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In Moldova education is considered to be a national priority, the entire educational system being protected by the

Constitution, the Law of Education, governmental decisions and orders of the Ministry of Education.
These legislative acts laid the foundation for the reform of the Moldovan system of education, focused mainly on the
issues of reconstruction and modernization of the higher education system in compliance with principles and
requirementsoftheBolognaDeclaration.
The

Republic

of

Moldova

became

member

of

the

Bologna

Process

in

May,

2005.

According to the amendments made to the current Law on Education, from the 1st of September 2005, higher
education studies are based on 2 main cycles: I cycle - Licentiate (the duration of studies being 3 - 4 years) and the II
cycle-Master(withthedurationof1to2years).Starting with the 2005-2006 academic year the I
cycle
The

Licentiate

II

cycle

has

was

been

introduced

introduced

in

all

in

all

HEIs

higher

from

education

2008-2009

institutions.

academic

year.

Doctoral studies have not been yet changed as to the Bologna Process. Doctoral Studies are regulated by the
ScienceandInnovationCodeandthe.LawofEducation.These

programmes

include

compulsory

theoretical and practical courses provided in accordance with main fields of science. Theoretical courses comprise
approximately 20 % of the programme (Foreign Languages, Computer Science and a fundamental discipline dealing
with

the

research

field)

and

the

other

80

deal

with

the

individual

scientificresearch.

The official implementation of the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS) by all higher education institutions was
stipulated

in

the

amendments

on

the

implementation

Guide

made
of

to

the

he

Credit

current

Law

Transfer

on

System

Education

was

in

elaborated

2005.

in

2006.

The methodology of the credit system calculation envisages the use of 60 credits for one academic year. The ECTS
systemisusedforbothcredittransferandaccumulation.Since 2005 the Diploma Supplement is issued
to

each

The
The
Higher

graduate

national
Diploma

automatically

model

of

Supplement

Education

and

the
is

in

free

of

Diploma

issued

Moldova

to

charge,

the

Supplement

graduates

is

in

provided

of

Moldovan

meets
the

by

all

Licentiate
universities,

andEnglishLanguages.
European
and

requirements.

Master

Programmes.

academies,

institutes.

The network of higher education institutions comprises 34 institutions, including 19 public, subordinated to the
Ministry of Education and some other sector ministries and 15 private higher education institutions.
According official data, in 2011 there were about 103,9 students in Moldova, including 84,946 (81,71%) in public and
19.010 (18,29%) in private HEIs. 72,1% of them are full -time students, 27,9% are part- time students.
There

are

about

3.161

foreign

student

in

HEIs

of

the

Republic

of

Moldova.

84,500 of the whole number of students study in the Moldovan language (78,4%), Russian is the language of
instruction for 21.000 students (19,52%), for 1,400 students the language of instruction is English and for 0,8% of the
whole number of students the languages of instruction are: Ukranian, Bulgarian, Gagauzian or French.
According to official data 28,400 graduated HEIs in 2010.
Organization of the year of study
The academic year starts on the 1st of September.
Each year is divided into two semesters. Each semester lasts fourteen weeks. Students have a summer holiday, a
Christmas holiday, an Easter holiday and a holiday at the end of the first semester.
Examination takes place at the end of each semester. It may be oral or written. A re-examination period is scheduled

before the beginning of the new academic year.Classes are held from Monday to Friday.
The Moldovan higher education system provides full-time courses, part- time courses and distance learning. The
part-time and distance learning courses may be only provided by higher education institutions that organize full time
courses. The programs of such courses as usually one academic year longer than the full time courses programs.

The education system in Moldova consists of preschool, primary, secondary and


higher education. The preschool education is for children up to the age of seven
years. The primary education is between grades one through four and typically
involves children between the ages of 8-12. The secondary education consists of
two tracks: general and vocational. General secondary education from grades 5-9
is called the gymnasium, and grades 10-12 is called liceul (lyceum). The
vocational track is called the professional liceul. Higher education consists of two
stages, short-term college education and university education. These institutions
were traditionally awarding Diplomas but, in the year 2000, were also using the
titles of Bachelor and Master to conform to international standards.
The language of instruction under the Soviet rule was Russian. However, since
1989, Moldovan was adopted as the official language and in the year 2000, nearly
two-thirds of all pupils were studying in schools where Moldovan was the
language of instruction. However, schools serving the needs of minorities and
schoolswith Russian, Gagauzian, Ukrainian, and Bulgarian as the language of
instruction are also present. Students of other nationalities (Jewish, Polish, and
German) have the opportunity to study these as a separate subject. Nonetheless,
state policy emphasizes that all citizens should study Moldovan. Since its
independence the Moldovan government has also added substantial courses in
Romanian literature and history to the curriculum. Strong ties have been
established between the education systems in Romania and Moldova.
Throughout the 1990s Romania extensively donated textbooks to replace books

from the Soviet era. At the university level, change is coming slowly and Russian
still remains the predominant language of instruction. The academic year starts
on September 1 and continues until June with a winter break in December and
January.
In 1994, there were 2,062 preschools with an enrollment of 223,300 students and
20,100 preschool teachers. In 1994, there were 1,692 primary and secondary
schools with 731,000 students and 50,300 teachers. The number of colleges was
62 with an enrollment of 43,800 students. The higher education institutions were
18 in number and enrolled 55,200 students. In addition, there were 87 vocational
institutions with 39,800 students.
Since the late 1990s, private education as an alternative to state education has
also begun in Moldova. The institutions follow the regulations established by the
Ministry of Education and Science. In 2001, there were 137 private institutions
with 20 universities, 9 short-term colleges, 14 pre and primary schools, 12
gymnasiums and lyceums, and 82 schools of trade. In 2001, there were 19,800
students in these institutions. There is a growing emphasis in promoting the
private sector for meeting the educational needs of the country. This is evident
from several governmental policies. In December 1999, the Government
proposed an Action Program that prioritized the agenda in the educational sector
as improving the hierarchical-organizational and institutional structure of
professional and higher education system; developing the private sector and
accrediting private educational institutions; developing and widely using national
education standards; upgrading the qualifications and training level of experts
within educational institutions; and orienting public funds towards improvement
of preprimary, primary, secondary, and vocational education.