ANEITHI KEPAMYAA~

ISBN: 960-6651-03-7

TfTAOS TTpOnilS EK06o£wS 1977 KOI 1986 «Af:v ~Tav KOIYOPEVl'Jpcho4))) (En! paTwv)

TYnorpA~IKH EnIMEAEIA,

HAEKTPONIKH IEAI~onOlm:H & ~IOpeQIH Art of Texl A.E.

K. N. Emoxonoo 4, 0WOaAOVlXIl T.K. 54635

TIlA. - Fax: 2310218546 2310218569

GEITAIIONIKH Lf.TTTtp{3p/Ot:; 2001

© Copyright: 2005, I'ro TIlV 6:.50ml ere Elll1VlXU. EKt.OIEfI "XQPOXPONOI" E.n.E., 2005 Baxxou L9-23, 0woaAOVLX'l

T.K. 54629

TllA.: 2310536100 2310538201

www.xoroxronos.gr

A qJIE.pOV Tat :

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MN HTAN KAlfOMENH BATOI

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o LOUATeXv0S A~6oui\ M€Tl;fT 153

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opyavroart TWV EM~vwv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163

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KE<I>AMION E' MHIMONHTfI nATPlL1fI

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np6AoyoS

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11

ANEHHr 1:. KEPAMYMr

Arrd TO 1980 rrou KUKAO<pOP'lOE TO ~I~i\ro TOU John Boardman c<ABryvoii<6 MEAavOpOpcpo AyyE/a» OE fJETocppao'l ~OAyoC; XOT4rpTaVOOTOalou TWV EK800EWV «Kop8afJf· TOO», TTA'lpO<pOp~e'lKO YIO TOV E~'lKIO (60S-50S 01. n.X.), yla T'lV 0J.166a E4J[I\ON Kal oAi\a noAi\6. KOTrOIOI rrcrpnoTES ofJWC; TrOU ~Tav OTflv KYn pou efrrrrv va fJflv yp64Jw TI· TrOTE rrspf {(OfJ6ooC; E» YIOT! ea E~ocpavfoouv TO ~1~i\fO. EVTOUTOIS, TO 1986 E~toWUO TO «Enf p(hoov», 0'lAa6~ TO ETravEKoooa OIXWC; va ava<pipol-lal OT'lv «Eq"Aov». AM6 KOI TrOA' TO E~Q(pOvIOav fJEoa OE. Tpio 24wpo.

L~J.lEpa, TO 2001 EnavEK8fOETai ETT£ITQ OTTO 17 xpovla fJE oi\o TO npWTapXIK6 oTolxEfa ooOT£ va EV'lfJEpw90UV 01 'EMf)VE<; ...

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14

ANEITHr L KEPAMYML

IE OUT~ T~ fJEAETIl DEV yfvETOI fJOVO ovoqiopc aTlS apXafES KTfoEIS nov EM~vwv aTI") epaKll, 5llAao~ aTfl r'l TWV nov6Pxalwv nEAaaywv, aAA6 Kal aTllV KAamK~ Enox~ EWS TO 1922 TTOU ulToTf8ETai OTI {YIVE Il aVToMay~ nAll8uoJ,Jwv. EnrollS, yfvETal ovcqiopc aTll l;w~ KOI Til op6o'l TOU OTTOUbOiOTEPOU ovopo'l, TOU Iap6VTIl ApXlytv'l TTOU yMTWO£ TOUS ~EM'lvE'l T'lS epaK'l<;, TflS MIKp6S AOlas, TOU nOVTOU Kal T'lS M'lTPOlTOAEWC:; (= EMe8os) orro TOV IOUATWO A~DOUA MET~rT.

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G€AW OIJwe; va lTlUTEUW TIWe; TO Y£YOVoe:; aUTO tyKEITal UTO OTI EXOUV TravTEi\~ 6yvola ylo TIlV opXalo EM65a. MaAlaTO, oAa oco Eyp04JOV OAOI lJal;r vro Tllv oPxala epOK'l, TO typa4Jov oE Eva TOUe:; IJOVO 6pepo Ta E~arpETa nEp1051- KO: «SpOKIKOC; OIWVOC;» KOI «Spf]iKJOC; Ji.vEJJoq) T~C:; PJ..E~OV- 8POUlTOAEWC:;.

To KUPIO SEIJO OTO rropov ~1~Afo So £IvOI 'llTOAIS ETTI~6- Tal 11 OTTOIO lopuSIl OlIO TOUS M£yapEic:; TOV SO alwva. KaTOIK~eIlK£ OIJWS Kal OlIO HTTErpwTE<; IJE fJEpIKOUe; nEAOlTOVV~OIOUe; TOV 40 arwva OTllv £TTOX~ TOU <l>,i\(lTlTOU B' TI")S MaKEOovlae:;.

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15

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ftvvfloE Eva TTor81, TOV AKpolo. ME Tflv rropofio nov Xpovow, 0 AKPOIOC:; ~EXWPIZ;E orro OAOUS TOUe; 6Moue:; vtou<; Tile; 'lAIKiae; TOU. IE veopr] IlArKla n~YE OTIl IlTapTIl Kal EKEIOIo6xSIlKE ro f-luOTIKa TOU TTOAEIJOU.

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16

ANEITHI1. KEPAMYAAI

Apyon:po 0 apX'lyol) TOUI) 0 AKpO(OI) lT~PE TaUS TIlO EKAEKTOUS ETII~aTIVOUI) Kol TT~pOV !JipoS -WI) fJ,08ocpopOJaTOV TTOAql0 !-I£Ta~u T'lS nEpfv80u KaJ TOU <DIMTTlTOU S'. 0 <DrAllTTTOe; OEV KaTocpEpE va KUP'EUOEI TrIV nip,v80, £vcfJ a AKpa(oe; lTOU lToAip'laE aTO TTi\wpo TlOV nEp,v8fwv, lT~PE TTOr.r.O XP~I-I0TO, IJE OTTon:AEOIJO 'l VEQ'i5pu8daa TTOA'l ETTI~on:e; va OlOKPl8EI fJETa~U TWV ar.r.wv lTOA£(.l)V Tile; 8pOK'lS·

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17

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KE<I>AAAION A'

4EV qTuv KOIYOJJEVI') PO:TOS (E1J18oT{J)v)

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vaT0080uv TroMol 'EMf]VES. MOAOTOIJTO opxsrof orro TOW; E.TT1~WVTES apXloav va KaTE.~a(vouv TTpOS Ta vortc. Evw yupwav Trlv TUX'l TOUS, '1 TTEpmAOv'lOl"] OT'l vOTJa EMooo, TOUC; o6~YT]aE ETTlTEt.OUe; OTr'}V avOToAIK~ OKT~ Tile:; ndonovvrioou, OTI"]V OTTOIOV, auvavT~8'lKOV I-lE TOUe; KaTo(KOUe; jJlae; pIKp~e:; TTOt. E. we:;, TTOU WpiOKETO aTIl POOl"] TOU TEpaOTIOU ~paxou Tf]S MOVqIPOOI(lC).

To KOi\OKOfpl TOU iBrou EToue; 0PX10OV va KaTEpofvouv vEol IJETOVOOTES TrOO 01 TTE.PIOOOTEPOI ~oov OTTO TI"]V 'HUElpo, EVo 0PEIVO paaiA£lo TrOU aVTlaTOIXE.1 IJE TI'] allPEpiv~ popEIOOIJTIK~ EM60a KOI VOTIO AApavra.

T'lV KOTOIKouoav oEKaTEom:pIS OI0<pOpETIKES <puMS, pE TTpUlTl"] Tfl <pUA~ TON Mo;\ooawv, TrOU TO €oa<poc; TaU,) PPJOKOTOV aTl']V OVOTOt.IK~ TTi\wp6 Tile; HTTEipOU Kat ouvopeue fJE Til VOTIOEiUTIK~ ywv(o TOOV EOOCPWV TI']e; MOKE6ovioC)_

0Pl"]OKEUTIKO TOUe:; KEVTpO EiXav T'l Aoo6wv.,. Acpou ernpA~ellKav OTOU') 6i\AOUS AoodS Tr)S HTTElpOU iopuoov EiIKa TOUS paaiA£lo.

H .6.000Wvl'] ~Tav (EIVOI) OTOUe; TrPOTTOO£(; TOU opouc ToJ-I6pou, OTTOU EKEf UTr~PXE TO TrEp{CP'lfJO Movrefo TOU ..1.00-

22

ANEITH.E.E. KEPAMYML

Eup6Mroc;

23

bc.ovafou ~16S, orr' 6lTOU 0 eEJ.lIOTOr<A~S EIXE mlpEI TO XPIlofJ6 va rropeursf OTOV Of,.lWVUpO Tau 9wU*.

~EV lTtpaoav nOAAtS IlfJtpES Kal KaTacpEpav va EYKaTao-roaoov .01 paoavloptval HlTElpwn:s mqv aKT~. Ma~( Taus ~Tav pra via yuvafKa nalpoYEvvll1 rrou oAal Tllv KOITOUOav !-IE WAapEla, oav KaTI ro acpUOIKO va EfXE ETTOvW

T'lS·

'ElTEITa aTIO MYES llPtpES Kemalal lJ.!apabES oKauoav r<AO!-laTa !-,oopau TTalblau. TpE~aVE 6AOITIpaC) -ro O'l!-,E10 lTOU cxouvcrov TO r<AOfJO, Evae; VEO)TEpac;, a Aropveoc, ETPE~E YPllyopon:pa Kal rrpoc; f,.IEyaA'l Tau tKTTAIl~1l dOE TO VEOytwllTO va £IvOi ETIOvoo OTa ~p6xIO TIlS OKPOYIOAIOS pE KIVOUVO va TO OPTTO~OUV -ro KupaTO, EVW '1 VEap~ fJllTIPO Tau ~TOV av~!-,lTOPIl va TO lTpOCPUAO~1l an6 T'lV ayPIO 8aAaaaa.

METa orro MyES 'l!-,EPEC) E!-,cpavfo8'lKav 01 lTElpaTES 01 orrotoi Yla apKETo xp6vla ~oav pia paOTlya rrou Ka8~AoovE Ta lTapa8aAoocrra XWPIO, rirrrv .01 InapTlaTEe; lTOAEj.JOuoav IJE aAAES lTOAEIS-KpOT'l'

ApX'lY0C; TWV rrmpcrcov ~Tav a Avrcnoc, rrou .01 aVTpES TaU lTfOTEUaV OTI a l\ulPfoS yfyas ~avayUpiOE OT'l YI1. AAAa bUOTUxWe;, Toopa bEV UlT~PXE EVOS vEas HpoKl\~S va TOV OUVET(OEI.

0. av9prolTOI OI'1y~9'lKav T600 YI' oUT6v, WOTE 'l CP~jJ'l TOU OEV 0PYflOE va TTapa!-,opcpoo8Ef Kal va KaTal·JOlpaOTEl or EIKOVES aTo(pIOOTES, rrou BEV rrpoooppoo-rqxov Kal bEV OUfJPIPaOT'lKav non:. H KaTayooy~ TOU Avrofou 0!-lOOC), OEV ~Tav yvooOT~, lTOAAO( OEYav 6TI KaTayoTav crro TIlv Kp~Til Kal OTI ~Tav ovEm8upilTOS OT'l vrjoo TaU Mfvroa.

24

ANEHH1. 1.. KEPAMYt.AI.

Oppvuc;;~ '1,iPf:lU TOU Bu«x0u

'EKTIOav EVav vco 01 rrpootpuvcc, £VW '1 0p)JUC:lI;i, orrcoc oVOIJ0l;OTOV'1 VEO, ~Tav rropoocc at: Ka8E EKO~A(J)Oll' Arro IJIKP~ ~Tav OTIl LlwowvIl KOI KOTOTIlV Tf~YE aTO IEpO T(OV Ka~E"'pwv, an] IapoOp6:Kq, OIOTI rrrov IEpEla OTIlv 'HTIEIpo, EVeD UTO vIlof TOOV Kape:fpwv TI~YE Yla vc rropst OVWTaTil lJullOll·

TIlS apEo£ rrovro vo TIafpVEI fJEpOS OTOUS IEPOUS xopOUS TWV 8£wv TIlS <pUOHOS KOI on TIlS OUVEPalVE fJEplKE<; <popES va TuMYEI yupw H]S ~WVTav6: <pWIO, vo T' mp~vEI va tprrouv OTO TI6010 TIlS, va Koui\ouPIOl;oVTOI KOI va npoKoAEI <pp{K'1 OK6jJIl Kat OTOUS TIIO OKAIlPOTPeXxlli\ouS WOPE<;, TIOp' aTI ~Tav OjJOP'PIl.

ETIPOKEITO ylO EVO 9€o),Jo nou KOI 01 TrIO YEVVOrOI avopES Sev fJTTOpOUOav vo PMTTOUV xwp(S TP0j.JO. 0 n1l0lhapx0C; (rrou OIETEAWE 0PX1EPEOC; TWV LlEA<pwv) MEl 6TI 01 yuvOfKES TIlS Hrrsfpou ~oov naVTO O<pOOlWjJEVES OTIS 0pYlaOTIKES i\oTpEfEe; TOU Opq>iw<; KOI TOU Alovuaou, YEVIKa TIS ovojJal;av BaKxwE<) KOI ETIE<pTav Of: IEP~ jJav(o E~ alTlas TOU BaKXou.

AUTOS ~Tav 0 aAIlS~S i\6yoS rrou ElTalpVE fiEpOS jJE 10,0(TEpO l;~AO KI ETTljJEi\Ela OTI<; IEpon:AEOT{ES OUTES.

ETTEIO~ 01 TEAETEe; aUTES OUVO€OVTav rrcvro fiE OUSEVTIKO apy,a, TO pipalov ErVaI 6Tl Il Opuucoc ~Tav fila yuvalxo IJE aovv~810Ta <pAOyEp~ IOloovYKpaofa. 'Ooov o<popa Ta OPYIO aUTa, Of-V ~Tav orrcoc EKElva nov EY(VOVTO OT~ PWfJ'l, EVW 01 OIOXPOTIlTE<; nov PWllofwv ~Tav rrcrporropaaOTtS jJf- OTTOTEi\EOPO va ElVa! aVEKTES E~ OITlae; TOU OUVOEOJ-lOU TOUe; IJE jJlO TIpUlToyoVIl 8PrJOKEIO cn:pou noM

rrn BATON (EOOETaI Apxlytvl)S)

25

apyOTEpa UI09iTIl-

oav TO Aw5EKO:- 8£0*.

ITIS IlfJi-

pES TWV J-lEYOAWV 9pqOKEUTlKWV opyfwv 6AOI E1Xav TO KO- 8~KOV vo n'1- ya(vouv IJE 6- TIOIOV TO (TII- 8ujJouaav aUTOI. TIS IlIJEPES EKEfvES TIOU vrvorov '1 jJurlOll OTIl IaJ-lo9paK'l, OAOI 01 avSPWTIOI dxav TO OIKaJW!-Ia va EUPOUV T'lV EUTuXfa KOI TI<; XapE<; TIlS l;w~s. 01 YEPOl, 01 0axrUJOJ, 01 aV01Tf'JpOI KOI 01 6ppWaTOI prropooocv va EUpOUV T'1V OAOKA~Po)0'11 fil6TI 0 lpWTa<; EIVOI wAoyfa TOU nOv-Ar1l1IOuPYOU!

H fi'lj.lOOIO aUT~ ouvouofn ~Tav 8EIK~ EVTOM· LlEV umjpxav !-IUOTIKO, EvoXES, VTpOTI~. 1'1. lOTI ETIPOKtJTO yla j.lIO SP'lOKWTIK~ filaOIKoalo. E~ oAi\ou OEV vrvorov rrrro WXaPIOT'1- all aAi\6 orro Ka8~KOv. MUaTIKa un~pxov j.IOvov orcv 01 ElTOnTtS (01 66KIj.l01 !-IUOTE<;) ETIOIpvav jJEpOS UTa lJuOTIKa

IlJpciwOIJ TOll uuyypaqlia

* ITfj 6£un.:pry {Kl5oa'l OUTOU TOU f31{fAfou TO 1986, 61WKpfvlaa 6TI '1 Atl;'l OpylO, 0I7porvE. eUala, ap'laKWTIK1j AOTPE.fO, }JUOT~PJO. IXE.o6v OAE.<; 01 wpw11aiic{<; yAwaOE.<; fJETi:rpE'/Jov T'I Al(ry IIOP'(!O)) oro OVTfaCTO TOU OT'I O/ljPKEIO TOU XpOvou.

AUTO &fxvf.I 11600 f.1TITUX'Iplv'l rjTOV TO fJwafwva 'I ouacpq/J10'l TWV 11paXPlCmovlKwv 8P'1aKE.IWV KOI T'1C; AOTPf.(OC; TOUC;.

26

ANEITHr L KEPAMYMr

T'll) ~W~I). /VJ..a YIO vo YIVEI KaTIOIOC; ~ KaTIOIO OEKT6 TIp6- oorrro UTa MEY6.Ao MUaT~plo TWV KOp£lpwv"', ~TOV UTIOXpEWJ.livoC; va UTIOaT~ TIC; TrIO OKA'lpiC; OOKIJ.loofEC). Eav TO KOTaCPEPVE, T6n ~TOV OEKT6<) UTO va TTapEI j-lipo<) UTa axpaVTO J-IUOTrlPIO!

H 0PI-IuaOO ~TOV !-IIO EIAIKPIV~<; 1TI0T~ TWV I-IUOTllP1WV, !-IIO ItpEIO, TIOU YI' OUT~V 01 OWJ.lOTIKEC; OUyKIV~O£l(; GuvoiOVTOV TIoM I-IE Tie; 8P'lGKWTIKEC; E~apOEIe;, roUTE OK6f-lo KOI 01 ElTI8U!-IIe:e; Tile; nou O~I-IEpa CPOIVOVTOI we; aOEf-lVEC), OTIlv TTpayJ.lOTIK6T'lTO ~TOV cpuolKiC; EKcppaOW; wotpEIOC;. Kar ocp~vw TOUe; 'l8IKOMyou<; KOI TOUI) oopopocpaVEIC; VO X0'iOEUOUV TO ipEpOe;"'*.

ETI(o'lS, 0 ni\mJTopXOe; MEl, TIw<) KOI '1 J.l'lTipo TaU MEyaAou AA£~av6pou ~TOV lipEIO UTO IEp6 Tile; f\roOWVI')S, EVro TI~PE J.IEpO<; KOI OTO KOpdplo MUOT~PIO TIl<; I0I-l08paKI')e; Ko8wC; EKE( YVWPIOE TOV cJ)o.lmTO TI')<; MOKEOOV(OC;.

T EAEIWVOVTOC; J.lE Tr} I0I-l08paKrj, rj EVtpyEIO TIl<; 0PJ.lUaooe; UTO vIl0i'TWV KopEfpwv ~TOV oUVOlo8rj!JOTIK~ OTT6 Til OOpKIK~ T'le; EKo~i\wOll rrrrjv TIV£UpOTIK~, OE Tpono wan va IKOVOTIOIEITOI 0 OOKIlTIOI-IOC; TIOU EVUTIaPXEI o-rqv nlOTil KOI vo TauT~£Tar I-IE Tllv ovT(I\IlLV'l, TIOU KaVEI TO OWJ..IO vao TOU TTVEU)JOTO'). LUVETTOO<;, ETIPOKEITO YIO E~OOi\WOI1 TWV TIo8oov.

AKpaioc;, 0 rlOC; Tf/C; Oppuaooc;

KovEfe; OEV yvropl~E TIOIO<; ~TOV a TrpayJ.lOTIK6C; TIOTEPO<; TOU VWyiVV'lTOU nOIOIOU TIl<; 0PlluoooC;.

.. BA. TO IN3Mo /Jou ceTA £AmINIA MYDHPIA».

~,. )l)J,o ao{3aporpavt;r; KOI 6)J.o aofJap6,. 1VJ.0 '1alKo, KC1/ eMo 0 av· epw1TO, 1TOU &fXVf:I eE,wTr:p'Ka va r:fvOl fJell<o)'6yo~ r:.vth am /Jua).6 TOU TPIYUPVOVV OAE! 01 avtje'Kr:~ rrpaE,f.I, ...

rrn BATON CEaaETal Apxlytvr]S)

27

LT'l YEvvo T'le; tylvov TTopa~Evo rrpcvporc. "Evoc; oET6<;, TIOU dXE aTOSE( KOVTa OTO TTOIO( KI ocrspc EcpUyE KOI xa- 81lKE OTOV Op~OVTO, O~J.lOIVE YI' OUTOUC;, OTI TO TTmOr 80 IlYEfTO J-lfo 'Wipo OE auo OIOCPOPETIKO j-liPll' ETTlarj<) urnipxav KI ai\i\o TIopo60~o TIEPIOTOTIKa TIOU ECPOIVOVTO va aEfXVOUV TO I-IEMoVTIKO I-IEYoi\£fo TaU VwyEWflTOU.

01 KaTOll'WI ~OOV ooofJivOI OTIS EPYOO(E<; nov, EVW rj OpJ-lUOOO ifJEIVE TEi\E(WC; EAEU8EPrj va ovo8pi4JEl TO YIO Tfle; OTTroC; TrlC; apEoE KOI oCPOOlWS'lKE !JE 0i\I') Til fJ'lTPIK~ Trj<) UTOpy~. Tou EfXE fJ(o J.luUTIKJOTrK~ ayanll, J-lE CPUOIKO ETTOKoAou80, 0 VEOPOS va KpOT~OEJ OE oi\Il TaU T'l ~ro~ oi\ocpoVEpO TO (XVll T'll) OVOTpOCP~<; TTOU TOU iowo£.

To TIOIO! oVOJ.lOOT'lKE AKpalo~, £TTElO~ fl W1Tipo TOU ~i\- 8E OTIO T'lV 'HTIElpO lTOU PpfOKETOI OT'lv a""'l OKprj Till) EAi\'lvrK~1) XEpaov~oou. 'EvoC; aMo,) Myol) rrou oVOJ-lOOT'lKE AKpO(OI), ~TOV TO YEYOVOI) 6TI TO n016( yEw~8'lKE rrrqv OKP'l EVO<; PPOXou.

'HTOV TO 380 TTX TTOU yEw~8IlKE 0 AKpafol). To XPOVIO rrspvoooov KO! TO nOlo( CPOIVOTOV rrpovpo-n OIOCPOPETIKO. 'OTOV IJEYOAWOE KI iYIVE £<P'lPOC;, 11 lJr)Tipo TOU TOU· 6iOo~E T'lV OIKOVOfJ(O KOI TO JJETpo. AUTO TO dooe; T'le; OVOTPOCP~C; E(XE aacpai\wc; XP~OIfJO OTIOTEAEOJ-lO, ETTEIO~ ipoi\£ Konolo XOAIVO UTI) (PU01K~ Tao'l OlTOTOA'l'l TTOU EXEI 0 Ko8E VEal) Kal TOU olop8roOE TrJV UTIEpOTTTIK~ aOlo<popfo TTOU ixouv 6i\01 01 VEal vio Tllv o~ro rcov TTpayl-l0TWV.

ETlEJO~ i\OITTOV, 'l fJU'lJ.lEV'l Oppuaoo EYVWPI~E EK rcov TlpOTEPWV TTrol) 01 rrcprcoorspoi viOl sfvcn anAfJOTO' KOI O1TaTOi\OI, yr' aUTO {OWOE aWaT~ OVOTpO<p~ OTO TIOiOr T'l') ~ OTOv TOjJEO TIl<; aUTOKupIOpXfoC;. H TTEI8oPX'O OUT~ orroOEIX8'lKE lTOAlhlfJ'l YIO va TOU X~vayWYEr TOU<; TIEl poO}JOUC;.

28

ANEHHI z. KEPAMYMI

o AKpa(OC; ~Tav EVa VWPIKO KOI wa{09'lTo lTmOl, OAAO TTOPOAO TOV EuaI09'lTO xopaKT~po TOU, ayarroum: T'lV TIEPIlTETEIO KOI ~Tav E~OIPETIKO aTp0I-l'lTOC;.

H Op~uooo TOU E~aAE aTO ~uaM TIOOC; ~Tav TTOIOI, TTOU E(xE va [KT£I\€OEI tJEYOAO -npcopropo Ka9ooc; 0 ZwS TOV xpuroooa KOTe)') O1TO TI1V ofJEOll En(~A£lV~ TOU KOI OTI OEV ~Tav oav TOUC) 6MouC) ECP~~OUC).

LTJC; OPXEC) TOU 365 0 AVTO(OC) OO~YIlO[ lTOAI TO nAOla TOU OTI1V n[AOTIOVVllOO lTpoC) TIlV TIAwp6 TIlC) avOTOAIK~C) aKT~C) OlTOU E~aKOAOu91l0E TIlV E~OVTOOOI'J nov ~IKpOOV OIKIo~wv.

To rreproccrepo xwpI6 avooKoepTl'lKav ou9tfJEAa, 01 TTOAITEC) lTOUA~eIlKav OOUi\OI, EVOO 0pKETO( 9avOTOO9IlKOV. H KOTOOTpOCP~ aUT~ ~Tav fJIO tKlTAIl~1l YIO TOUC) LlTapTloTEC), lTOU OEV rno-rcucv OTO 8poooC) TOU Avrofou. 'EOTEIAav ofJooC) TPO(PlfJO OTOUC) KOTO(KOUC).

o AVTO(OC; TOUS oeplloE va KOTai\opouv TTWC; OEV EfXE KOf .. JlO 0169EOil va q.IlTAOKE( OE lToi\EfJO fJE Tr] Ln6pTI1, [VOO EfXE KOeE KaA~ 0108EOil va unoypot.j)EJ fJIO OUV9~KI1 Elp~vll'), Ecp' OOOV TO i\lyooTonopo9ai\000la XOOplO ~oav OtJEA'lTEO TTOOOTIlTa. npOTlfJOUOE: i\OIlTOV va TOUC; tXEI ep(i\oue; rropc EX9pOlJ<:;.

o AKpaior; OTfJ Iapo(JpaK1]

Mioa OE OUO-Tpla XPOVIO '1 avaToi\IK~ aKT~ 0PXIOE noAI va OKtJOZ:EI KOI '1 0pIJu05a avI1OUXWVTOC; YIO TO fJEAAOV TaU Y10U TOU,) alTocpOOIOE va ElTlOTpaTEuoEI Eva lTi\o(o Y10 va OUfJPoUAw90uv TO VOO TOOV KapElpOOV OT'1 IOJ.lo9pOK'1.

KOTO TO 362 0 AKpO(OC; OE 11i\IKia 1 B Enov {epUyE 1-1£ Til I-l'1TEpO TaU Kal IJEpIKOUC; OAAOU'), va ETTIOKEep9e( TO VIlO!

ern BATnN CEoonol Apxrytvl]S)

29

To 'Epo TWV MqaAruv 8~wlI

ITO xwpo TOU l'w6mv '1 pV'lUIJ oro Ka{:JEipla MuoniP,a

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To vqof ~Tav TOlTOS aTToKpucplOTIKOS, 11 KUPIOTEPIl €opo Tt']C; AOTP£IOS TroV Kalh:fpwv, TWV !-'UOT'lPIOKWV OUTWV unap~EO)v TTOU oUlJeprovo f.lE TO yEooypacpo .I.Tpapwva ~OOV OTIOYOVOI TOU H<pafOTou, '11J19£01 KaTolKol nov ayvWOTrov TTEplOXWV lTOU PpfoKoVTal K(lTW orro llepaloTEl<.otill pouva. H UTTOp~~ TOU') XclvETOI OTI1V axMv T'1e; 10TOp(OC;. To OE KoPEfplo MUOT~plo ((VOl TTOVOPXOIO EAAllvIK~ £TT1V6'lO'l KOI 6XI OIyuTTTlaK~ ~ aOIOTIK~, onro<) unoOTl']p~OUV ovspu9pfaOTo Kcl1TOIOI £fJJ.lIa901 «EPWV'lTE<)) TWV HnA.

LT'1V £TTOX~ TOU <DIAflTTIOU 'l UTTOp~'l nov KO~E(Prov <p0lVOTOV oav OKOTEIV~ Ylo TOUS OAAOUC; AOOU,) Kat TOU') qxr-

30

ANEITHI I. .. KEPAMY ML

VToo81lKav 0 Ka8iva<; fJ€ OVOI-'OIOV<; TpOrrOV<;. /\Mor TOU<; 8€Wpouoav wS rrpoo-rcrsc TfJ<; YOVI J.lOTfJTOS KOI <lAIIOI We:; rrpccrorec Tile; vouolTrAoioe; J.l€PIKte:; <popt<;, J.l€ T'l jJOp<p~ OUT(OV TWV XAWJ.lWV A<lJ.llJ.'€WV TTOV €fJ<pav~OVTOI crov OTfJOO<parpIKO IlA€KTPIOf.lO KOI €IVai yvoomie; OTOVe; vaUTIKOU<; I-I€ Tflv ovoucoro «corposanb (corpus sunctum) 01 «cpomie:; TOU AYlou EAI-I».

To 0PYIO KOI 01 fJVCJTIKte; AOTP£I€C; TWV rncrcov oUTOOV nov KapE(pwv av~Kav UTa bloUflfJOT€pa ).lUCJT~pla H1e:; opXOIOTflTO<;, Kal I-I0AOVOTI UlT~PXOV lToMo l-'iPll OlTOU vivoTOV -(JUYKEKpJl-'iva Il 'lCPOIUT€IOObll<; V~OO<; ArillvoS, O€ OlTOOTooll1800 I-'ETPWV lTpOe; TO VOTIO Arvoro- EV T01JTOI<; 'l LO- 1-I08POK'l ~Tav TO TTpayjJaTIKO KtVTpO T'le; AOTpdoC;.

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31

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UTa YVWPI~O TOUS ~£PIl KQI OTOV KUKAO TOOV aU~TToi\ITWV TOUS rrou TOUS ayOTTOUOav.

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noM yp~yopo £KE( OT'l ITTOpTI'] auvoE9l']K£ ps EVo OTpOTIly6 KOI OOcpc.l\~el']KE TToM OTT6 TI']V TTOI\E~IK~ TOU rretpc. 0 aTPOTI']Y0<; OUTOS, OOKOUO£ EU£pynrK~ ElTIPpO~ yla TO VEopo, yroTf TOV OUYKPOTOUOE OTOV EK£lVOS iO£I)(VE OI\OYIOTf] KOI £TT1K(VOUVI'] TOi\~I'] OTIS fJOXEe;, EVW Ko8we:; ~Tav OUVI']SIa~ivos on] OKAI']P~ ~w~ TTOU TaU £TTEPOAE r] f-J'1TEpO TOU, TTpOOOpfJOOTI']KE OE OUVTO~O XPOVIKO 610OTIWO OT'lV TOOO OUOKOi\'l ~W~ TWV I\OKEOOlfJOVlOOV. Movo6lK6C; OKOTTOe; TOU ~TOV VO ~u110EI TI'] <pui\~ TaU UTO I-lUOT1KO: TOU TTOi\EpOU wan: va prropef vo OVTlfJETOOTTIOEI TOV AVTOfo.

o AKparO<) ~TOV y£VVO(OS we:; TJ']V OTTOi\UT'l 0IlEPll-lv'l0(O.

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35

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36

ANEITHI 2.. KEPAMYMI.

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38

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39

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O. <DEpalol KOI 01 <DooKEIC; KTun~81lKav fJal;r TOU OTq VOTloovaToi\1 K~ GwoaAla, KOVTCc OTIS oX8£S TOU . naya0'lnKOV K6Anou (TOU B6AOU) xcn I) V(KI) TooV MaKEEiovwv ~Tav OA.OKAflPOOTI K~.

o <D(i\mTToc; {oooo£ iva -rpopspo f-la9flfJa OE OAOUS TOUS EVOXOUC; Kal TTpoEil;O"ITOI'10E rrcoc 80 SavaTwv£ orrorov 80 E1TlXElPOUUE OTO IJEAAOV va napaj3raoEI Trlv fEpoTIlTa TooV ~EA<poJV.

• Kcrrci TO 7958 fiE. 7960 TO otKO XIA,cio£e; T6),avrO OVTlaTOIXODOOV pE. 400 EKorOpfiuplO opaXfice;. ill6n OUTOUC:; roue; tJ1To},0y,opo6c:; tKovav T6TE. 01 aOt0pwTol OIKOVO}JoJ.6YOI. AiUci TO 400 E.KOTOJ..lJ..lOpla opaXfile; I]rav OaTPOVOpl.KO 1TOOOV y'o TO 1958, 61TWC:; £1Tio'lC:; Ko/ Y'o Tf}v ffioxfi TOU (J),Mmrou ..

40

ANEITHl.L KEPAMYML

I TI)v EmopojJ~ EVOVTIOV nov SI")ooupwv aTOUC; h£AcpOUC;, oUjJjJEn:(xav KOI K{l:TOrKOr TWV avoToArKwv rropoI\IWV TI")e; nEi\OlTOVV~aou, Kpucpa orro TOV AKpO(O. navrKo~i\I1Tol i\OIlTOV 1-l~1TW<; or MOKEOOVEC; KOTE~OUV GTO NOTo jJE Tr!V npolmoSEoq va EKOIK'lSOUV, TO OI .. JOAOy'lOav OAO rrrov 0PXI1YO TOU<;.

o AKpOrOC; ~TOV OE onoyvw0'l orov aKOUO£ cure TO TO- 00 6uoapEaTO YEYOVOTO, EVW 6Ev apYlloE va <pTaoEI 'l EI- 6fJo'l OTI 01 MOKEOOVEe; KOTW8uVOVTOV rrpoc TO NOTO.

<DUOIKO:, ~Tav TEi\£fwe; E~u.:)lTpayjJOTIKO, TO VO Kon:pEI 0 taxUpOTEpOC; OTpOTOe; T'le; Ei\Aa50C) ylO vo TIoi\q.J~oEr jJE )-lEpIKOUC; tjJop66Ee; KOI KTfJVOTpOcpOUe;.

OOTOOO, I") fJla EIO'lOIl ECPEPVE TfJV cii\A'l- «0 <DiArlTTTOe;», {AEYav, ((EPXETOI crTI'] VOTIO Ei\i\6&o KOI TTi\I']Ola~EI oi\o KOI rno TIOAU rrpoe; TOV rorro TOU<;».

'OfJOO<; OOV va jJl']v ECPTavOV OAO OUTO, ~i\Sov TIOAI 01 TTElpOTEe; UTO KuSIlPo, Eva vqof KOn.ll OTTO TO rrpcoro «(5aKTUAQ» Tile; nEi\OTTOW~OOU. navIKo~I\'lTO[ 01 KtlTOIKOI OTTO T'lV ElT[OTpO<P~ TOU YIOU TOU AVTO(OU, o~jJalvov YEVIKO ouvovcppo.

H 0Pl-lua6a £fnE aTO YIO Tf]e; yla KOTTOIO xwpa jJaKplV~, TIOU UlT~PXav MEyopEi'e; Kat 6Ai\01 'El\i\qVE<;. Tou E1TIE OTI 01 aTIOIKOI dVOI <pll\o£IPllvIKOC KOI apKETO jJaKpla aTT6 Til MovEfJpaOra. Tov TIOPOTPUVE ouv£xwe; vo cpuyouv KOI VO EyKOTOOTaSouv OE EKEIVI"] Tf] jJOKPIV~ xwpo, 6rXro<; ptpOia vc <povTamEl rrore OTI 0 COrAITTTTOe; So TT~yOlvE £K£I ylO 01\I\oue; I\oyou<; 6rrooe; So &OUfJE OTr') OUVEXEIO ..

EKElVIl Til vUXTa 0i\01 rioov ETTI TT06oe; .. 0 Tp6).J0e; £IXE OTTi\WSEf TTavW rrrro TIC; OTtyEe; nov KOTOIKWV, 0 i\ao<; auvEI61lTolTOIllOE nAEov rnv OAIl aUT~ KaTaoToo'l, OTpicpovroc Twpa TO pAEJ.lf-Ia TOU il'P0C; TOV AKPOCo, TTOU ylo OAOue; ~Tav uro auSEvT(O Et:txouao!

En! BATON ('Eaunal ApxlytvlJS)

41

Ouoqxovc ouuqxovnocv va TOV OKOAOUS~OOUV we; Tt']V aKPIl TOU K00I10U.

Tov 8EWPOUOav cov EVav E!DIKO av8poono Tile; fJo(pae; rrou ~Tav rrpoopropsvoc va EKnAIlPwoEI fJ(a SEIO crroo-ro A~. KOI vo rcopc, rrou 11 npoKa80prOjJEv'l OTlYfJ~ E(XE <pTOOEI, TO TTVEUflO TOU 80 PplOKOTav OOcpOAWe; OE KaToOToOll E~OpOEoo<;, OXdiov OE EKOTaOT].

.IE Myo, oAa 80 EfXOY OTfOYUfJvw8d. 'Hoov ojJWC; oVErporroAol KOJ acpoOlwfJEVOI OE EVO uljJllAO OXEOIO TTOV tTTPETTE VO TO jJ£TO<ptpOUY OE EVa fJOKplVO OKOTTO, xwpfS YUPIO!-JO, ~ o 8avaTos ~ tva VEO jJlKpO <pTWXO ~OOi'AEIO, fJEYOA\,hEPO Toui\OXIOTOV OTIO EKEfvl') TI')V KOUKrOO Y'1S onlv avOTOi\IK~ nEAoTTowlloo.

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noMOI Soi\ooOOlTOPOI dxov EKcpipEI T'l yvwPI1 TOUe; OTT6 T'1Y TTpOOWlTlK~ TOUe; 1TerpO ylO TO fJEyaAa lTOVTOTfOpo To(rOla TOUS, TTOU dXav KOvEr OTO TTOPEAS6v, EV<.i) 01 KJV- 6uvol Myav£ lTOOC; ~Tav O<pOvTOUTO jJEyaAol. Evvoouoov 6jJwe; TO To~iOIO {~oo OTTO TIe; HpaKAEIf.S I.nj.\(s (TO 0lljJEPIVO nppaATOp), Ko8ms EVOXi\OUVTO OTTO TOUS <DO(V1KE<; VOUTrKOUe;. Ai\i\a 0 nu8El'S 0 Maooa.\J(l)TrJS To,;rOEljJ£ E';oo

42

ANEITHr L KEPAMY~I

rrrro TO flppaihap J.lEXpl TO BOPEIO nayWI-'EVO OKEavO*.

nplV ~£KJV~<TEI aTTO T'lV nEAOTTOWIl<TO, 0 AKpa(OS opyaVWOE IJfa Aal-'TTp~ £OpT~ aq)f£pWI-'EVil OTIS Evv£a Mouut'), OTTWC:; EKCXVav OAOI 01 'EMIlV£S TCX~lolc.6T£S <TTIlV CXPXCXIOT'lTex. Alyo Em:na aTT' aunfs TIS EOPTES, K(hw aTTO TOV Ka8apo ~AIO EVOS ATTplAraTIKOU TTPQlIVOU TOU 346 TT.X., 0 AKpa(os aTToxalpETlloE TOUS AlyouS' av~IJTTOpOUS vex aKoAou8~oouv KI 6:pUyE v,a TOV UArj01ToVTO ETTIK£CPCXA~S TOU Aaou TOU.

ITq via TTaTpfSa

o YVWOTOt; PPOXos TIlS MovElJpaafas PpfoKETal OE yEWypacplKo TTAaTos 36° 40°,8 popEla TO o£ I-'~KOS aUT~S E(VCXI 023°00, 4 avaToAIKo.

'EpaAOV TTOPEIO Yla TO OTEVO Trl<) vqoou AvGpoS, 01(0);/~ovTas 108 NauTIKo I-'I'",a, 11 OE TTOpE(O nou «poroooov ~Tav 043. nu~(oa un~pXE p{pOIO, '1 OTTOICX ~Tav ETTITEUYJ-Ja TWV apxafwv EM~vwv J..IICXC; l-'aKplv~s ETTOX~c.;**.

ATTO Tllv I\vopo TTpoxc6plloav TTPOS T'1V ElO'Ooo TaU EM~<TTTOVTOU, TO O'lJ.l£PIVO aKpWT~pIO KouJ.I-KaM, Il crrooroon ElVCXI 141 vouruco 1-'1i\IO, aMa 1-'£ TaUS EAIYI-'0US Myw TWV KCXlpIKc6v aUV8f1KWV TO ptpOlOV E{val aTI EKavav rrspiooo-

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... H &un:pfJ £KOoO'l iyfVE OTIC; apx{c; TOU 1986 (VW TO TTap6v {31{3Mo ({_ Xe r'/0'1 ypafjJE{ TO 1982 . .L1T)v TrpWTfJ iKOOOq &v Eyvwpll,a OTI fJ rruE,ioa qTOV emvofJofJ TWV E)J.Jjvwv Ko/ dX! TWV Klvtl,wv.

En! BArD ('EaoETaJ Apxrytvf)5)

43

TEpa I-'lAla. H an6<TTaO'Il anD TO lTEpaO'l-'a TOU <TT£VOU elVal 3S fJlAla.

Nyo rno Boperc ~Tav rJ TTOAI<) Al'OpVEO orr' OTTOU KOTaYOTOV 0 Aropvecc, TTOU 01 YOVelS TaU, TaU EowO'av TO dvopa TIlS. 1T£PIOX~S, cerro orrou ~p8av I-'ETovaOTE<) 01 TTPOYOval TOU O"TIlV nEAOTTOwIloo, EVW 0 IOros a:qOE mro KOVTO TO opaf-la TWV HTTEIPWTc6v TTOU ~i\8av Kal OUTOr WS f-lETaVclO"Te<; OT'lV nEAOlrowIloo.

AnD T'lV aplO"TEp~ TOUS nAwpa Eioav Tfl YVWOT~ KaAAillOMa- nOAA.o( OTTO TOU<) I-'£TavOO"T£S E~tcppaaav TIlv ETIl8u!Jfa va anopl~aoTouv TTpOS TO OUTIKa TTAflofov TrJS KaM(TTOA'lS, aMo 0 AKpa(os cpOPOUf-lEVOS !J~nwe; 0 Aads TaU ~OvayrvEI UTTOOOUAO<) vro OEUTEPfl qiopc EpaAE TTAOOP'l ¥'O TO PopEloovaTOAIKa TTapOAla Afyo TIplV Eva orsvo TTOU ovof-lal;ETal BOO1TOPO,), omos TOU EiTTE 'l fJJ1TEPO TOU. T£AIKO E<p8aoov af;: Eva OUYKEKpllJEVO O'lllJElo, OTTOU EK£I UTT~PXE I-'Ia vauTIK~ TTpopA~Ta Il crrofo XP'lO'fI-'WE w<) CXTT08~K'l TOU Bu~avTfou, ouuqxovo I-'E aUTa nOU TOU E~~Y'laE 11 1-ll"1Ttpa TOU. 0£wp'lTIKa olaaxfoov£ 310 vourucc 1-'1i\la.

'Orov TO TTAO(O TaU AKparOU «{moaE» OTrJV aKT~ T'l<) ayvwO'T'lS OUT~S xoopoe;, a AKpalOS op8c.68'lKE Kl EPI~E Eva aKOVTlO <TTIlV aKT~ TTOU aTTAwvoTav I-'TTpoOTa TOU oo» vo EPAETIE lvov Ex8pa.

H P(I.jJIl TaU CXKOVTJOU ~Tav f-lla Ouv~8Ela v,a 6AOU<) TOUS CXTTOIKOUS TTOU OVTIKp(Z;OVE vro TTPWT'l cpopa Tllv 6:yvwm'l TTpO<) OUTOUS Y'l.

'ETTEITCX, TI'lbc6vTas !J6voS orqv aKpoy,aAla, OTIl-'aol TTWS ~Tav 0 TIpayl-'aTlKOe; apx'1Y0c.; T'lS I-'ETOVOOTEum:wS', cpc6- va~E TTWe; rrpoooprouos orro EKE(VIl TrJV Ill-'EPO OAOKA'lP'l TIlI-'IKP~ TTEP'OX~ f-I£ TO blKarWI-'O TWV KaTaTpEYI-'EVWV UTO avolla TaU :£VIOU AloS KOIOTI"JV WXaT'l overyKil TO OtKa(oolla TOOV OlTAOOV!

44

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KOTorrlVEooom: OIOTay~ orooc oV9pc6rroue; TaU va orroP1POOTOUVKOI OTOV Ol£.lTIOTWOE moe; O£.V un~px£. Ex9pOe; O€V {!-lEV£. napa va KOVOUV )JIO )JIKp.~ 9pqOKWTIK~ TEi\ET~ 'KOI. OTO pii\i\ov va «crcoxeuooouv PWfJOue; ..

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01 OlTOIKOI ocpod TPOPIl~OV TO nAolo TOU<; OTllv oppou- 010, rrpc6To TOUe; l-Io.qfJO ~TOV va KaVOUV avayvooploq TOU £oocpoue;, npoXwpouoov srrcveoo-rnv KOPEVr"j YIl, EVOO YIO lTPOOTIl <popo a AKpofoe; ~TOV O<pqpI1P€VOe;, TO pi\.€jJfJO TOU X610WE TO XOoe;, 1<1 0PXIOE VO ~EXWp(Z:EI TO cpaVToopOTO TOOV nElpOTOOV KOI TOV AVTOfo va TOU M£I: «AUTCt sivat TO rpayouol 71]~ vio~(Jov Y'1e;· eo pp;o«opm rravw alTO TO KECpaJ..1 oou ym va ooo &fx.vw rriaw air' TO popla rrrnJ..a rwv Kanv·ciw 11] aKoT£.lVtj mJJ..q TOU :40'1, «oOwe; EKdipxoVTm vauvarrovOovv TO cpi{jlO, 01 aovpE~ KaJ 01 VVXTl:pfo£.c;;».

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ErU BATON CEouna! ApXlyiVJ1S)

45

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Tov lTPOOTO KOIp6 0PXIOav VO KOTOOKWOZ:OUV crrrno alTO T'lV ~ui\Efo TWV Tfi\ofwv. TEi\JKO TfO(pVOVTOC; 8oppo,), aPXloav va ~OVO(YOVTOI avOKOAUTfTOVTO,) IJIKpe') lT6i\EI<;.

46

ANEITHr z. KEPAMYMr

'OTOV 01 EVTOTTIOI TOUS PU)TOUOOV TIOU EfJEVOV, OUTOI orroVTOUOOV: «E1Ti BClTWvb),

6'1A06~ ElTaVOO OTOUS Borroucl

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o AKpaiOC:; plaf:Jo<p6poc:;

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ITO fJEOO UXEOOV TOU Spopou cvopeoc OTrIV KoMITTOAr] KOI TO BUZ;OVT10, 0 <DrAITTTTO,) ETTPETI£ ~ va UTTOTO~£I OUTES TI<;; TIOAEI<;; ~ vo TIS KOTOaTpiljJEl, YIO va ).JTIOpiO£1 va TIE-

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47

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48

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49

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50

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51

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56

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57

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58

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nEpov ot.wv OUTWV, I1EOO OT'lv EMooa OVOTTTUX8'lKE ilia 6:MI1 opy6:vwa'l, aUT~ TeOV «Ka;\;\up6:tiooV» TTOU rteprst.all~ov£ av9pomouc:; TIlS EKK"llolaC;, OTIlv orroro TTPWTOOTaTouo£ 0 A9avo:CJlOC; noplOC;. AUTO( UTTtOT~PI~av OTI I") £TTavaOTaol") OEV ~Tav avayKO(O, oepou 11£ TI")V rropooo TOU Xpovou 11 09wJ.lavlKrj AUTOKPOTOpfo 90 j.J£ToMaooTav OE {va PWtJai"Ko Kp6:TOS. ME TI")V 10EO OUT~ ~E~UlO btv aUfJqxovqcov 01 Ouo aMtS TTt.WptS, oepou 0 a~IWj.JOTOUxOe; tK£lVOC:; TI")e; EKKA'laioe; A8avaOloe; nap'OS ~TOV av9tAt.I")vae;, Yl' aUTO KUI (Aty£ av£pu9p(oOTa OTI: «01 apxo(OI 'EM'lvte; rioov Ko86:pl--'aTQ}).

TI")v £TTOX~ aUT~ 0 AoalJavfloe; Kopa~e; (1748-1833) sxo16tl T'lV £epl")jl£p16a «.I6:ATTlOJIo 1JoAqmrrrjplov» fJ£ T'lV orroro lTpoOTIa8£J va KOvEr yvwOTiS TIe; 8to£!(; TOU OTOUe; UTTOCOUAOUe; 'EM'lv£S KOI Hlv OVOyK'l TI")S 1l0PCPWOEWS TOU Aaou OTO TIVEUj..IO TOU LlIOepooTIOjlOU. AjlEowC; 01 KoMupo-

115

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METa TOV 80vaTO TaU naplOU, 0 Kopa~e; 8a KOTOp8waEI va ElTIp6M£1 we; ElTIKE<pOA~ OTI")V l1opcproaq TeOV EMI)vorrofficov TOV IEPWI1EVO IJEV oUa yv~010 TTpoobEUTIKO blo<pWTIOT~ NfO<pUTO BOI1Po.

To 1813 Sa Ibpu8d O'TT)V A8~va I") «<I>tA6J.1ouool) hatpefc» OlTO TO £TT1TEAElO TOU EKblbol1EVOU OT'lV BlivVlllTEp,OblKOU (<A0YIOS Ka1JolifOTplOS KOla lyvaTloC; OuyypopAaxlol). To (010 ETOe; r] «(l)IAOI10UOOe; Eroipefco 8a 10PUOEI OT'lv A8~va ElTIOT'l110VIKO rU),JvaOlo, rrou 8a blaopol1oTIOEI onpovmco pOAO OT'lv ~oo~ TWV A9'lvwv. Tooo 0 TTPWTayWVIOTIKOS POAOS TOU Kopar] O£ OAeS TIS axoAis rrou {OpUOE lJo~f 11£ TOV ra~r] KOI TOV KwvOTaVTo, orrooe; Tr1e; «MrJA1WTIKr]S KOlvr]e; TOU riVODS l:xoArjc;» OT'lv Mayvf]ola, Tr]V orrofo rrporxofiornocv OIKovol11Ka 0 KonoblOTp,as IJE TOV tvvono KOI oMoue; O'lIJOVTIKOUe; 'EUI")v£e;, coo Kal 'l auprropcorcon Tile; tl1nopIK~e; Ta~EWS TWV EUr]vwv, ElXOV we; orrOTEAEolJO va Kavouv TraM ovopoo-rri T'lV «<DIAOIJOU- 00 ETOIpEfQ». A,a Myous ao<poA£ioS AO!TIOV I1ETtepEpav T'lV EOpO T'le; OTI")V BIEw'l. 'QAOI 01 blO<PWTlOTES rrou TI")V Q1TOTEAEOav, ETrOl~av a'llJovTIKO poi\o orqv c1al1opcpwol") T'lS E8vIK~S IuvElo~aEoos rcov V£WV T'le; ETTOX~<;' KOI ol-'ooe; 'l opa0'l TaU Kopori, 6mos KOI OAIle; Tile:; (l)IAOj.JOU0'le; ET01pEiO1S bEV KaTop9roo£ va TTpOO<pEpEI noMa OT'lv errcvco-ro-

• BM:rrpu}J£ AOI7T6v TOUe; o}JIXAw8ouc; Kcrraywylje; af;lw}Jam6x~ue; T1)e; OpBo56E,ou EKKAlJofac; va O£wpoov we; oaTavlo}Jd T'1V £TrI(]7"'1fJ'1 17)C; pUu/KtjC; KCXI TI]C: XI]}J£fac;. BMrr£. KCXI TO KClTarrruOTO {1IPMo TaU AO. ndpJOu I!IIVTlqX{JVfjOIC;».

116

ANEITHr z. KEPAMYAAl:

all. '000 cpIMTI~EC:;: KI av ~Tav 01 TTPOOTT6:S£IES TOU Koper] KOI TWV ouvepvorcov TOU, bEV Efxov TIlv OUVOTOT'1TO vo cptpOUV yp~yopa OlTOTEMol-'aTO.

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T~U 80vaTOu ,TOU, UlTI1P~£ 0 POOIKOe; 'lyETf)S KOI OUOIOOTIKOC; OpyavOOT'1<; TWV <pIAl KOOV.

~ IKOU<p6:C; [(XE lJu'l8€! OTOUS £TI'OVOOTOTIKOUC; IJ'lXOVIopOU<; TO 1812 OT'lv MoOXa OlTO TOV KWVUTOVTivo Pa60 lTOU ElXE OTO ox£ola TOU va IOPUOEI 1-'10 ESvIKoaTTEAEUS£~ PWTIK~ ?Pyavoooll ~KE~Vf) T'lV ETI'0X~' 0 TooKaAcocp ~Tav KOI ~UTO<; O'1~avTIKO I-'EAOI) T'll) opyavroo£w<; «EMf]voyi\wo- 00 =.EVOOOXEIO».

~OTOV Tr£8;XVE 0 1:KOU<paS, 0 =:ov80S alTOKTO T'lV SuvoTOT'l:a avaAf]4JEooe; lTPWTO~OUi\IWV lTpOe; fJla OUI-'CPIi\lwTIK~ KOT£U8uV0f] 1-'£ Tfl~ aM~ opvovcoor], 0'lAOO~ I-'E Tf]V lTapoTa~1l TOU E8vl0I-'0U. 0 =.6v8oe; ~Tav l-'urWEvo<; OTOV TEKToVI?"IJO Kal 80 OlaTI']~~aEI OPIOTES oxiOE1e; I-IE TOV M£yoAo 6.,b~oKai\o T~C; MEY_OAf]e; LT06:<; T'lS 00600<; UTa ETTTOvfloO KOfJIl AIOVUOIO PWl-lo*.

~ BA. I. AOUKa «krtopk: '''Ie: EM'7v1Klic; Maoov[ac;».

trn BATON ('Eoo&TaI Ap);'IY£Vl)S)

117

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va l-ITTOPOUV va 8poaouv.

0a npElTEI va yvO)p~OUl-lE lTWe; if]V ElTOX~ EKElVI"j, f1 EK~ Mllofa 6EV I-'lTOPOUOE va nElaEI TIS I-I0(,E<). 1u)("0 tAEYE TfWS «0 8E6<; 8a OTEIAEI TOV clyyEAO TOU lTOU So KpaTO lTUplVI"] pOfJcpafa Kal 8a 8IW~EI TOUe; TOUpKOU<»).

CDUOIKO 01 l-lop<pW!-lEVOI -<ITO £lTOKPOV- av8pOOlTOI TOU Kopa~ Kat 01 aMol, yvOOp~OVTOS TI<; Ili\(8IEe; UlTOOXEOEIC; TWV Tl'OlTo6wv Aiyo rrprv lTEOll f] KoovUTaVTIVOUTfoi\IC;, 0lT£pllj}E K08£T1 TfOU {"AEYav OIIEPW1-lEVOI, EKT6<) pE~alo aTl'o TOU<; I£PWI-'£Voue; EKE(VOUC; lTOU EiXav lTOvW err' oAa TfjV OTfEAWS£po)OI"] TI"]e; EM060c;.

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AUTO ~iav Ta AOYIO Tl'OU EOEIXVav ifj aUVEXEIO Tile; EMIlVIK~C; lTapa060EWe; Kal ova~fwvav TO APXafo EMf]vIK6 nVEuj.la OTIC; Kap81Ee; nov OpKIOjJEVOOV EAi\~vwv TI"]C; Enova-

OT6:crEW<;.

118

ANEHH!.L KEPAMYAAI

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YTT~PXav KOl aM£e; fJUOTIKES OpyavwoEI<; 01 OTTO(£S Spouoov OTIlv 0pOKI"] Kal OTOV nOVTO. APX'lY0C; lJ(as 01-'0- 50S ~Tav ivas £~afpETos Avopas, 0 0paKlwTIlS i1'lJ-ltlTPlo<; KtPOJ-ltIKOC;, lTOU lTOAE)JI"]OE vevofo UTO LOUVIO, oMo lTIOOTIlKE OIxpaAono<; KOI OTIC; 23 MapTfou TOU 1781 01 TOUpKOI TOV EK04Jav -KOTCO orro TOV {OKlO TaU NooG TOU nOOEIEiwvoS- Of: OIyov~ <pomo. To oV0I-l0 TI"]e; OpyavOOOECO<; ~Tav «1 061» ETTEIO~ 0 apl9)Jos OUTOS avTIOToIX£I OTO OVOfJo AnOMON.

To 1819 apX'ly6s OUT~C; TI"]e; )JUOTIK~<; ETOIPEIO<; {YIVE 0 TpaviKoc;, nOTEpo<; TOU E8vIKOU EUEpyET'l IopaVTI"J APXIyivll. 'OTOV 0 ApXIYEvI"]S (YIVE 0PXlly6<; T'1<; «01-1000<; 1061», oMa~E TO 6vo)JO aUT~<; KOI T'1V OVOfJOOE <DOIBOL.

OOTOOOV, 11 OfJooo TOU ApXIYEVOUC; £IXE EVa IlUOTIKO ovopo, lTOU TO ElTpOcpEpOV 1l0VOV OE KA£IOTO Xwpo KOI IJOVOV IlETa~u llu'lIlEVWV OTO EMllvlKa fJUOT~pIO. To IlUOTIKO ovouo T'1<; 01J060<; EKEfvT)<; ~TOV «E4JIAON» (=E)*. npOKEITOI Yla IJIO TTovapxOIo OlJooa TTOU KPOTO an6 TOV KoMlTEXVl"] Ef;'lKia**.

.. Ita TfJV oJ1ooo '6/1171011 tXOUJ1E ovmpipEI OT'7V IOTrlKfj apfJliEproo TOU GEpJ1oik06 (/MOKEOOVIK6 MljvuliQ)) TO 7 9 76. Lr7liEPO KoBw, O/OVUO~U:

TO 1983, ou&:(c;J OTTO TOU, U7TOTIBiliEVOUe; yvwon:e; TWV ASTJvwv YVWprl,EI 7TEpi oJ1000C; E.

n Ef,qKfat;. LT'7V «Nto nayK60J110 EYKUKAo7ToioE1Q) rwv EKOOo£wv «MoprpWTlKr7C; ETOIpfoe;/l AS'7vwv, Topo«; 13oc;.. OE},(e; 207, TTAfJpOrpopoUlioorc OTI 0 EE;'1KfoC; IjTOV AyyclorrAaoT'1e; KOI ayyc/OYpCc({JOC; 7TOU

Em BATON (EUQ£TCtI APXlY£VIJS)

119

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KOI 0liqJ0PEfC; WPIOKDliEVO £Ie; olorpopa JlO~O£/O T'7e; .EU~ '7e;'A' P f30vc TO' Sipcrro TOU £K "TOU f310u TWV '7pwwv 0'70EW<;, P~K £OUC;, AX,ilJ.iwc; AlaV"Toe; KOI £K TOV lllovuoov pusoAoYIKwv TTo~6 ?EOWV . Err{ TTt.tO~ 0 John Boardan oro fpyo TOU «AS'lvoikO M ovolioPrp:x AyydOJ) oVO({JtpCI OTI<; Or:A10£C; 67-700 OT' 0 Ef.'1Kfo<; qrav 0 opX'lyoe;

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120

ANEHHI E. KEPAMYMI

ITa fav6xwpa ava<P{Pf.TOI axOA£JO TO 1790.

I TOUS EmJ3on:e:; f.J,JcpavrC:ETOI '1 rrpwT'l OXOAIK~ KOITfoo TO,1796 KOI,O(O£I Tt') OKUTaA'l OTO «APX'yivtra ii,6oaKaAEIQ», JopUT'lS 0 ~apOv11]C;: ApXlyivrJS 18S7.

_ BAiTTOUfJE A~ITTOV TOV IOPOvT'l APXIYt'V'l, yovo TOU ~I")_ fJ'lTPIO~ rrou KO~K£ Z;WVTavOS orro TOUS TOUPKOUS TO 1781 UTO Iou~lol va elVOI anouoo(OS wepyfT'l«). No Aomov TTOU o _apx'lY0C:; T'l<) «0,,1(160«) E» urr~p~E MEyaAOS E6vIKO<; Euf.pyf.T'lS·

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TOV Avop£a XavTZ;~. '1

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J,JIOUpYEITal 'l «ALTIKH IXOAH». 'l

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YOUVTal oxoAis KOI TO 1867 nop9EvayroYE(O. 'lJ,J p

o l:KOTJ?C; onOKTo OXOAEIO TO 1810 KOI LXOAiC; TO 1820.

H ~'1Auf1pla TO 1799 (fJE XP~I-IOTO auVTEXV(a<; rouvo 0- owv) KOI T'lV EV(OXUo'l TOU M'lTPOlTOAlTOU KaAAlvIKOU. p

H Tu_poAo'l anoKTo OXOAE(O ETT( ME906iou (EmOKOlTOU HpaMElas) TO 1780. 0 ME9061oC; EVIOXUE.I KOI Tr!V POll) OT' ~~ 1 760. LTO MUPIOCPUTO TO 1788 AEITOUpYE( OXOAE~ I-I~ OOKaAo TOV MOT90(0 favOXWpIT'1.

o KOPMMHI UTa E~a(pETo fpyo TOU «ANATOAIKH 0PAKH» ovom'

yEpEI we; lTpOe; TI")V m:p(lTTOOCT'l rc E~~e;:

((0, SpaKEC; Aom6v &.V errtTpEl./Jav va a{1rJol] I] ?'ofJrra- 00 TOU ~I]VIKOU TTVEUjJOTOC;. I' 6Aec; TIC; KOIV6TI]TfC; 01]j.J1oupYI]eI]KOV oxoAda rrou TO OUVTl]pouaov 01 lOJOJ }JE

121

TOV of3oA6 TOUC;, }J£ TOUc; oiaKOUC; KoBE KuplaKr] ,OTI]V EKKAI]aia, TIC; 8wpd.c; TWV rrAoualWV KOI TI]V auvopOfJfJ TWV EBvlKWV IViUoywv. H opoaT'} TWV TeftWTOfwv (10,anepa»; tpJAEKTTOJOWTIKOU KOI tplAOVBpWTTlKOU Xopo~ KTrJpOc:J ttou aUVETI]pOUVTO I1E rrpoorroBEIEC; BpaKIWTJOotbv J.1I]Tfpwv, aUVErrArJpwvov TT'}V Trm&fo Kat TIC; KOIVWVJKiC; E7oJ.ElIjJElC; Kat aVOyKEC', TWV E7oJ.I]VOTTOfOwv)).

(ASavoo'lO<) A. KOpjJcxA~S: «AVOTOAIK~ 0po:Krp>, OEA. 34-36, EKoom:rc; «neAaayos}), A9~va 1994).

0, nupcp6pol 0pOKEC; oev ElTETPEljJav va af3~a., 'l AaI-JlTOOO TOU EAA'1VIKOU nVEUI-I0TO<;. A>J.6. 1TOOOI yvwprC:ouv apayE OTI I"J E1TClVGOTa01) TOU '21 0pXlm: crro T'lV 0pOK'l KOI oX' orro T'lV Bltw'l KOI TI"JV Oouaow;

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ria TO EAA'lvorrOUAa T'lS 'Epae:; 0POK'IC;:, TO orrcoveopc 6uo,wv, I")pwYo!-'ou, EAEU6EpfoC;, aacpuKTloUOOV lTAiov KOTW orro TOV TOUpKIKO ,uvo, Ei\EIlvoAoyouaav TOV EaUTO TOUS YIO TO OOUAIKO KOTOvTrIlJo.

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122

ANELTHI I. KEPAMYMl:

H enavaaraon TOU 1821 OT'1V AVaT. BpaKI]

01 8uolEe; nov EM~vrov TllS GpoKllS aTflV Errcvoorccn TOU 1 821 rioev rrepiooorepo OTOV KOTa 80AOOOO aywvo, Ko8ooe; 01 0POKEI) VaUTJKo( rrpoorpepouv TO nAOIO TOUS xcn fJETEXOUV KOI OJ lfilol TOAj-lflPWV ETIJXEIP~OEroV.

o ouyypa<piOe;-Ep£UVflT~C; KWOTOC; .t\.apOYTI'}C; GTO ~I~Mo TOU «GPAKEr Aro.NI rTAI KATA THN EnANArTAIH TOY 1821», fJoe; nAllpocpoP£l:

1. XOVT~~ (J)pOVT~.~ KOlho~oC), orro TOV Alvo. IlpooecpEpE TO naVTa GTOV aywva. M£TEIXE aTle; VOUTIKE<; ETIlXEIp~O£l(; Tile; EUPOIOC;, onroC) OTOV onOKAEIOI-IO TaU KOOTPOU Eupfnou TO 1822. Evoo TO 1824 filopfl;£TOI J\ljJEvoPXIlS.

2. MapyopfT'lC) XOVT~~ <1>pavTl;~ KOI.hapoc;. YIOe; TOU npOIwoUJ-lEVOU Kon£TOvIO<; uAOIOU «nOrEI.M1N». LUVEPYClTfJC) TOU NIK. KaaofJouAfJ . .6.IOKOfJIGT'K~ fip6011 crro OsoaOAoVIKfJ EWS AAE~Ovfipe:lo. ME TfJV KOTOOTpOCP~ TfJC) Xfou KOI 4Jopwv fJETEcpe:pE OjJOXOUS fJOKpOV -rcov vriotov, 'EAO~E fJEpOe; OTI1V K6Au4J11 TfJC) EKGTPOTe:IOC) TOU OMj-lTrou, jJE TOV u1TaauIOT~ TOU .6.qfJ. YlfJr"JA6vTrJ fp. l:o;Uov, KOI GTOV rrrroKAErOfJO TOU Euplnou.

3. now.,1.) Kopopt:t.ac; (AIVITfJC;). IfiIOKT~TflS TOU lTAOIOU «AYloS rUI-lEWV» ).lETOTpE4JOe; aUTO OE TTOAEI-IIKO. METEX£I T'lS TTOAlopKfae; TfJC) KOpUOTOU.

4. XavTl;~ AVTWVIOI.) BIOP{l;.'lc) (AIVIT'l<;). MUfl8£i'S EVWpfS crqv «<DJAIK~ ETOIp£ia». Me: TO nAoro «KAJ\OMOIPA» nOA£fJo 1-1£ OAIl Tllv OJKoytVEIO TOU. 0 «APEIOI nArOL> OUVE- 6pIOl;EI ouXVa GTO nAolo TOU. BOr"J86 TI1V errovcorccn Tile; Kaooov6pa<; (M6ioe; 1 821) KOI OW~£I TOV E,.,,.,avoorp. navlJt) fJETa TfJV OTTOTUXIO Tf']e; e:~e:y€po£ros crnv MOK£OOvia. rUV6pOI-IEI TIC) £TlIXEIP~OEIS OTf']V AvaToAIK~ Ei\i\6oa TWV tH)]J. YtVf']AclvTf'] KOI 06. AVOPOUTOOU.

srn BATON CEaanol ApXrylvJ]S)

123

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vo ...

6. OEU8tplO<; noAOIo<; (AlvfTr"JS), MuoS Tr"JC) <l>IAIK~e:; halpdoS. r'l]JOVTIK~ lTpoocpopa pE TO lTAOIO (<APX6yyEAOC;

MJxa~i\>).

7. rp'lYoplOC:; KOJ:lv'lvou (AIVITrJC;), rf']jJavTIK~ rrpootpopc OTIS ElTIX£lp~OEI<; rcov 4Japwv.

8. XavT~~ EfJfJavoo~A Tt:poyAou. ME TO nAOIO «rtooci- 5wv» OUI-II-IETEXEI GTr)V vaupoxfa TIl<; ropou.

9. ITPOTtlC; IKOp50C:;. IUPI-IETEX£I OTI<; ETIIX£lp~Oe:Ie;-bIOarooEIe:; TOOV lIJapwv KOI trrnv NouI-IOXfa HIe; J\ta~ou.

TO ANT AJ\J\AfMA Ylo Tf']V Tlpoocpop6 OUTroV TWV EM~vcov 01 orrofoi {6roGeN TO Kop6~la TOUS mov cryWVO (TIOAA6 ~6 TO OTIOIO KOTEOTpa<prJ0ov) ~Tav povoxo 1181KO, '1 AEUT£PU) Tf']S nOTpf6o<;.

rTON KATA =:HPAN ArONA Ofll-l£l(OVOUjJE TO OVOjJOTO TWV:

1\0Xayou K6:ptrou nana50lTouAou (AIVfT~). noi\£jJ~oE nA6'i OTOV Av6poUTOO KClI fJE 0<.61-10 8POKIWTOOV ornv I-lOXf'] TWV MUAroV.

BomAdou XplOTo<p6pou, OTO orofJoTa TOU onAaPXrJYou KopOTaoou (MoK£60vfo).

• .1uaruxw<; 01 IOTOP'KOf ayvooov TO rrOVTO ylO TOUe; HPaEI BPOKIWn;~ 6rrw<; tm'olJ<; Y/O TIJV BE/DTATH epaKHimoao ~6fJvo rrou t{j/W; rrup !/Juxrje; ylO: TI']V f:1TOVOOTOOIJ TaU Tlvoue;. Ayvoouv AomDV TO rrovro Y'O T'1V Ic.pr') MAr Bp6KIJ, Ate; KOI TO Kclvouv oK61T1fJO ...

124

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o AlVO') AOrrrOV, TO E1TIVEIO T'le; 8POK'l1) ~Tav KOI TO KEVTpO TOU KaTO SOAaaOO ayWVOI) T'lS Bop. EMoool) KOSOOOV 01 AIIJEVES EU~E[VOU Kal llporrovrfdoc ~oav u1T6 ~tvo £AEYXO. To 300!!! IOTIO<pOpO TOU Afvou, 'l nOAUTIJ-l'l OUT~ 6uvaIJfl YIO T'lV crrovoo-rccq KOI 'l rrpootpopo OTO{XIOE OKplPO UT'lv -rrOA'l TOU Afvou, ITII) 17 AnplMou TOU 1821 01 TOUPKOI KaTEAopav, UOTEpO orro OVT(O"TOO'l, T'lV rr6i\fl KOt lTpoiP'loav os cpOPEpEI) a<payis·

To yov/po t6ocpoc; ylO etravaoraor; arfJv GpOKfJ £fXE trooeroipaoe. '7 (<DIAIla] Eratpeio» Ko/ '7 610Tf]PfJ0'7 T'7C; EA),,'7V/Kr/C; nOl&foC;».

(ASavoo(ou A. Kop~aA~: <<ANATOAIKH 8PAKH», OEA. 41-45, EKO. «nEAaayos» A8~va 1994).

o Kop~aA~S dvOI a~lol) ouyxoP'lT'lpiwv, 016TI TuyxavEI vo ((val tvoe; orro TOUS MyouS TTOU iypmpE Yla T'lV .Eprj 8pciKQ KOI TOUS o<pavE(e; ~PWES T'lS· 01 ~PWES T'lS 0POK'lS £!JEIVav mpav£(s ETTEIO~ ETOI SEAr')Oav 01 KPOTOUVTES Ko8E £Trox~s. En (oflS, 0 Alvo') noi\IS TOOV HPOON €IVOI OXEOOV OyvWO"TOS UTO TrAaTU KOIVO. LUIJPOIVEI OUTO, bl6TI urraPXEI oxompcrqru.

BEpafoos, Kal 'l AUTIKq 9pciKQ avEbEI~E 'HpWES KOI EVOP€TOUS avsPWTrOUS, aMo OE Ko8E b£KaET(o '1 nOAm::(a TOUS ayvo£( ... !:::...EV €Trl8uJ-Iouv 01 KpOTOlJVTES vo ovobEIX8€i ivo I.ompM, J-IIO ::av9q, IJIO KOPOT'1Vrj KOI 10(We; '1 AA£~av- 6pothroA'l. PJ.:Ao xrn av aKoJ.1'l T'lV wpa 1TOU ypOCPOVTOI OUTEe; 01 ypoJ.1J.1ie; (1983, XOSE1 'l !:::..UTIK~ 8paK'l KOI Trim:! os TOUPKIKO xipla, OUTOI -rrou UTTOTrSETOI OTI KUI3EPVOUV T'lV EMaoo, OEV So OKOTIO"TOUV. !:::..EVeO IOpOO0EI TO OUTI TOUS. no OUTOUe; TIEPO !3pEXEI. 'Erot TOUe; OIETOt;av EKEIVOI 0Tr6 TIC) HnA: va plfJoE;ouv T'lV ooooa KOI va a61ocpopouv YIO TIlV 0pOK'l MAL.

125

H 5pau1] TWV EUqvwv «a) 1] avrfopao1] TWV To6pKWV

01 II<.OVIOTis Tile; f..UOfXOS OIOTO~OUV TOUe; OtKOUS ,.OUS TrOU EIXav 8EaEte; MEIOIO OT'lV TOUpK(O jJE TOUPKIKO ovoucTO KOI b~StV OSWIJaYOI o-ro ep~aKwJ.1o-aM£lTOM'lAE<; oIJaoIKi<;' crcpayE<; xoopf<; (XVOS w8uEJo<;. A-rrOT£AEajJO: '£\OU\..I£ TOV onayxovloJJ6 1 5 npouxov~OOV OT'lV,-rrOAr) r«pavra EKKAI1mb;. IT'lV n6AIl 1:KO"ITOC; 01 npoKplTOI I. Tuop"ITaT~q4) KOI r. na"ITav6pfaC; onoKEcpOAi'l;ovTOJ.

01 1TupnoA~OEle;, 01 olooE;tle;, 01 A£r)AaoIE<;" 01 OTrayWYE5 KOI ~IOO~OI, 0 E~ovayK00J.10S OE EK,-rrOTPIOjJO, OE KOOjJO~OAEIe; KOI Xoopla 6TrwS Emp6n:s, Maup£'), KapaTuaAI, MaAyapa, l\ylO4) Mllv6C;, ::ciOTEPO, AAiJavA~ avo<p£pOVTOI ~v auvoAOO 800 ~£pIl,OOjJEV£S OIKOY£V£lt<;. H £~£y£pall ern OpoK'l KOl T'lV AvaToAIK~ MOKEOOVIO DEV KOTO<pEP£ vo ouoioOTIKOTrOIf)9~, Kl OUT6, £1TEIO~ OEV Epo~SfloOV 01 N6TlOI 'EAA'lVEe;, oUTE 01 Y4'flAoVTIDEe;, OUTE 01 MOUPOKOp6oTOI KOI 01 KoMT'lDES. 'OAO OUTO dxav 00<; cpuOIK6 E1TOK6i\ou90 vo owed IJEYOi\UTEpfl TIPOOOX~ aTOV ayOOva VOT1OOTEPO, tVOO

rqv 8p6KIl Tllv £YKOT£AElI·Vav ,.tAdooS·

E6v ojJoos bEV ~,.av 01 ~pOOE<; ep6KEe; !-IE -ro TrAOrO TOUe; Kal jJE T'lV OUT09uOIO TOUS, T6TE 6i\01 01 KOTOIKOI TOOV lIJopOOV KOI TIlS Xfou 80 dXaY TTE9wEI. /VJ..o OUTE xrn 0,00. AVbpouTaos 80 c.fXE TOOES VfKES tOV DEV TOV oKoi\ou90uaov

01 epOKES TTOAE\..IIO"TES·

01 LIWVIOTES TIlS Enox~s EKElVr)S rrou wpfaKovTO yupoo crro KOSE IOUATOVO/ ~~EPaY 1TOOS 01 8pOKE') ~aav Wq>UEOTEPOI KOI yevvolon:POI OTIO TOUS aMoue; 'EM'1VEe;, YI: a~T6 KOI TTEfSouv iflv Y4JqAq nox ... va KOvEl OIKOVOI-'IKO lTOAtllo IJ6vov «ere TOU Ei\i\IlV1KOU aiolXdou.

'Erot TO 1835 01 'EAA'lV£') Tile; 8pOKflS UTTOXPEOUVTOI VO ... t;avayopaaOUV,.o KT~I-I0T6 TOUe; KOI TIS OIKIES TOOV. To

126

ANEITHl: r. KEPAMYMr

1836 ETfI~aAAETOI EIOIKOS cpopOS Yla Ta Olll-lOma tpya. To 1844 ElTI~a;v..ETal q.mOpIKO XapTocrlll-l0 (KOI cxvTIAafJPOvETal Kcxvde; E(II<OAa OTr £IvOi OOKTuAOS nov E~pa(wv, DrOTI ETTPOKEfTO Yla 20% srn' TI'jr.; a~(Q(; TOU eprropsopcroc). n€pav oAwv aUToov, errcvopeocror 11 KUKAocpop(o Wf']VIKOOV srp 11 fJEplowv.

EUTUXOOS lTOU UTf~PXOV TOTE OAIlSIVO( cpIAO.A'lVEe;, 01 orrofor tCPEPOV TIlV po~ nov rrpOYfJOTWV orrwe; ETTfSUfJOUoov. 'hOi TOV MO"io TaU 1832 UTfEypacpl'j TO «OPClJTOKO;t\O» TaU I\OVO(VOU. 01 Ton: loxup6; WPWTTO'iKtr.; XOOPES TTpOOtcpEpav rqv KAIlPovofJIK~ paaJAElO Tile; WaooS OTOV '0900- va, UIO TaU pOOlAEWe; Aou6ojHKOV Tf')<; Bouapioe;. AI.I£ow<; !lETa TO VEOOucrrOTO EAA'lvIKO Kperro<; KOTop8wm: va rrpoOOTI IOE I TO OUI.I<pEPOVTO TWV EM~vwv OTqv ulT050uA'l 0POKIl KOI MOKEbovfa IJE T'lV fopuOll npo~Evdwv KOI YTTOlTpo~EVEiwv (nupyoe;, AYXloAoS, POI DE OTOe;, [f'}AUPp(o, AvoplovOUlTOAf'} K.a.).

LTO plpMo TaU ASavaOlou KOPlJaA~ OVOcpEpETOf we; TfPWTOC; TTpO~f.VO<; Tile; AVbplovOUlTOAEWe; 0 I. BOPOTOll,}, EVW OTOV Afvo 0 aywVIOT~<; TOU '21 r. KOTOlTouAIlS (AS. KOPIJOA~S: «AVaTOAIK~ 0poKrpl, OEA. 48).

ETf! TTAiOV, OTO PIPMo TIlS E. Oouo9avamou-MouO'lo- 1TOuAou «EMHNIKA npO:=:ENEIA THl: 0PAKHL» TTAqpocpopOlJI-'OOTf. vio Tf']V opauf'} TWV EM'lVIKWV npO~EVE(WV OTI'jV AVOTOAIK~ 0paKf'], ".na 0paKf"] rno ouvoJ-lrK~, f'] orroio ouvicroroa:

- L TIlv OUYK£VTPWOf'] lTAf']pOCPOPIOOV.

- BO~SEIO OTf']V lTOIOEIO KOI UTf']V OIOT~Pf']OIl Tile; EMf']vIK~C;

fAwoof']S·

LUVTOVlOjJO TWV EVEPYEIWV 5IaTIlP~oEwC; TOU E.MIlvIopou orqv UTfOOOUA'l 0paK1l

127

_ LUVEVVOIlOIl jJE <DrAIlTTTOUTfOAIl, nupyo KOI KWVOTOVTI-

VOU'fToi\f'] .

_ <DuyaDwCJIl KOTOl;'lTOU!l£VWv yro f.TrOVOOTaTIK~ opaoll·

- ATTOTpOTf~ E~laAafJIUIJOu.

- AlTEAw8tpw0'l OIJ~P<OV'

BO~SEIO rrrqv orKOVOJ-lIK~ l;w~ -rrov EAA~VWV (surropcov).

To Tfpoc,Evda TIlS 0paKIl<; crUfJ'fTapEOTaSiloov OTOV oMTpWTO EAA'1V10PO, ounor.; WOTE va IJTfOptUEI va TTo"AEjJ~OEI orqv TOUPKIK~ KOTOX~ KOI TOV navoAaplolJo UTa ouuKoAa XPOVIO TfOU So aKoAou8~OOuv.

E8v1Ktl Opaull KOI Tfpoo<popa ojJw<; OEV t6EI~av OAOI 01 TIpO~EVOI. YTT~pXE UlljJOVTIKoS op19jJoe; npo~£voov, 01 oTIor: 01 E'fT£IJEVOV va ooxoi\oUVTOI OlTOKAElcrTlKa jJE TO TUTfiKO Dmi\ro!laTIKa TOUt; Ko8~KOVTa (~ OUTE QUT<L.) EVW OEV ~aav Afyol OUTOI TIOU DEV EA6IJpavav TIPWTO~OUA(O a~ KaTfOIO 8EJ-IO, av rrporro DEV E1XOV T'lV KaAUl!J'l TIlS ElTIOIlI:I°U EAi\IlV1K~S KU~£pV~OEWS· H n:AEUTofo «OUK oAfyEe;» <popts sxoxpsvcs m: OITtlfJOTO TOU EM'lvlol·.lOU TIlS 0POKflS,

o OMTPWTOC; EMqvlulJoe; Tile; AVOT. 0paKIlS OUVEIOllTOTTOIWVTO<; OTI 1J0VIIJ'l KOAUljJll crro TIlV EMIlVIK~ Ku~£pvllall bEV UlTOPX£1 KOI TfpO~MTIOVTOr.; ro OXE010 TWV ToupKWV ylo «KTU'fT'lI-'O}) TTlr.; EAAqVIK~S nOIDEfas TIpaylJOTOTIOIEl 'fTpOOna8EIO Yla TIlV Ollo,UPUV0tl TIlS O'T'lV urr600UAIl OP<DIKH ru. 'Erot,

_ TO 1857 0 laTpos IopoVTIlS ApX1YEVl1S ovayEfpEI o-rouc ElnpOT£S, fJE DIKES TaU oanOvEe;, EKllOl~EUT~pla (To APXIY£VEIO) KOI TO «EAiVEIQ».

_ TO 1855 0lljJIOUPY£(Tal TO «Z01f1f£IO EKffm6wTrlPIO»,

TO 1888 0'lI:lIOUpY£ITOI Lxoi\do KOI rUlJvoOio OTI)V AvopIOVOUTfOAIl·

128

ANEHHr 1:. KEPAMYMr

- TO 1876 6r1l-JloupYOUVTQJ ro «ZapI<p£1O A,6omwA£io» I-'E OaTTow:() TOU r. Zapf<PIl OT'lv COJf..ITTTTOUm;J\1'j, rc 0- rrofo aTTo6fOouv OTa oxoJ\£fa Tfj<) U1TOOOUA1'j<) 0pOKfj<) EiaoKOAouS KOI oaOKoM:r;* .

OlTOIO, OEV rioov povov OJ T OUpKOJ EXSpO( TWV EM~vcov, 'Hoov KQJ 01 BouAyapol. MOAIOTa, 01 BouAyapOi ~E1TEpaoav KOSE opro pappapoTIlTO<). "Hrov TO 1840 crcv 01 BouAyapol apx(£:ouv T'lV ouoT'lJ.laTIK~ TTavaAa~IK~ TTpOlTayavoa. BEpa(w<), I-'EXPI TOTE 01 BouAyapOi ro rrrivorvov koAO ).IE TOU() 'EMIlVES· f(xav ~ExaoEI TOV paaiAElo TaU 8' (= BouAyapDl<TOvo). lVJ..o 0 Ton l:rwvlOlJOS ~Ear'j KOOOE TaUS OUl-'lTAEYjJaTIKOUS BOUAyOPOUS. MOAIOTa, 0 £~a{pETOS IOTOPIKO<; KWVOTOVTIVOS nonapP'1yonouAoS aTTOOEJKVUEJ 1-'£ aOlaOEIOTa OTOIXE{a OTI jJtXPI TO 1840 Evas KOTOIKOS Tf]S xwpac; aUT~<;: alTEcpwyE va aUToarroKaAEITal BouAyapoS, ocpou OEV EIXf. ~ouAyaplK6 OXOAElO, EVeO 01 TTAOUaJOI Boui\yapol jJlAouoav EMfjVIKO KaJ rrapaKoAouOouoav EMf]VIKES IxoAtS Kal naVETrlOT~jJla. (BA. «krropro EMllvlKOU 'ESvou,»), £KOOTIK~S AOllvwv).

'EKTOTE Of ~i\€4)EI') Tfj') BouAyapras JJE T'lt:; «WAoyfES» Tile; TTPOOTOTlbOS TIlS Pwoias, ETTEKTElVOVTOI jJEXP' TO Aryoro. 01 ETfJOpOjJEC; TOU<; OEV oropcrouv Kal OKOTOOVOUV, Kalv£ PI_ I-'a£:ouv. AAAo 0 'Iwvm; Llpayou'lS acpurrvr£:£1 TOV EM'lvJKO Aao, £voo 0 nauAoS MEi\O<; of VEl IJ£ TIlV OuoCa TOU TO Evau?jJa Til') OPO?EWS. YrrwT~pI~av OTI 'l 0POKf] TaUS av~K£I. °fJOOS, a TOUPKOS ~oui\EUT~S Niip Bt'1S TOU') bE{XV£1 T'1V YUfJvla TaUS J.ltow TOU PIPArOU TOU:

«KOI O}JW<; 01 Boui\yapOi ouotv OIKa(w!-'a CPUA£TIKOV ~ IOTOPIKOV tXOUOIV ETTI T'lS Av. 0pOKfJ,). H )JovaOIK~ 6Uva)JI'),

IIJpdwurJ TOU ovyypacpfwc;

• rqov~e; C.{VOI OT/ ra ;t.APXryiVDOJ> KOI TO "E}.iVf.lov» otou«; Em{Nxnt:; rrpooc.C{Jcpav rrc.plooOn:po orov f}o}.f)vlup6 Trye; GpOl<ryc: aUo /(al TaU n6VTOU KaJ Tryt:; Iwvrac:.

129

'l orrofo avtKaS£v 'll-'TTOOI£:E TOU') BouAyapous vo OIOTUTTW~ aouv a~IWOEIC; ETT! T'1S xoopas TOlh'1<;, -lTO 11 E\AIlVIK~ <buA~ '1 orrofn KaTwK£1 o1T6 XfAu16wv nwv T'1V ntpuptp£lav Tmh'1v ••. ». (NETp BE'1S: «AVaTOAIK~ GpoKrp>, OEA. 25, A'To~OS, 1925).

E6v OJ aUYXPOVOI TOUPKOI TTOi\ITJKOI I::lxav orr' OljJlV TOUS TO ~1~i\f0 TOU TOTE ~OUAEUTOU TOU TOUPKIKOU KOIvo~oui\(ou, OEV Sa TOA~OUOav ETT' OUOEV( va IOXUplaSouv OTI a 'OfJfJPOS ~Tav ToupKOS Kal OV0l-la~oTav OIJEP, ~ 01 TOUpKOl KOT01- KOUOav OT'lv 0pOK'1 KaJ T'1V kovio OTTO aPXOIOTOTWV XPOvoov.

TO flOI 1878 Kal oUyKEKpl~Eva aTlS 3 MapTlou UTTOypocpETal '1 «.!UV9~Kf) TOU Ay . .In:<pavou», ~Ia OUVS~KfJ '1 orrofo xapaKTqp~oT'lKE oov 'l ~EyaMTEp'1 OI1Ti\OOIJOTIK~ vfK'1 TOU navoi\a~lofJou.

H o'1!-,loupyfo MEy6:i\f'1S BOUAyOpfaoS lTOU TTr:PIEi\CqJ~avE EKTaOrj 164.000 Kml, TTOU 0'1~alvEI OT! 6l\r'l rj 0'lI.lEPIV~ BopEla BouAyapfa, '1 AvaToi\IK~ Poo 1-1 ui\ (a, '1 l'lUTIK~ 0pOK'l, Eva TI-I~J.la T'1S AvaToAIK~S 0POK'1S KOI Trj') MaKEOOVras TTEpees Of. pouAyaplKo XEpla, r:vo) or: OAOKAIlPIl ourriv Tllv EKTaOIl TO 13% ricov ~OVO BouAyapol.

IUVETTOOS, TIlVIUXU ourriv 01 BouAyapol Tr!V aTTEKT'laav aTTO TOUS l:u.oVUJTaS. !VJ..o orcrv TO 1976 EypoljJa Yla TOUS IloovloTa<; KOI T'lS «OMMA E» OTllv £CPIlI-IEpfoa TIlS AVOTOl\IK~S AKT~S 0£oaai\ovIKIlS, ouo£(S €YVWPI~E TI EUTI IIONIIMOI. npocpavws or O~8EV EV'lIJEP(()fJEVOI Kal lJopcpWfJEVOI DEV olo~aaav TO KaTOlTTUOTO ~1~Mo «TA npOTOKOAM TON raCOON THI IION», YI' aUTO KOI EXOUV aypla I.IEoavuXTa ¥Ia oAa ooo ouv£~'1aav KO! ouppalvouv.

En! TTAEOV, orov E~£008'l Yla TTPWTIl qiopc TO «En!

BATON» TO 1977, or KpaTouvT£S fJE aTTElA'loav fJE 90VOTO,

130

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o LOUATOVOC;, 0 PEarT naOoe; KOt 0 ApXlyivllS ou~cpwvflaov va acppaylOTEI TO j..IqoAUTEpo j..IUCfTIKO TOU laAa}J. ~ll-

, IKa mJIIAoAalli

Aab~, 0 Ta<poc; TOU MwafJt9 tlXt: XplOTIOV rt'···

'000 aTfIOTWTO KI av CPOfVETOl va yp6cpou~£ ~EV (TEl 1977 QTI 0 TOepOe; TOU Mwaj..lE9 B' TOU nop8_I'Ffl EIXE XP!OTIOVIKO oUj...IpoAa, bEV nouEI vo sfvci j.JIO aj3oOToKTfl aAfJ-

BEIO!

MAa bUCfTUXWC; yla TOV ApXIY€v'l, K~I 0 IOUA~Ovoe; ~~Epe Konolo ooj3opo ~UaTIKO Ylo TfJV l;Wfl TOU. ~IOTI, 6T~ 0 bloIKrF~e; TflS eppoupoc; tepEPE TO ~OPOVIOV V? OpKI01'EI 0 (810S 0 LOUATOvO<; l-lal,f ~E TOV PWIT noaa" £<pEp£ ~Ol TO Euayy€AIO, onOTE a£ ~la OT1Yj...I~ A£EI 0 Aj3bOUA METl;1 OTOV

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TO «l EPA EI\AAL».

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158

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Trx-Tl;o~r. .. Ton: 0 LOUAT(XvO<; AJ300uA XO~fT B', {OWOE 010- TOYI' vo ovoIX80uv 01 Tacpol TWV Bul;ovTlvwv BOOlAEWV 6rrws £IT(oflS KO.I TOU nOpS'lT~ Y'O vo K080p'OTE( cerro TUX6v A~~OTO.

0, TOUpKOJ UTTEU8uvOI nov EPYOOlWV ECOav OTOV TTu8!JEvo TOU nlcpou ~IO ~EToMIK~ KOToTTaKT~ OTTO Hlv OTTOrO ~EKIVOUOE ~Ia MSrv'l oK6i\O, TTOU E(XE <popa TTpOS T'lV TTOAOia BUZ:OVTIV~ EKKA'1oio nov Ay(oov ATTOOTOAWV, KClTW orro TO <DaT1X Tl;a~r.

.6.rETTIOTooOOV OTI '1 OoopoS TOU MWOf-JES ~Tav aprOTo orOT'1P'lf1EVIl KOI xapr'jKov. Ai\i\6: i\UTT~S'1KOV yro TO XPIITIANlKA LYMBOM nOY EYPILKONTO AnEIKONIIMENA EnANO LTON TA<DO. AjJEoooS EV'ljJEPWOOV TOV LOUi\TavO AJ3ooui\ Xaf-J~T B'. 'OTOV 0 LOUi\TOVOS {!Ja8E v,a TO YEYOVOC; aUTO, 6:VOI~E ro rrai\OI6: KElf1Eva HIS 0800~OVIK~S AUToKpaTop(Oe; Kal ol6:J3aoE QTr '1 WITtpa TaU nOp8'1T~ ~TOV Xp'OTIOV~'

o LouihavoS toWOt: OJOTay~ va OcppaylOTEf 0 TO<pOe; TOU MWOjJE8 Kar va TTopajJE(VEJ EPfJ'1TIKO KAErOTOe; OlTO~ 016: nOVTOe;!». (<<IEPA EAMI», TtUXOS 17ov, louAIOS-AuyOUO'TOS 2001, od. 54-55).

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Arro TO 11 78, 6'lAOO~ OTTO TO 8avOTO TIlS OofoS napaOKEU~S, OEV ytWl)OE 'l j3apElos aKT~ Tile; npOTTOVTlOOS oi\AOV WEPYETil'

OOTOOO, 0 APX,YEV'lC; OUXVO EAEYE aTOV ETTEOTpE<pE V,a Alyo OTOUS ETTlj3clTes, TrWC; «.6.EV TTpEnEI va EljJOOTE IJEfJl(J(j..I0lpOJ y'o TO 01TElpa oElva Tr'jS My'lS aUT~S Z:w~S jJac;».

trn BATON (,EOOETa! ApXlytvl)S)

159

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M(i\f}OE OTOUS oUj..ITToMTES TOU. 'H~EPE Ptj3Olo TTWS evo- 8EIJOTI'l;ETal OTTO jJEplKOUS TTPOUXOOVT£S IJE oUjJTrAtypaTo, TOUS ElTTEi\OITTOV:

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KOpUOUC;, J,lf: rrcvro T£AOS, 00'0 fJuopouaav va IKaV01TOIr'jUODV TIS avayKEe; TOU KOUfJOU. AUl TOUTO TTpEUEI va 9upO}JaO'T£ TO PIlTO TWV APXaiwv Hpwv npoyovwv: «MiTpOV aplO'TOV». 0 aV9poonoe; O<pEiAEI va l;EI YIO tva KaAuTEpO tnipro. No <pPOVTI'Z;EI TqV nOAIT£ia lTOU OVI}KEI Kal TOV f:aUTO TOU, tAEfE 0 ado') nAclTwv.

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160

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Apioooc; 6AOI ~E01TOOOV OE XElpOKpOT~IJOTa, CPOOVO~OVTO<;: «EUAOY'lI-'EVOS 0 AOUYKPITOS)}!

EKTI,IE TO b.rooOKO/lEIo GflA£WV, iva 80ul-l0mo AI86KTIOT~ KTIPIO, KOI pia EKKAflOfo. 'EcpEpE TOUe; KOAUTEpOUC; 00- OKOAOUe; ;'1<; KWVOTOVTIVOUTTOAEWC;. 'EYlvov ETTIOTpc.60EI<; OTOUe; opof-lou<; KOI KOTOOKWOOTT)KE via TTpO~A~I-I0TO OTO AlfJOvI.

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IfJpdwUT7 TaU ouyypa<pfwr;

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161

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vOIas!!!

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Apxrn:KTWV TilS KOIVWVIK~C; aUT~C; TTpOVOIOe;, ~Tav q MEy6:i\1l EMvil ApXlytvouC;. 01 ETIlpaTES €YIVOV TO AI 1-1 O:vl Tile;

~oo~e;!

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TO KOOPr1POTO: pouh>.

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162

ANEUHI. I. .. KEPAMYM.I

KO npoypal-ll-l0TO. 01 KOIVWVIKO( t.£ITOUPYO( TOU «Et.£v£fou» So rppovrfoouv vc OIOX£T£UOOUV 1'0 TTPopt.fllJonoflEvo aTOf..IO OT'lV KOIVO)VIO. 01 OIWBuVTE<; E(VOI PE~OIO OUOTf'Jpof, oMo fj Et.tv'1 '1 8£IOTOT'1 bEV BaEI vo E(VOI TO ApXIYEVEIO 16puJ.lOTO YKETO KOI U1TVWT~pIO. 00£1 va dval f..IlO orrepcVT'1 EOTla nVEUjJOTIKOlJ <DOHoS YIO TI<; OOpES T'1S aTT£t.TTIof as.

nOMES <.pOpES EVa TTOlb( <.p£UyEI OTIO TOUc.; OIKOUS TOU, OTTO TO OTTfTI TOU Yla a'1f..lOVTIKOUS ~ oa~f..I(XVTOUS Myous, TTOU WOTOOO uTTClpxouv TTclvTO 01 ETIIT~6101 TTOU KOpOOOKOlJV OUVEXEIO vo EKf1£TOMwTOUV T'1V OTfoyvwafj TOUS. !VJ..a KOpOOOKE( Kal q EMv'l rrou YIVETOI OVayKoOTIK6 TIjJwpoc.; OE KaBE TTop6~oa'l T'lS '1BIK~c.; T6~EWc.;.

'HTOV TO 1 8S8 TTOU lopu8qKOV TO ApXIYEVEIO KOI TO 1863 IOpUS'l TO EAtVEIOV. ATfO TO ~I~i\fo TqS ZOO'll) l:aKlOou «LAPANTHr APXlrENHI» (E~E86St1 TO 1938) nt.t1pocpopouf..IOOTE ylO TO EMVEJO EKn0l6wT~pIO OTI onOTEt.OUVTO orro 6uo f..IEyot.onpETTEOTOTO KTfpIO. To OIKOTP0ql£IOV KOI TO rUJ.lvaOlov. ATTO TO «APXIYEVEIO» onEIXOV TO «Et.EVEIO» EVa Xlt.lOI..IETPO Kat ~OOV KTI0I..IEVO OTOV Spouo Av6pIOVOUlTOt.£Wc.;-KWVOTOVTlvounot.£ws·

Errf nAtov, TT£PIPaMoVTO orrd E~O(pETOUc.; OEvapo<.puTEUI..IEVOUe; K~lTOVe; TOUS OlTOIOUS xoopouoov 01 TTpOTOI..IEe; TWV Bdwv WEPYETeOV.

To EOWTEPIKO TWV KTlpfoov EKool . .JOUVTO crro OTTouoa(E<; 2:WypO<.pIES (TOIXOypocpfES f..IE t.aol), EVeO UTT~PXE Trt.OUOIO ~1~t.I08~KqOTTWc.; En lOllS KOI EpyOOT~plo Et;OlTt.IOf..lEVO OTO srrcxpov YIO T'lV 1..I£.t.ETq (J)UfJIKql), Av9pw1TOAoyiol), Xl)J.lda'l, r£wJ.I£Tpfa'l KOI In:p£0J.lETpiaS. HAoS, avaf..l£.oa UTa Ibpul-laTa WPIOKETO '1 TPlwp0<pllnaTpIK~ olKla TOU LapaVTq ApxrYEvll, OTIlv orrofov OIEf..IEVOV 01 KoB'1Y'lTES.

sru BATON (,Eoonol ApXlytvl)sl

163

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ApaaKE10 TIle; EAA060s!

OpulJa 'EtplAov (= f),,, ;. . ;

pia 1TavoPxula pVOTIKIJ opyavwoq TWV ill'lvb)v

To 1976 o'll-'Ioupy~aal-'E pro TonlK~ Ecp'lI-'Epr6a TO «MaK£l)OVIKO B'lJ.la» 1..I0~f I..IE TOV IwO:w'l KoplTOlOil KOI TOV Mj-

IUp1fA.qpWprroKrjUq,.,E.fwuq:

ria rlJv «Opol'ia £II 'TTOU ~rov IJ «mrra» vo E~acpOVlaeOUV 060 £1<060EIC;, (1977 XCII 1986) WeT£ IJ rrpwTf] KOI6£uTEpf] iKOoO''I TOU fN3Mou «Em BarwVII. Evoc:xoplvwc; vo P'l yrv£rol TfEIOTIKOc; 0' ouyypacptoc; rou 11'0- p6VTOC; ~1{j},(OU. tli6n eo rrpWfJ va orrO'6Er~[1 ov avocplpc;OI 0 xai\A.lTixvlJc; TOU 60u OIWVOC; £~f]K{ac; OTTO ~ivo(}c; ouyypaCP£lc;-£pwvlJ-

TtC;.

'ExoujJE: ,),O'mov:

a) ). D. Beazley: «OMMA E», BSA XXXii, or.,),. 3.

{J) }. D. Beazley: «EHKI~!, Dev. Kf.rp. 6, W. Technau, 1936.

y) ). Boardman: (~eHNAIKA MfMNOMOP<1>AAfrElAl), oEA. 67-720, E},}.IJVIKrJ '£K6O'O'l «KAPllAMlITA», ABqval 1980.

0) B. Neutsch, ClMUNCHENER JAHRBUCH), ~ 43. M. B. Moove- AJA

ixxii,357-

c:) H. Reichold: (cOMMA EPSILON XX. London, 1904».

164

ANEITHI. .L KEPAMYM!

JOHN BOARDMA

A8HNAlf(A MEAANOMOPctJA ArrEIA

EKAO~Er.r KAPAAMmA

To e(wrpvllo U1TO TO fN1Mo TOV John Boardan 11UV uvurpipu }'lu 1lJv ((Opa6a Ell

rru BATON ('Eaunol ApxlyivlJS)

'165

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I.~J.lEpO, Ka8w') olovUOUIlE TO ETOe; 1977, 01 OTTElA£S ouVEX~OYTal, KOI j-laAIOTO, OE TfEPIlTTWOIl,AEVE 01 KpaTOUVTES, lTOU ypa4JW PIPi\(O V" aUT~V T1)V J.lUOTIK~ OPYOvWOfj, 8a Kp£j-lOOOUV TOUS YOVEle; !-l0U- tJ.£v TOUS epop~8flKO Kal £TIal~O T'lV C::w~ jJOU Kopwva YPO!-lOTO, aN\a £vw J..lOU EKaVaY Trci\E!-lo VEUpWV, E~Eowaa iva P'Pi\lO EKOTC oEi\i15wv j-l£ TITAO «En! BATON», TO OlTOIO TO E~ocpOvloav os TplO EIKOorrerpccopc.

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., . ,'1 .. . 11 .1:rI.L. . £0<), I(OI~

vo ... uPyro «KOI TI ·£!Vor J.lETa TO Ewia'», OK€m9nK.E To .1;'.

A . ,,1. c, IT·.I .. ,.. J.llluEv,

,TIOIV'I£IETOI! ~IOTI EK TOU MH~ENOr OYllEN nAPArHAI

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175

on '1 vso apx~ Elval:. 'OTOV<pSavOUPE UTO EWEo oc.p~vou- 1-1£ TO napE.Mov, uofpVOUI-IE Eva VEO ovop« OTIOOS YIVOTOV UTa EAwolvro MUOT~pro, oro 6.E.A<pIKO, ClTa Kaptfplo K.O.K. No YIOT! q nplyKlmooa Tf]S Hrrstpou 11 MUpT6Aq pETO TI'}V I-IUIl0l'} UTIlV IOfJ09poKq 01 IEperC; T'1S oMo~av TO OVopo Tqe; KOI OVOJ.laCITf]KE OAUJ.lmoc;. BE~afooSI KOI 0 cD(i\I7TTIOS tiMa~E TO OVOIlO TOU PETO Tr]V pUf]0IlJ ai\i\o Myw TaU OTI. ~Tav ~.0'1 ElTOOVUPOS, £vw q MUPTOr.q ·OEV~Tav, TIOPEI-IEliVE aTOV £~w KOOpO fJE TO lTOAmO TaU ovopo, TO <DlAnTno<):, YIO TOUe; IEpEfS 6pWC;~Tav lTOvTO 0 puqpE'voe; pE TO xorvoopvro TaU OVOIlO.

~E'Ka OKTOO OUAOKIES moue; OOOPIKOUS KIOVEe;. 01 ewEo oUI-IPoArZ;ouv TO napei\Sov xrn 01 UTTOr.OIITOJ EWEO (OUVOAoV OEKO OKTm) onucrvoov I-HO VEO apx~, of]AaiS~ TO I-IEMav. A<p~vw; TOV TIcxAmO rrou £aUTO p£ TO TPOOTO aqpEJo TaU KOI oKoi\ou9Efc; Tllv OTP01T6 Tile; npOY)JOT1K~S ai\~eElae; £ooe; OTOU <pSaOEI C; OTIlV Siooll! !!

OTAN 0 ApxrYEvf1SETIloKE<p8qKE nOAI TOUS IE~oOTou<;:, EVOS crrro aUTous TOU {OOOOE TOV i\WTO, orrl-lOOI TrWS aUToc; SO E(VOI orro TOOpO KO.I OTO E~~S 0 APXHrOI TWV «E»). 'N\AwmE) tvos npoyovoS TaU a !lHMHTPIOI K0'1KE ~oovTavos an6 Toopxooc KOIOUOTP'OKOUS aTO Iouvlo. EKEfvoS 0 acpov~C; ~pooo<;: ~TOV apXIlYos TOU TrIO TlpqJ.livou TI-I~)JaTos rcov PVII\ON, TaU TP~,POTOe; «TA TEKNA THE BUlAt». ~'1. i\a6~, £IvOI 0PK10I-I{VOe; rrtocov XPEIOOTEl ve 9umomEl y'o TqV TIIO IEP~ Iota TaU Koopou xrn 11 IOEa OUT~ OVOp6~ETOI EMHNIIMOI!I!

o Bavaro, rou ApXI)'ivq

L.E OAEe; TIS uOAW;. KOI TO xwpro TIlS GpOKI1S X,·t.IOOES 'EMilVEe; E1Xav WEpYETrr8Ef KpUCPCOOS orro TOV APX'yivq.

176

ANEITHI I. KEPAMYMI

noMoI Ko8IlY'ln:e;, YIOTPOI Kal aMol £TIIOT~fJOVEe; £OTaAI"]oov ana TOV ApXlytvll 0I0V nOVTO KOI OTI"]V MIKpa Aofo YIO va oc.6oouv OWPEOv TO nVEUfJOTIKO <Dwe;. ~UOTuxc.6e;, 01 EYKuKAonofOw:c; Myo npayjJoTo ovo<plpouv. AKojJll KOI '1 EYKUKA01TOIO£IO «HAlO!» avocplp£1 !J'10ojJlv6 npayfJOTo.

ETrloqe:;, 01 ETTI~an:e:; £Ylvav ° <!Japo') HI') 0pOKqC), aM6 xcn nOAI 01 EYKUKATTOfo€IE<) Sev fJo<; 8Ia<pooT~ouv we; TTpOe; TrjV rreprrrrcoon. 'ExoufJE fJOVOv Trlv ~0~8tIO Tile:; Zc.6fje; IaKKioou (<<IAPANTHI APXlfENHI»), TfjV KOTfvo BEIKou-ItpEfJ£Tfj «(EniBATEr, EIKONEI nov LlEN IBHNOYN» Kal «EnlBATEL 0 (])APOI THr GPAKHL}}j, ASl"]voytvl"] NIKOAOou (<<LAPANTHI APXlfENHI» 8pOKIK~ ETT£TI"]PI<;, n:uxoe:; 12 1987), IopovT~ ITaKouAI"] Ei\mvIKqe; (<<nAPMOIE1I 8PAKHL» 0paKIKo, TOjJOC:; 70<; 1936), rlawlou-A8I"]voe:; ra"lToYOU «(APXlrENEIA .D.JMLKAI\EIA GPAKHL» 1857), rEWpYIOC:; Kaplonq<; (<<MNHMEI EnlBATON», 2000) KOI oi\i\wv nov OEV £Xw OTI"]V OI08EO~ uou.

EKTOe; rrrro TIe; ayo8oEpyr€<;, 0 ApXlyEVI"]e; tVOIOcptPOTOV KOI Yla Tr1V tfJTTOplK~ avcmTU~1") TOOV ETTI~OTtOV. 'Evloo8t !JIO KOTTOIO 'l8IK~ ncovorrorncq YIO TO YEyovoe; OTI KCmOT£ tfJnOOlot TOV IOUATOvo Apooui\ MtT~(T va OVOI~£I noi\qlO fJE T'lV EMo6o KOI va pf~£1 6UOfJ£VEIO TOUC:; 'EMl"]vEe; TI"]e; 8pOK'1e; KOI Tile; [oovlaS· Enlo'lS TOV IKovonOIOUOt TO yqov6e:; rro»; XOpl OTO 16pufJOTO, OlTou60oav £KOTOVT06t<; EMqVOTTOUAO, OTTO TO 01TOIO OpK£TO tYIVOV 6aoKoi\ol j.lt OTTOTEAtOfJO va OIOO~OUV TO Ei\i\'lVIKO ypOjJfJOTO at XIAIODES vsopouc 0fJoE8tVE{e; TWV crrqv MIKpO AOIO, TI"]e; GpOKIlS KOI TOU Eu~tlvou nOVTOU.

Tc.6po 6fJwe; ~SEi\E va KOTooKwao£1 tvo» TEXVllT6 i\lfJEvo OTO npoTUTTo TWV IOXUpc.6V wpoona"iKwv KpOTOOV. "Evov AljJ€VO TIOU SO ~Tav 0 m6 E].l1TOpIK6<; at oMKAIlPIl Tllv 80- i\aooo Tile; flporrovrfboc (= MOPJ..lapa). LlUOTUXOOC:;, 6m.o<;

177

lyp04-'E Konon: OTIC:; apxlc:; TIl<; OtKOET(O<; TOU 1930· '1 EmPOTIV~ ouyypocpto<; ZWIlLOKKioou rrro E~ofpETO lpyo Tile:; «LAPANTHl APXlrENHL», «H <!JUGI') ElVa! <btlfiwAr'j EIC) avo6tl~1V TOIOUTWV avl)pwv».

APXi<; [OUAlOU TOU 1873, 01 cpfi\OI TOU TOV rrpo-rarvov va OTTOlTAEUOOUV o-rov BOOTTOPO lJt Eva nAOIoplo TWV ovnKT6pwv. 0 ApXIYEV~S nooo<; D€X8IlKt. 'Hocv OAOI TOUe; XOpOUj.lEVOJ nou 80 Ef3AEnov TIC:; otJopcpllC:; TOU Boorrooou. 'HTOV IJIO 'lAIOI\OUOTq qJ..l£po, EVc.6 q WpOOTTO'jK~ OKT~ TOU BOOTTOPOU, ~TOV KOTOTTPOOlV'l tJE 616cpopo EIfi'l OlVTpWV. To i\ouAouolO IJOOKOtJUp~ov. [OIOITEpO q ~optlO OKT~ TOU BOQ1T6pou, ntpo OTTO TO pU~OVTIVO T£lXI"], TO 6lvTPO ~oav CPOUVTWIJ£VO orro TOV ~AIO orqv J..lupwJ..llVI"] OKlO OTI<; TIUKVf\: npOOlVOOEe;, TIOUAJO lvwvov TIC) yAUKtc:; cpwvi<; TOUS OOV fJaylK~ auvoul\(o TWV Hi\qorwv nto(oov. OITIETOl\ouOEC:; oMIlAOKUVllyoVTOV OTOV oipo, o}J..o~ov, Ate; TOUS XpootJoTI0J..l0UC; KOI crcv Koupa~oVTav orro TO O&IOKono n£TaytJa TOUe;, XOtJ~AOOVOV KOI XO'iOEUOVE rrr av81l.

o ApXlyiVI"]<; TO K01TOUOE OAO aUTO OOV tJayEtJlvoc;. H OOiOTIK~ OKT~ TOU Bocrrropou ~TOV TO OVTrS£TO Tile; WpWno'iK~C;. 'Hrov OX£60v yUJ..lV~, xoopfc:; &tvTpa KOI ovsI"].

=:0<pVIKO, EVTEI\c.6<; oouvoro8qTO 0 ApXly£vq<; onOKOIJ..l~- 81lKE. EfOE T6TE OE OVElpO TOV EpavlaT~ KoMytpo. =:UTTVIloE Topayl-ltvoe;, tVOO 0 IOpc.6TOC; TOU tOTO~E OTIO TO I-lETwno TOU. 'Orov '1 OUVTpOcpJO avTEI\~<p81l OTI 0 ApXlytvfj<; tlXE KonOlO npopi\fjIlO, TT~Yav 0J..l£OWS KOVTa TOU. 0 avSpOOTIOe; nou tOWOE TIlV EMaoo, TOU<; 'EMqvtc:; KOI TOV Ei\Al"]v10fJO orrd TOV LoUi\TOvO Ap60UA MET~fT, OUTOe; rrou OVOIlOPcpwor. TIlV 8pOKI"], nou r.6r60~E TIlV OAI"]8IV~ <bIA.6T'lTO OTOUC; av8pc.i:lTTOUe;, nou £6000£ TO <!JWTO OTIlV M1Kpa Aofo, OTOV n6VTO, OTO Alyoro KOI aAAOXOU, OpKE08I"]KE !Jovo va ErnEI: «nEPIi\ynOr H ljJYXH MOY MEXPI0ANATOY».

178

ANEITHr 1. KEPAMYDAL

APXEC) cp81VOTTWPOU 0 LWT~paC) Tile; EMIlVIK~<) <DUA~<;, TTOU TOV ayvOOUV OKOTT(~W<; 01 OIWVIOTOKpaTou~EVOI, ElTEIb~ UlT~p~E TO CiTpWTO TTpOTIUpyro TOU EMr'jvIOfJoU Kar bEV EnETpEljJE OTOU<; LIWVlaTOe; Tile; E1TOX~<) TOU va PA(4)OUV TOUS 'EMIlvE<), appwOTa(vEr pap,a. Yn£cpEpE orro I-Ila aa8tVEla TIOU TOV paa6vI~E ElT( aErpa ETOOV.

HTAN 'l 1 011 IElTTE~Pp(OU TOU 1873. Kor, I-Itaa aE I-I,a Tp0l-laKTIK~ 8uEAAa, EVW 01 PpOVTE<) Kal OJ oOTpalTie; xaAouaav TOV Koal1o Kl '1 ppOX~ ETIEcpTE aav XEI110ppOe;, GTO ooooourro EKEfVIl<) Tile; IlfJtpOS ° EKcppoOTqf) TWV npou60- KIWV KaJ .!T'l;\OPaT'lf) TOU UA'lvlOpoti ~EljJuXrJaE.

To 1882 TT£8avE Kal '1 MEyaAI') EUEpyiTluua EAEN H. H TTEPIOX~ pu9foT'lKE OTO n{v90S· LlIOTI '1 EMvr'j rrpoceqxpe noMa, aKoJ-l'l KOI IJETa TOV 8avaTo TOU OVopOS Tile;·

n6:vTOTE KCmOJOS WOE~~S avapE TIS KavT~AEe; OlOU<) TOCPOU<) TWV EUEpyETWV. AKOWl KOI 01 Ta~lbI(JJTES orov TIEPvoocov crro EKEIVO TO j.l{pOS, OjJEawc; ~EaKoucpWVOVTav KOI j.lE TPEI-IOVTO XEi/\Il cplAouoav TOUe; poppoprvoi»; TacpOUS·

'OIJWC;I. ..

o Xpr'japo<) TWV ~EA<PO)V YIO TOV A1TOMwvo IO)(UEI KA. y'o OAOUe; TOU<; E~tXWVTEC; EJ\-AHNEI.

LUVElTWS:

'OTE 1TaAlv Apxrytvl')f) dEUu(lTOI KOI Ef) ad tOETal!!! 'EoO'uO! 'HfJop!

riVOITO!

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(Ev NEol EllIPOTOl, louvloe; 1978).

rvciJpe~ ,epiwv, oauKoAwv «as lTOA,TWV

TOUe; TO(XOU<; Til'> Kwv/lTOf..'le; TOU<; o~xo(oue; ~WV " KaOTpwV TWV PU~OVTIVWV OKOUI .. I1T~UV TO 01T. ITIO. £- TOUe; KI ElTOvW OlOUe; nupyoue; 0CPr"lVOUV KO~ <P,U-

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!lEV TOUe; vOI6l;EI rroioc EXEI XTfoEI TO spefrno oure Y'OT!

KOI '1 OOlocpopfo OUT~ £Ivai ~w~. AVTI OJ.lWC; va YKpq.J!l;ouv KOI vo ~avaxT~OUV TO!XOU<), I-IETaxE1P~OVTOI TOUe; lTOf..I-

oue;. KOI OUT6 dlVOI ~w~ ... *

«Mo £IVOI avOyK'l 6AO va DIOp8wVOVTOI OTOV, K00I-I0;» dXE lTEI KaTTOT£ £Voe; b£01TOTIl<)'

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11. 'I 0 .... \0· ~OUV f..lyOKI bEV dvOi 60UA£10 TOU<),

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va TO btOp8WOOUVE. AUTO! 01 'EMIlVES OC; <PT10~OUV a 0,

KOIVOUpYIO», Atv£ ffill-'EpO 01 TOUPKOI.

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* B}.. arrovra 'tusvoc; t1payoujJ'I'

180

ANEITHr z. KEPAMYML

E~w AEW TTW':; OEV EIVal 01 OWlTOT(loE<) 01 lJOVOI apXOVTEC) TaU E8vouC), EUTUXW<;, OUTE TO {8voS 8a xa8E( av A~lJ.'OUV.

«Fkoc TO AEe; aUTO; PWT~Oav£ 01 TTOTTOOE<;. H 8p'lOKE(a OEV (owm: TO Eevoe; lJEXPI TWpaj».

~ EKKi\'lOla (oros VOl, Y'OT( ~0118~8'1KE xcn OlTO TOUS TTIOTOUe;.

«Eforn a8wS Kal lTPOOOT'l<;I» 80 TTOUV 01 TTaTTooES.

«Krn OEIS TTOU Elan: TTlOTOI I(al OVTrTTPOOooTTOI TOU BEOU Y'OT! YOUOOTE TO C1TTiTI TOU APXIYEV1li» 8a TTOUV aUTOl TTOU fJ~ E~OUOI006~'lOOV va ypaljJoo OUTO TO ~1~Mo. r,aT( OTrlv VEa :raT~lOa 'lpe~ ~ovo Eva WayyiAlo, EVW ~Tav rcccepo, YIOT~ OTT~ TO OKW'l T'le; EKKi\'10IaS OEV ~peav ours rc ~Iaai vro-n EO£l<; T'lV 'W{pO TOU OIWYJ.l0U OEV OKOAou9~oaTE TOU<) OTTAOYKOU<) 1(01 1T~yaTE J.la~{ J.lE TOUS TTAOUOIOUS OT'lV Ae~vo:», 8? TTOUV aUTOI TTOU PpfOKOVTOI UTO AWSepE KOI Tl1V NEO_ nEpOfJO Tile:; Kop6Aas. EJ.l£(S c.pTaao",E 00<) EKE(Y'OTI TO- 00 rrrov ro Koupayla ",oe:;.

«Kar au, aloWlwTaTE TTOTTa pou ~ nOVOOloAoy](inOTE ~ OTI Kal va £foOl, oun: 'l EKKArJOla OUTE 'l 8p'lOKEla EXOUV TITTOTa "'£ TO {eVOC:; vc KavoUV», 90 'i\EYOV 01 lJ.!UX{C; ounov lTOU OlTE~rWOOV KaT a TO TTOpEABov.

«01 TTEPIOOOTEpOi TTOTTaOE<; OEV EKavov TITTOTa. H EKKA'lofo Eival oMo, OTTOU fJa~1 fJE TOV EBvla~o TOU», 80 TI€I 0 awoToS rrorrcc.

«To va efom c.pnuXoS OIKOV0J.lIKO E(val TToM TTlO £uKo.Ao a;ro TO VO, E(oal c.pTWX~<) UTO lTVEUJ.lO KOI va J.l'lv EXtlS £~opT'lOEIS», AEW: 01 TIlOTOI T'lS LfjJ.lEPIV~Cj KaM,KpaTElac;.

«0 O~KOS TfjS 'ITTcOXEIOS IJE KOvEI vo EKTIIJW ro rrpcvpoTO TTOAU TTEPIOOOn:pO», AlEI 'l Ko9'lYrlTPIO <pIAoaocplKrlS Mopfo BOOIAEIOU.

181

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«01 ETTIOKOTTOI TflS oloOlTopae:; KOAouv MOUS TOUS KA'lplKOUS TTOU UTTOPXOUV v' OoxoA'lBouv EVEpy6 ~E T'lV ~OlfJOVTIKrl»· !\EV€ TToMol GpOKIO>TE<) T'l<) A9~voC;. l!..'lAa6T] 00 vo MVE: EfJE(C; TTEpl\-lEVOUfJE WCJTTOU vo PpE9£{ a KOTaM'lAo<) av8pomoc:;, 00<) TOTE, 01J00,) KaAa TTEpVOfJE KI ETOI.

«0 8EOC:; OEV SEAEI va ~oC; oTToKaMlJ.'£1 Tllv OaK~fJlo T'lS lJ.!UX~C; TIopa povo OTOV OIOKp(VEI I-lEOO J-loS OPKET~ EATTIOO WOTE va I-lllv TOOKIOTOUfJE rrrro Til SEiO TWV OJ-lOpTIWV \-10<).». EfTTE 0 OE(fJvIlOTOS BEpy~C;.

0, ljJ£OToa8£01 MVE OTI '1 EKKA'lo(a ElVOI EVo fJE TO XOOC;.

AtEI '1 XpUOO nOTTOUTOOKIl, Ka9f]y~TpIO roi\i\IK~C) <l>IAOAOyfa<;. A{w «I.jJEUToo9EOI» ylC?'TI OEV ~JTTOpOUV VO~EXWp{OOUV OA€<) TIC) UlTOPXOUOES KOI "'EAAOVTIKE<) 6UVOTOT'lTEC; TOUS.

«Mo TOT€ TI E(OOI EOU;» 90 PWT~OOUV 0i\01 fJo~(.

{(l!..EV E(VOI OUTE alTICJTO<) OUTE KOI EUlTICJTOC;». Go lTOUVE opropevot KaAoBEA'lTEC;.

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«MT] l;IlTOe:; KOfJl0 ~UOT1Kij qJTTElp(O. 'On BEAEIS ~~T'10E TO OE uro TTpa~'l AOTpdoS, fJE OAIl TTlv TTpOOOX~ KOI T'lV TTIOTT) TTOU EXEIS ~t:oa 000». ElTTE 0 KaB'1Y'lT~C; cpli\oaocpIK~S r,Ow'lS Av6pEou.

182

ANEITHr L. KEPAMYMI

narrou iPXETol KOlTOIO (JTly~~ lTOU EVOOVOVTOI 6i\01 01 lTIOTOr ~E TOUe; PEOAIOTtC;.

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'Exouv pa)T~aEI OUTOI rrou OTIC) ~OUXE<; WPE<; TOUe; ElVOI 09£01 KOI Of: j-IIO OTIYJ.l~ KIVOUVOU yfVOVTOI ~E TO rropcrroVW TTlOTOI. «H EKKAr]ofo lTapOKOAou8Ef ouvtXEla TIlV KOIVWVIK~ TTPOOOO Kal TI")V E~tAl~1l TWV fl8wv yl' aUTO YIVETOI EKKAI")ola 51K~ )JOU, 6lTwe; UlT~p~E EKMllofa TOU rrporrurrrrou uou Kal Tile; lTpO~o)JfJ"<; fJOU». /\tVE 01 npayj-lOTrKO KOAO( xprOTIOVOI.

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195

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199

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