacement: magnitude

and direction.

For instance, if I start at point A, walk 20 m east and then 20 m north to

point B, I have travelled a distance of 20 + 20 = 40 m, but my overall

displacement is less: 20 2 m 28.3 m north-east (see Figure 1.2.2). Then if I

walk for 20 2 m in a straight line north-east from A, my displacement is the

same as before even though the second distance is shorter.

In the above example, we used compass directions; however, directions can

be expressed in other ways as long you are precise and unambiguous, such as

45 anticlockwise from the positive x-axis.

Sometimes displacements are one-dimensional; that is, only along a straight

line. A train on a straight track can only travel in two directions. In this case you

can express the direction as positive or negative.

MOVING

ABOUT

In physics, quantities like displacement that have magnitude and direction

are called vectors. (Well discuss vectors in more detail in Chapter 2.) In print,

the symbols for vectors are written in bold font. For example, a common symbol

for displacement is s. Sometimes, vectors are written with a bar, arrow or tilde

(~) above or below the symbol, especially in handwriting. Quantities like time,

distance and speed (with magnitude only) are called scalars. In print, the

symbols for scalars are written in italics.

Displacement is the change in position r, so displacement s can also be

written as r. Both symbols are commonly used.

vector quantities in equations.

When were only interested in the magnitudes of these vectors, we can simply

use r and s or r. We can also represent the magnitude of a vector with absolute

value signs: | s |.

Velocity

Velocity v is a bit like speed: velocity is displacement per unit of time (or rate of

displacement). Its a vector. The direction of velocity is the direction in which the

object moves. The formula for velocity v is:

v=

s

displacement

r

=

or

t

time taken

t

However, just like the speed formula, if velocity is changing, it gives average

velocity vav for the time t:

vav =

r

t

velocity is metres per second (m s1).

In vector equations, magnitudes and directions are equal on both sides,

so in the equation above, the directions of velocity and displacement are the same.

Just like displacement, if motion is one-dimensional, you can represent the

direction of velocity by a positive or negative sign.

If youre moving in a constant direction, the magnitude of

instantaneous velocity equals instantaneous speed. This is also true for their

averages. If youre changing direction, however, only your instantaneous speed

equals the magnitude of your instantaneous velocity. This isnt true for averages.

Vav =

r

.

t

PRACTICAL

EXPERIENCES

Activity 1.1

1

Compare instantaneous

and average speed with

instantaneous and

average velocity.

Worked example

QUESTION

Look at Figure 1.2.2 again. Consider the two-part journey (shown by red arrows). Suppose the

eastern leg takes 25 s and the northern leg takes 20 s.

a Calculate the average speed for the whole journey.

b Calculate the average velocity for the whole journey.

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SOLUTION

a Sav =

Sav =

b vav =

vav =

body relative to another.

ractiv

nte

M o d u le

d

, where d = 20 + 20 = 40 m, t = 25 + 20 = 45 s

t

40

= 0.8889 0.89 m s1

45

r

, r = 20 2 m (NE), t = 25 + 20 = 45 s

t

20 2

NE = 0.6285 m s1 NE 0.63 m s1 NE (Dont forget direction!)

45

Relative velocity

Imagine that you are driving at 100 km h1 north. Another driver travelling at

105 km h1 north passes you, making an unfriendly hand gesture. You easily see

the gesture because it seems to pass you slowly. This is because the other car has a

small velocity relative to you: it is travelling only 5 km h1 faster than you and so

appears to move past you at 105 100 = 5 km h1. From your point of view, the

driver has a relative velocity of 5 km h1.

The point of view from which you judge velocity is called your frame of

A frame of reference is the set of x, y and z coordinate axes

reference.

within which you define motion. Using the footpath as the frame of reference,

the other driver has a velocity of 105 km h1 north; in your frame of reference,

however, the driver has a velocity of 5 km h1 north.

To find the velocity of object B relative to object A, subtract the velocity of

object A:

vB (relative to A) = vB vA

Suppose instead that the other driver was travelling in the opposite direction to

you at 105 km h1 south. Then the other driver would appear to whoosh past you.

Worked example

QUESTION

Using the information from the last example above, what is the drivers velocity relative to

you?

SOLUTION

Make north positive. In this case, the velocity of the other car (B) relative to you (A) is now:

vB (relative to A) = vB vA = (105) 100 = 205 km h1 = 205 km h1 south

(which is very fast)

People usually think of the road as truly stationary. However, there are no

absolute, stationary frames of reference. All velocities are relative.

Acceleration

In everyday conversation, acceleration means how quickly speed is increasing.

But physicists usually use acceleration slightly differently.

MOVING

ABOUT

If velocity is changing, acceleration a is the rate of change of velocity:

a=

change in velocity v

=

t

time taken

v

; therefore

as aav =

t

aav =

vu

.

t

Acceleration is another vector. The SI unit is metres per second per second,

or metres per second squared (m s2).

Similar to previous equations, this formula calculates instantaneous

acceleration if acceleration is uniform, and average acceleration over the

time t if acceleration is changing.

In everyday conversation, acceleration means speeding up and deceleration

means slowing down. In physics, however, we usually use the word acceleration for

both, and represent whether youre slowing down or speeding up by the sign of

acceleration. (Theres a slight complication here, so well discuss this in detail in

Section 1.3.)

Note that acceleration and velocity are not always in the same direction.

The direction of acceleration is the same as the direction of the change in

velocity v, but it is not necessarily in the same direction as the velocity itself.

CHECKPOINT 1.2

1

2

Explain the difference between:

a distance and displacement

b speed and velocity.

Want to predict the future? Forget reading the zodiac! If you know the starting

conditions for a moving object, you can predict its future motion using the

The following equations are only

equations of motion (or kinematics).

strictly true for motion with uniform acceleration a (including a = 0).

For this section, well use the symbols listed in Table 1.3.1. The symbols spell

suvat, so the equations are sometimes called the SUVAT equations. To make the

equations tidier and easier to remember, its traditional to use t (instead of t)

and s (instead of r) for displacement.

Table 1.3.1

QUANTITY

SYMBOL

Displacement

Initial velocity

Final velocity

Acceleration

Time taken

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Lets keep it simple. In this section well only consider straight-line (or

one-dimensional) motion, so direction is indicated by a positive or negative sign.

To use these equations, you first choose a sign convention (which direction

to call positive) and then remain consistent throughout the calculation.

Because were free to choose our sign convention, the signs of velocities and

accelerations could be either positive or negative. So how do you know from the

sign of acceleration if you are speeding up or slowing down?

If acceleration and velocity have the same sign, the magnitude of

velocity is increasing (speeding up).

If acceleration and velocity have opposite signs, the magnitude of

velocity is decreasing (slowing down).

To derive the first kinematics equation, rearrange the velocity equation (from

Section 1.2) using SUVAT symbols:

s = vt

(SUVAT 1)

s = vavt

Define average acceleration

v

; therefore

as aav =

t

aav

a is uniform, so vav =

u+v

. Substitute this into SUVAT 1:

2

s=

vu

.

=

t

u+v

t

2

(SUVAT 2)

Rewrite the acceleration equation (from Section 1.2) using SUVAT symbols:

v u

a=

t

Then rearrange the equation:

v = u + at

(SUVAT 3)

s = ut +

1 2

at

2

(SUVAT 4)

v 2 = u2 + 2aut + a 2t 2

Collect terms:

1

v 2 = u2 + 2 a ( u t + a t 2 )

2

The term in parentheses is SUVAT 4, so replace it with s.

v2 = u2 + 2as

10

(SUVAT 5)

MOVING

ABOUT

Notice that v2 and u2 are scalarsquaring a number eliminates the sign

(and direction). Unlike the other equations, SUVAT 5 only tells us the magnitude

of final velocity.

An example of acceleration is when an object falls downwards under gravity.

Dropping an object from rest, the downward velocity continues to increase as

long as it falls (unless an external influence, like air resistance, slows it down).

If an object is compact enough (compressed into dense enough form) and its

speed isnt very high, then air resistance will be negligible.

When air resistance is negligible, objects near the Earths surface free-fall with

the same constant acceleration of a = 9.8 m s2 downwards. If you drop both a

coin and a hammer simultaneously from the same height, they should hit the

ground together.

A feather falls more slowly than a hammer because its fluffy, not compact, so

air resistance is not negligible. Galileo predicted that in a vacuum, all things would

fall with the same acceleration. On the airless Moon, this is true (see Figure 1.3.1).

David Scott simultaneously

dropped a hammer and a

feather on the Moon. They hit

the ground at the same time.

g -WHIZ

he magnitude of acceleration

due to gravity (9.8 m s2)

is given the special name g;

for example, 2.5g means an

acceleration of 2.5 9.8 m s2.

In tests during the 1940s and 50s,

US Air Force Colonel Dr John Stapp

used a rapidly decelerating rocket

sled to subject himself to up to

45g, surviving with temporary

blindness, two black eyes and a

broken wrist.

The faster you drive, the longer the braking distance in an emergency.

The maximum braking deceleration is close enough to constant to use

SUVAT equations.

Final speed is v = 0. Rearranging v2 = u2 + 2as and converting into magnitudes:

s=

u2

2a

the speed and you quadruple braking distance. Increase speed by 10% and

braking distance increases by approximately 20%. Typical maximum braking

decelerations for cars are 810 m s2.

But its worse. You should also add the distance you travel before you hit the

brakethat is, the thinking distance. Typical human reaction time is 0.61 s,

so your thinking distance is at least 0.6 u before your brain and foot respond.

It is longer if youre affected by alcohol.

11

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Worked example

QUESTION

Drop a coin from rest. Assume air resistance is negligible.

a Calculate displacement after 0.500 s.

b Calculate how long it takes to fall 1.50 m.

c Calculate its velocity after 0.500 s.

d Calculate its speed after falling 2.00 m.

SOLUTION

+.

Choose a sign convention. Down is positive. Use the symbol

a a = +9.80 m s2, t = 0.500 s, u = 0 m s1, s = ?

1

The formula containing these is: s = ut + at 2

2

Substitute: s = 0 0.500 +

1

9.80 0.5002 = +1.225 m 1.23 m down

2

1

The formula containing these is: s = ut + at 2

2

Substitute: 1.50 = 0 t +

Then rearrange: t =

1

9.80 t 2

2

2 1.50

= 0.553 s

9.80

The formula containing these is: v = u + at

Substitute: v = 0 + 9.80 0.500 = +4.90 m s1, i.e. v = 4.90 m s1 down

d a = +9.80 m s2, s = +2.00 m, u = 0 m s1, v = ?

The formula containing these is: v 2 = u 2 + 2as

Substitute: v 2 = 02 + 2 9.80 2.00 = 39.2

Find the square root: v = 39.2 = 6.26 m s1

(SUVAT 5 doesnt tell us the direction, but the question only asked for speed.)

CHECKPOINT 1.3

1

2

3

4

12

Explain what these equations assume about acceleration.

State which SUVAT equation cannot provide information about the direction of velocity.

Explain your answer to Question 3.

MOVING

ABOUT

Besides SUVAT equations, we can also use graphs to represent and calculate

motion. (Youll learn more about drawing graphs in Chapter 17.) Graphs are

more flexible than SUVAT equations because they work even for non-uniform

acceleration.

Suppose we make a graph of a moving object, where the y-axis is displacement

and the x-axis is time. Recall the velocity formula (see Section 1.2):

v=

r

t

Substituting y for r and x for t, this formula looks like the slope of a graph.

In a displacement versus time graph, slope equals velocity. Note that:

A horizontal graph (slope = 0) means zero velocity.

A straight line (constant slope) means uniform velocity.

A curved graph (changing slope) means acceleration. If acceleration is

uniform, the curve will be a parabola.

Lets take an example of motion and graph it. Suppose you live on a straight

road (one-dimensional motion), running northsouth. Your house is the origin

(s = 0) and north is positive.

You start from rest at your door. You stand still for one minute (a), checking

your wallet. You start walking at a uniform velocity north towards the shop (b).

After walking for 5.0 min, youre 300 m north of home and you stop to pick up

a $20 note on the ground. You take 2.0 min to glance around to see if there are any

more lying around (c). You start walking north again, faster, but still at a uniform

velocity for 5.5 min (d). You arrive at the shop. Youre now 960 m north of home.

It takes you 1.5 min to realise that the shop is closed (e), so you jog at uniform

speed to the park, which is 240 m south of your house on the same road. This

takes 5.0 min (f ) at a uniform velocity. This journey is plotted in Figure 1.4.1.

1200

(810, 960)

1000

(900, 960)

e

Displacement (m)

800

d

600

400

(360, 300)

c

f

(480, 300)

200

b

a

(60, 0)

200

400

(1200, 240)

0

240

480

Time (s)

720

960

1200

Figure 1.4.1 Displacement versus time graph for your journey to the shop and the park

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Worked example

QUESTION

Using Figure 1.4.1, answer the following.

a At which parts of your journey were you stationary?

b Calculate velocity for parts (b) and (f) of the journey.

SOLUTION

Velocity equals the slope of the graph: v =

r

.

t

b The velocity for part (b) is:

v=

(300 0)

r

=

= +1.0 m s1 = 1.0 m s1 north

t (360 60)

v=

r ( 240 960)

=

= 4.0 m s1 = 4.0 m s1 south

t

(1200 900)

Now well plot velocity versus time for the same journey (see Figure 1.4.2).

Remember that the acceleration equation (in Section 1.2) is:

a=

v

t

Velocity (m s1)

This equation looks like the slope of a line in a velocity versus time graph.

In a velocity versus time graph, the slope equals acceleration. Note that:

A horizontal graph (slope = 0) means constant velocity (a = 0).

A straight line (constant slope) means uniform acceleration.

Theres another less obvious but

4

In a velocity

important property.

versus time graph, the area under the graph

(480, 2)

(810, 2)

between two times equals the displacement

2

d

(360, 1)

(60, 1)

during that time interval.

b

You can check this property using

0 a

c

e

Figure 1.4.2. The areas under the graph

(the displacement) for parts (a), (c) and

(e) are all zero because you were stationary

2

at those points. For part (b), the area under

the graph (shaded in pink) is positive:

f

4

+1.0 300 = +300 m. For part (d), this

(1200, 4)

(900, 4)

is also the case: +2.0 330 = +660 m.

For part (f ), the area under the graph

6

0

is negative (shaded in green) below

240

480

720

960

1200

Time (s)

the x-axis, so displacement is negative:

4.0 300 = 1200 m. This means your

Figure 1.4.2 Velocity versus time graph for your journey to the shop and the park

final jog was 1200 m south.

14

MOVING

ABOUT

Velocity (m s1)

Displacement (m)

1.2

Pick a coin off the table. Lift it vertically at

(0.250, 1.00)

(0.500, 1.00)

1.0

a uniform velocity through 1.00 m in 0.25 s.

Hold the coin still for 0.25 s and then drop

0.8

it back onto the table. All motion is vertical.

tangent to curve

@ t = 0.8 s

Lets use the sign convention ( ) and make

0.6

the tabletop the origin (s = 0). In this case,

0.4

acceleration due to gravity is 9.80 m s2.

The displacement versus time graph for this

0.2

is shown in Figure 1.4.3.

(0.952, 0.000)

0.0

While lifting the coin, the graph is a

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

straight line with a slope of +4.00 (uniform

Time (s)

velocity 4.00 m s1 upwards). When the

Figure 1.4.3 Displacement versus time graph for the coin drop

coin is stationary, the graph is horizontal

(zero velocity). When the coin is dropping,

the graph is a curve (parabola).

6

To calculate instantaneous velocity from

this curve at any particular time, draw a tangent

(0.250, 4.00)

4

to the curve at that time (see Figure 1.4.3) and

calculate the slope. Clearly, during this part

2

of the motion, the slope (hence velocity) is

changingthat is, acceleration. Notice that for

(0.500, 0.00)

all of the third part, although the slope is

0

changing, it is always negative, which means

velocity is downwards. The velocity versus time

2

graph is shown in Figure 1.4.4.

In the first stage, the graph is horizontal

4

(uniform velocity of 4.00 m s1 upwards).

(0.952, 4.43)

The area under the first stage of the graph is

6

4.00 0.25 = +1.00, which agrees with the

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.00 m upward displacement in the story.

Time (s)

The second stage is horizontal and zero,

Figure 1.4.4 Velocity versus time graph for the coin drop

which means v = 0 and s = 0. The third stage

is a straight line with a slope of 9.80, which

means a uniform acceleration of 9.80 m s2

downwards. The triangular area under the graph is:

1

0.452 (4.43) = 1.00

2

In other words, the coin has dropped 1.00 m downwards back to the tabletop,

which also agrees with the story.

CHECKPOINT 1.4

1

2

3

Explain how to calculate acceleration from a velocity versus time graph.

Explain how to calculate displacement from a velocity versus time graph.

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PRACTICAL EXPERIENCES

CHAPTER 1

This is a starting point to get you thinking about the mandatory practical

experiences outlined in the syllabus. For detailed instructions and advice, use

in2 Physics @ Preliminary Activity Manual.

or resources for, and perform a

first-hand investigation to

measure the average speed of

an object or a vehicle.

Measure the speed of a ball rolling from the front of the room to the back.

Equipment: marbles, tape measure, digital camera capable of taking movies,

smooth track to roll marbles along.

Discussion questions

1 How close to constant motion is the speed of the ball? How can you tell?

2 What methods are used to make sure the experiment is repeatable?

3 Discuss why the motion is measured as average speed.

16

Chapter summary

Scalars are quantities with magnitude only. Vectors

possess magnitude and direction.

Displacement s or r is the straight-line distance

between initial and final positions. It also has direction.

v

d

r

, velocity v =

Speed S =

, acceleration a =

t

t

t

Instantaneous means the value at a particular instant

in time.

If speed, velocity or acceleration is uniform, the above

formulae calculate the instantaneous quantities.

If speed, velocity or acceleration is not uniform, the

above formulae calculate the quantities averaged

over t.

Most journeys are not undertaken at uniform speed,

velocity or acceleration.

Displacement, velocity and acceleration are vectors.

Time, distance and speed are scalars.

Frame of reference means the point of view of the

observerthe coordinate axes are used by the observer

to judge velocity.

MOVING

ABOUT

adjusted to the frame of reference of observer A

using the formula vB (relative to A) = vB vA.

The SUVAT equations apply strictly to situations of

uniform acceleration only.

The SUVAT equations are:

s = vt

u+v

t

s=

2

v = u + at

1

s = ut + at 2

2

2

2

v = u + 2as

When air resistance is negligible, objects near the

Earths surface accelerate at 9.8 m s2.

In a displacement versus time graph, slope

equals velocity.

In a velocity versus time graph, slope equals

acceleration.

In a velocity versus time graph, the area under the

graph equals displacement.

Review questions

PHYSICALLY SPEAKING

The items in the columns are not in their correct order. Copy out the table and

match each of the key physics concepts with their definition, symbol and units.

CONCEPT

DEFINITION

SYMBOL

UNITS

Displacement

Velocity

metres (m)

Distance

seconds (s)

Speed

Duration of an event

metres (m)

Time

vA (rel. B)

Acceleration

Relative velocity

17

Getting

Gett

Ge

ttin

tt

ing

in

g from

from

A to B

B:: ki

kine

nema

ne

mati

ma

tics

ti

cs

kinematics

REVIEWING

1

Draw a table with the columns Vector and Scalar. List all quantities

from this chapter in the correct columns.

2

3

Use words to describe constant speed. Include distance and time in

your answer.

Why is it more correct to quote the average speed for a typical journey

rather than the speed?

What can you say about your motion if you have walked a long way but you

end up at your starting point?

Explain how a feather and a hammer can both hit the ground at the same

time when dropped from the same height.

SOLVING PROBLEMS

7

1.0 cm s1 for 2.5 s and finally 1.7 cm s1 for 3.5 s. Calculate the

magnitude of the ants average velocity in SI units.

The tortoise and the hare are having a rematch from A to B (see

Figure 1.5.2). The tortoises straight path is 1000 m long. During the race,

the tortoise maintains a slow and steady speed of 4.00 km h1. The hare

encounters some distractions and takes the zigzag path but maintains a

uniform speed of 5.40 km h1. Using a ruler and Figure 1.5.2:

Solve problems and analyse

information using the formula

vav =

18

r

.

t

a

b

c

d

Measure the distance each travels.

Calculate the time taken for each to complete the race. Who won?

Calculate the average velocity for each.

MOVING

ABOUT

9

Consult Figure 1.4.1. For your journey to the shop and park:

a Calculate your average speed.

b Calculate your average velocity.

c Are they approximately equal? Discuss.

10

a Calculate the final velocity of the ball.

b For how long is the ball in the air?

11

a The fly is resting on the windscreen. Determine its velocity relative

to you.

b What is its velocity relative to the road outside?

c The fly flies to the rear of the car and appears to move towards you at

1.0 m s1. Calculate its velocity relative to the road.

12

Students playing lawn bowls are trying to work out how fast to roll a ball

to get it closest to the jack. A practice ball came to rest in 3.2 s over a

distance of 15 m.

a What was the initial speed of the ball?

b Calculate the deceleration of the ball. (Assume this is the same for

parts c and d.)

c The ball was rolled again and stopped in 2.0 s. How far has it travelled?

d With what initial speed should they roll to just reach the jack, which is

14.3 m away?

13

60

50

Displacement (m)

40

30

20

10

0

10

20

0

8

Time (s)

10

12

14

16

a

b

c

d

What distance has the object travelled in the journey?

What is the objects displacement?

Calculate the greatest velocity of the object.

19

Getting

Gett

Ge

ttin

tt

ing

in

g from

from

A to B

B:: ki

kine

nema

ne

mati

ma

tics

ti

cs

kinematics

14

40

30

Velocity (m s1 west)

20

10

0

10

20

30

40

0

10

15

20

Time (s)

a

b

c

d

e

Present information graphically

of: displacement versus

time, and velocity versus time

for objects with uniform and

non-uniform linear velocity.

20

15

When is the object stationary?

Calculate the greatest acceleration.

What is the objects displacement at the end of the journey?

Extension: Draw an acceleration versus time graph to match

this journey.

deceleration of 8.2 m s2. She is driving at 60 km h1 when she

notices a child run onto the road.

a How far does her car travel before it comes to a stop?

(Hint: Check units.)

b Draw a displacement versus time graph from the time the child

appears to when the car finally stops.

c Draw the corresponding velocity versus time graph.

25

MOVING

ABOUT

PHYSICS FOCUS

TOP FUEL

ones can reach speeds greater than 500 km h1 in a

little over 5 s!

This form of racing sport has the greatest

accelerations in a straight line, so lets have a look at

the physics involved.

1

1 Convert mile into kilometres. (1 mile 1.609 km)

4

2 Calculate the average acceleration required to

reach 500 km h1 by the end of the course.

3 At this rate, determine the time taken to cover the

course.

4 Reaction time plays a big part in this sport: the

better the reaction time, the bigger the jump on the

opponent. A series of lights go off to warn the driver

of the start. Drag racing has a light tree. This has

three amber lights and a green light. The amber

lights are turned on sequentially with a half second

delay between them. The reaction timer starts when

the third amber comes on. Since there is a halfsecond delay until the green light comes on, a

0.500 reaction time is perfect. The reaction timer

stops when the car leaves the starting line.

a Determine the ideal reaction time for a driver.

b If a driver gets a 0.030 s head start due to

reaction time, calculate the distance he has

travelled before the other driver starts.

5 Table 1.5.1 includes the statistics for two drivers

and their cars. Determine who will win based on

this data.

Acceleration (m s2)

DRIVER 1

DRIVER 2

0.530

0.600

39.200

44.000

environment

which the drivers slow down. This is known as the

run-off track. The run-off track measures 700 m in

length. To stop within the track, what is the

deceleration needed?

7 Most drag cars are capable of decelerations of 5g

due to technical ability and safety on the driver. How

then can the drag-racer be stopped safely in time?

8 Draw a displacement versus time graph for the trip

of a top-fuel dragster.

9 Explain the approximations that we have made in

order to analyse this example with the motion

equations given.

Want to compare your reaction time to the drag-racers?

Go to the link provided on the companion website at

www.pearsoned.com.au/schools/secondary.

drivers of drag cars. Stopping distance in cars is also

an important safety issue for everyday driving. The

total stopping distance is the sum of the braking and

thinking distances (see Section 1.3):

dstop = utreac +

u2

2a

EXTENSION

10 Using typical values described in Section 1.3,

calculate the sensitivity of total stopping distance

to a 10% change in each of the variables u, treac

and a.

11 Propose some external factors that affect these

variables (for example, road quality affects a), and

assess which individuals or groups within society

may have the power or responsibility to improve

those factors.

21

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