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Assignment 14 Solutions

Part A.

(1) Complete problems 6 and 8 from section 6.2.

Solution.

matrix:

For problem 6, one can transform the given matrix A to the following upper triangular

1

1 1

1

0 2 1

3

.

B=

0

0 3

3

0

0 0 12

The row operations it takes to perform this reduction are as follows: 1 + 2 , 1 + 3 , 1 + 4 , 2

3 , 2 + 4 , 23 + 4 . Since we only required one row swap and no row scalings, we have that

(1)1 det(A) = det(B). Since B is triangular we have det(B) = (1)(2)(3)(12) = 72. So we have the

determinant of the original matrix is 72.

For problem 8, notice that if one performs the following operations 1 2 , 2 3 , 3

4 , 4 5 then one transforms the given matrix A to the matrix

1 0 0 0 3

0 1 0 0 4

B=

0 0 1 0 5 .

0 0 0 1 6

0 0 0 0 2

Since this latter matrix is diagonal, we have det(B) = (1)(1)(1)(1)(2) = 2. Since 4 row swaps (and

no row scalings) were required to transform A to B, we get (1)4 det(A) = det(B) = 2. Hence the

determinant of the original matrix is 2.

(2) Suppose that A is a matrix corresponding to some orthogonal transformation. Prove that det(A) is

equal to either 1 or 1. [Hint: what is AT A?]

Solution.

get

1 = det(I) = det(AT A).

On the other hand, we know that determinant is multiplicative, and that the determinant of a matrix

is equal to the determinant of its transpose. Hence we get

2

2

Combining these expressions we find that (det(A)) = 1. Since the only real numbers that square to

1 are 1, we get the desired result.

(3) Complete problems 16 and 18 from section 7.3.

Solution. For problem 16, note that the matrix A has characteristic polynomial

1

1

0

0 0

det 0 1 1 0 0 = 3 = (2 + 1).

2

2

0

0 0

http://palmer.wellesley.edu/~aschultz/w16/math206

Page 1 of 3

Assignment 14 Solutions

first row.) Hence the only real eigenvalue is 0.

simply compute a basis for

1

1

0

ker 0 1 1

2

2

0

To compute a basis for the corresponding eigenspace we

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0 .

0

The standard procedure (row reduction, solving for pivot variables in terms of free variables) produces

a basis

B = 1 .

1

Note that since

X

dim(E ) < 3,

For problem 18,

0

0

det

0

0

the characteristic

0 0 0

1 0 1

0 0 0

0 0 1

0 0 0

0 0 0

= 4 23 + 2 = 2 ( 1)2 .

0 0 0

0 0 0

Hence the eigenvalues are 0 and 1 (each occurring with algebraic multiplicity 2). To find a basis for

each eigenspace, we need to compute bases for the associated eigenspaces, and hence we need to find

bases for the following kernels:

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0

E0 = ker

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 1

1 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0

E1 = ker

0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 .

0 0 0 1

0 0 0 1

Row reducing each produces the following

eigenspace they form a basis for):

B0 =

B1 =

1

0

0

, 0

0 1

0

0

1

.

0

http://palmer.wellesley.edu/~aschultz/w16/math206

Page 2 of 3

Assignment 14 Solutions

Solution. We address part (a) first. We have seen previously in the course that ker(projV ) = V .

On the other hand, we know that ker(projV ) is the 0-eigenspace. Hence we have E0 = V . The

complementarity of dimensions tells us that dim(V ) = dim(Rn ) dim(V ) = n m.

On the other hand, a vector v satisfies projV (v) = v if and only if v V . But a vector satisfying

projV (v) = v is just a 1-eigenvector, and so we have E1 = V . Hence dim(E1 ) = m. This settles the

question of geometric multiplicity. What can be said about the corresponding algebraic multiplicities?

Wed like to argue that dim(E ) = alg. mult.() for {0, 1}; this will take a bit of work.

We know from a theorem in class that the geometric multiplicity of an eigenvalue is a lower bound

for the algebraic multiplicity of , and so it follows that the sum of the geometric multiplicities for all

eigenvalues is a lower bound for the sum of the algebraic multiplicities for all eigenvalues:

X

X

dim(E )

alg. mult().

On the other hand, the algebraic multiplicity of each is the degree of the root of as a root of the

characteristic polynomial. From another theorme in class we know that the characteristic polynomial is

a polynomial of degree n, and so the fundamental theorem of algebra says that it cant have more than

n roots (counted with multiplicity). This means that

X

alg. mult() n.

Since we already know that = 0 and = 1 have dim(E0 ) = n m and dim(E1 ) = m, we can plug

these into our two inequalities to produce:

X

X

n = (n m) + m = dim(E0 ) + dim(E1 )

dim(E )

alg. mult() n.

At this point we have showed that

X

dim(E ) = n

alg. mult.() = n;

we would still like to argue that dim(E ) = alg. mult.() for {0, 1}. To achieve this, first notice

that our two equalities imply that the only eigenvalues are 0 and 1; if there were another eigenvalue

then it would have to have geometric multiplicity at least 1, and then wed have

X

n=

dim(E ) > dim(E0 ) + dim(E1 ) = n,

alg. mult.(0) + alg. mult.(1) = n.

We already know that dim(E ) alg. mult.(), and so we only have to rule out the possibility that

dim(E ) < alg. mult.() for {0, 1}. But if this were the case, then we would have

n = alg. mult(0) + alg. mult.(1) < dim(E0 ) + dim(E1 ) = n,

another contradiction.

Part (b) works in almost precisely the same way, except that in this case V = E1 instead of E0 . If

one substitutes = 0 with = 1 in the above arguments, everything else carries through unchanged.

http://palmer.wellesley.edu/~aschultz/w16/math206

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