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HOKUSA
BY

A. HYATT MAYOR

WITH AN ESSAY BY YASUKO BETCHAKU
ASSISTANT

CURATOR,

DEPARTMENT

OF FAR EASTERN ART

THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART

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COVER:Fujifrom Kajikazawain the provinceof Kai. FromThe

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Thirty-sixViewsof Fuji, about 1831-33.
INSIDECOVERS:Fencers. Fromthe Manga,Vol. VI, 1817.
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TITLEPAGE,PAGES3, 5, 7: Galloping horse and two archers.

Fromthe Manga,Vol. VI, 1817.Man swallowinga sword.From
the Manga,Vol. X, 1819.
ABOVE, RIGHT: Some prize-winning"talents"of gluttony. A

tough-jawedeater bites greedilyinto a persimmonsuspendedby a
string. One glutton racesthroughbowlsof noodles; another tosses
whole rice cakes into his mouth. Fromthe Manga,Vol. X.

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BELOW,RIGHT:Variousmagicaltalents. A magicianturns into a

frog;another makes irisesbloom from the burningcharcoalin a
brazier;a third multiplieshimself;a fourthturnssheets of paper
into birds. Fromthe Manga,Vol. X.

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THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART BULLETIN
Summer 1985
VolumeXLIII,Number 1 (ISSN 0026-1521)
Publishedquarterly? 1985 by The MetropolitanMuseumof Art,
FifthAvenue and 82nd Street, New York,N.Y. 10028. Second-class
postage paid at New York,N.Y. and Additional Mailing Offices.
Museumof Art Bulletinis providedas a benefit to
The Metropolitan
Museum members and available by subscription. Subscriptions
$18.00 a year. Single copies $4.75. Fourweeks'notice requiredfor
change of address. POSTMASTER: Send addresschanges to Membership Department, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Fifth
Avenue and 82nd Street, New York, N.Y. 10028. Back issues
availableon microfilm, from University Microfilms,313 N. First
Street, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Volumes I-XXVIII (1905-1942)
availableas a clothbound reprintset or as individualyearlyvolumes
fromThe Ayer Company,Publishers,Inc., 99 Main Street, Salem,
N.H. 03079, or from the Museum, Box 700, Middle Village, N.Y
11379.General Managerof Publications:John P. O'Neill. Editorin
Chief of the Bulletin:Joan Holt. Editor:Joanna Ekman. Photography by Gene C. Herbert, Metropolitan Museum Photograph
Studio. Design: Abby Goldstein.

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DIRECTOR S NOTE

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Fromthe publicationof its firstvolume in Japanin 1814,Hokusai'sMangawas
an enormoussuccess. Its delightfulmelange of small energetic figuresset the
style for fourteen more volumes, the last of which was published in 1878,
twenty-nineyearsafterthe artist'sdeath. It was an immenseproject, and one
that had an impact surprisinglyfar beyond the shores of Japan. The lightly
tinted woodcuts of the Manga were among the first Japaneseprints seen
in the West after Japanended her two hundred years of isolation in 1854.

their discoveryhas been set in Paris,about1856, when the
^ Traditionally,

etcher Felix Bracquemondspotted a volume in the shop of his printer,who
had found it in the packingmaterialsin a shipmentof porcelain. Bracquemondsharedhis discoverywith
his artist colleagues, including EdouardManet, who adoptedseveralmotifs from the Mangain his own
prints. Other artists-Degas, Cassatt, Bonnard, Vuillard, Lautrec, Pissarro, van Gogh, Gauguin
respondedenthusiasticallyto the new and fascinatingimagesby Hokusai, as they did to other Japanese
prints by Harunobu, Utamaro, and Hiroshige. The woodcuts' flatter spaces and shapes, decorative
patterns, and novel viewpointsreaffirmedthe new waysof seeing that the Frenchartistswere exploring.
Wrote Pissarroin 1893, "TheseJapaneseconfirmmy belief in our vision."
While such immediatelyappealing images as Hokusai'scan be thoroughlyenjoyed apartfrom their
own culture, our appreciationdeepens when they are seen within the richnessand diversityof the art of
Japanfromprehistoryto recent times. In the Museum'snew galleriesforJapaneseart, scheduledto open
in the spring of 1987, Hokusai'spictures will join some two hundred other masterpieces in settings
designed to evoke their originalcontext, which is essential for the full understandingof many Japanese
works. Upon completion of this second phase in the installation of our Far Easterncollections, ten
architecturallyvaried spaces will provide appropriateand intimate surroundingsfor the traditional
displayof sculpture,screensand scrolls, ceramics, textiles, armsand armor,and prints.
The introductionto this Bulletin,the selection of prints, and the captions areby A. Hyatt Mayorand
wereoriginallypublishedby the Museumin anotherformatin 1967. Hyatt Mayor,who died in 1980, was
Curatorof Printsfrom 1946 until he retiredfrom administrativeduties in 1966 to do much of his best
writing, including his monumental Prints& People(1971). The notes on Hokusai'sprints were contributed by YasukoBetchaku, Assistant Curatorof FarEasternArt, who has also played an indispensable
role-both here and in Japan-in the preparationsfor the new galleries.
PHILIPPEDE MONTEBELLO

3

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a third eats rice and exhales a swarmof bees.I Additional magicaltalents. From the Manga. One magicianproducesa processionof small figuresfromhis sleeve.an eighth poursa gushingstreamof waterfromhis cuppedhands. a second vanishes.a seventh swallowsa sword. 4 . X. a fourthemergesfrom a vase. a fifth breathesout a saddledhorse.Vol.a sixth projectsa giant face in incense smoke.

observing everything. Hokusaiwascuttingwoodblocksforpublishers. anatomicalcomparisons Wheneverand whereverold ideasbegin to be questioned.000 to 40. fouryearsbeforeCommodorePerryintroducedforeignersinto Japaneselife.He is the onlyJapaneseprintmaker the slumsratherthanthe high-flownshamof the stage.andbeingpeeredat fromthe street.[Heomitsmen.silken courtesans and the actorswho impersonatedthem. he wouldhave been forgotten.andwhenI ama hundredandten. calling himself Shunro. he absorbed every style that he saw.It is not enoughmerelyto be great. just book.All his lifehe wasaspoor fora subsistence.In began drawingpictures.Hisstudiesof fatpeopleandthinpeoplecouldwellbe Diirer's likea platein anywesternperspective set to capering.Thus he was not altogether "IhavedrawnthingssinceI wassix.can no longerquitebelievein the fairytaleestheticsof the the worldaregoing.Whenhe wasa smallboy ashisfather.000 drawings.andat eighteenhe startedto drawfor other cuttersin the studio of Shunsho.the unsettlinggeneratesenergy. once showsa "highnose"peeringout of a windowbeyonda boardwall.theirworkdoesnot have ICV^S^/f/Kthe varietyandpersonality. to show how completelyhe succumbedto Shunsho'sratherwearystyle in printsof sulky. changing his abode ninety-three times. keeping consistently only the Japanese convention that ignores shadows. As he flew.Eventhe oldwaysof representing LadyMurasaki of his printsa Japanesestreetconvergesto a vanishingpoint.Tobe paintermayimpoundusunendurably continuouslyinterestingthrougha year'sworthof pictures.The breakupof ancient Japaneseideas suppliesthe motor that convulses Hokusai'swrestlers.their guns.forthe great in the singlenessof hisobsession. their magnifyingglasses. For overtwocenturiesa fewDutchmerchantshadbeentoleratedon a three-hundred-yard rectangleof earth dumped into Nagasaki harborfor the confinement of outsiders. 5 .living just when Japaneseideaswere beginningto rubagainstideasfromEurope.birds.trees.and their booksdid.at the ageof seventy-five: I beganto understand the true madebeforethe ageof sixty-fiveis not worthcounting.000 woodcutsand some 30.The paceof changedriveshimto exploreeverydoingandhappeningof Japanesedailylifeas he whothrewhimselfinto the turmoilof sawit in his studio.and jugglers. ' have eyes that gluttonizein everydirectionand an absolutecommandof hand. and as restlesslyadopting over thirty different names. Hokusai.fishermen.theirclothes. Hokusaitraveledfastbecausehe traveledlight.an artistmust .At a hundredI shallcertainlyhavereacheda magnificent level. Eventhoughthe Dutchwereforbiddento crossthe narrowbridgeto the mainland. Japanese his earlyteens.Sucha one wasHokusai.]At ninetyI will enter intothe secretof things. He adoptedpartof his master'sname.plants. He developedlate in his eighty-nine yearsof life by dint of makingover 10. carryinglittle morethan his brushesandhis paper.THE OLD MAN MAD ABOUT PAINTING Fewartistswouldbearlookingateverydayfora year. with figuresdiminishingin the distance.the street.At seventy-three constructionof animals. everything-everydot.whopolishedmirrors the to printwoodcutsin severalcolors. If Hokusaihad died beforehe was forty. everydash-will live. while still lingering in this listless elegance. Hokusai. All thatI assuminghumilitywhenhe said. Hokusaiwasbornin 1760in whatis nowTokyo. Shadows would have obstructed the racing of his line as it describes things with disembodiedsubtlety." Hokusaidied in 1849.fishesand insects.forin one a thousandyearsbefore.

as we might do. A. and time runs visibly in the rivers. but with the largemusclesof their arm and shoulder.Japaneseand Chinese artistsareable to flingout lines writhinglike stringsin the wind becausethey do not move their brusheswith the little muscleof their fingers.he seemed a graphicbuffoonto his contemporaries. where a philosopher pauses to contemplate the October mist on the cliffs. 6 other lies proppedon her elbows flexingher . driven by the dreadof a pausethatmightdropa blot. the rain stinging their cheeks through the splits in their strawrain clothes.Like Daumier.These air colors capture the out-of-doorsfor a people who live more at the mercy of nature than we do.the snowblindswithawesome fingers. Sucha wayof drawingputsits effortin outlineandsummarizes inner detail. We are far from the mild valleys of classic Chinese painting. Hokusai lived in the knockaboutstruggleof today. The Japaneseand Chinese see no interior logic of bone and muscle in their shadowless figures.but has grownwiththe yearsto a statureof command.and they escape our Greek abstractideal of the body-never realizedin nature to concentrate theirconventionon the paintedfaceof the geishaandthe actor. the chill in their paper houses disjointing their scatterhatsandbullypeople. HYATT MAYOR Twowomen at leisure:one reads-a tobacco pipe is on the floorbehind herthe leg and wrigglingher toes. Brushdrawingin ink.Nothing touches the paperbut the brushtip that goes and goes.the wind-squalls cold. colorswithoutcrossingandobscuringthemInJapanese printsthe cleanlinesboundthe transparent sky tints that stain throughthe tough diaphanoustissue of the mulberrypaper.In Hokusai's prints.

landscapes.I 0 Jj^ilTO^! v -4^^^^P ON HOKUSAI'S WOOD-BLOCK PRINTS AlthoughHokusaididnot liveto be one hundredyearsold. and 1878 (vol. below).NOTES J iE sL. hanshita-e (under-drawing) Among Hokusai'sother instructionalbooks was HokusaiGashiki(Methodof Drawingby Hokusai). Hokusainot only includes the people engagedin differentactivities on the near shore but also incorporatesthe distant view acrossthe river(p.1836 (p.this or a similar drawingcould have served as a forthe Manga. above. plants. 13).ImadoRiver(p. above and below. when he stayedwith one of his pupils. Others are more thought-out designs that could easily have become pagesof an illustratedbook (pp. Fromthese drawings.onecaneasilyseethescopeof hisworkfromhisdrawings in the followingpages. publishedin collaborationwith Hokusai'sOsaka pupilsSenkakutei Hokuyo. below) and EhonWakanno Homare(PictureBookof theGloryof JapanandChina).A similardepictionof the farshore. The blocks for EhonMusashiAbumiwereprobablymade about 1836 but were not printed until after Hokusai'sdeath. printsprivatelyissuedforspecialoccasionsandfrequentlyaccompaniedby RyoganIchiran(The PictureBookof theViews poems. Gekkotei Bokusen.whichmay manualfortransmitting the trueimage:as Hokusaipleases."wascommonly be translatedas "beginner's as opposedto knownasHokusaiMangaorManga." of "comics its contemporary meaning Manypagesof the Mangaarerandomlyfilledwith smallfiguresengagedin differentactivities.The wordmangathendenoted"amanualof drawing. Figuresare executed with fine strokes in combination with 7 ./y ."the bulkof workhe left behindis a testimonyto his remarkableachievementas an artist.and Shunyosai Hokky6-in 1819. In contrast to the Manga. or landscapesin all kindsof weatherconditions. below. and human figures to historical and supernaturalthemes. 27. the ageat which he expectedto reach"amagnificentlevel. Hokusaipresentsin panoramaa continuous view of the river." or satires.28. The illustrationscontinue page by page. 2-10). Sekkatei Hokushufi.as demonstrated Hokusai'ssurvivingearlyworkis mainlybook illustrationand surimono.a selection of designs on a varietyof subjects. HokusaiGashikihas on each doublepage a single design that a styleof the masterin a largerformat(p.followedin 1815-19 (vols. 12). The freely renderedbrushdrawingof a man riding a donkey (p. clearlydemonstrates EhonMusashiAbumi(PictureBookof theStirrupsof theBraves).The fulltitle DenshinKaishu:HokusaiManga. 12). 27. In EhonSumidagawa AlongBothBanksof theSumidaRiver). above)-two of three booksgenerallyknownas the WarriorTrilogy-displaythe linearstyleoften associatedwith Hokusai's workof aroundthe 1830s. landprints.1850(pp.is alsoseen in a single-sheet print. a variety of birdsand plants probablydrawnfromnature. Hokusai'ssubjects ranged from animals.createdfrom other drawings. 23. 1).about1801-2.craftsmenmade wood-blockprintsthatwerepublishedasHokusaiMangain 1814(vol. whose pagesarecrowdedwith smalldesigns. in the samewaythat a scrollpainting is unrolledsection by section. 15). 28. Furthervolumes.thoughlessprominent. 48) shows a striking resemblance to the images in the Manga. 14). He producedvoluminoussketchescoveringall these subjectson a tripto Nagoya in 1812. The datesof volumes11and14arenot yetcertain. 29). 1834 (vol. and closing with a scene of the Yoshiwaraquarterof Edo (now Tokyo). 1849 (vol. Even excluding Hokusai's paintings.beginning at the mouth and ending at the upperstream. 19.

Here the majesticFujidominatesan entire scene in whichhumanfiguresarecompletelyeliminated. Hokusai adopts the theme of yatsuhashi(eight- in Mikawaprovince. the usedforwritingpoems. 39. above)depictlandscapesand activitiesof ordinary people set against the familiarpresence of Mt.The title of colorandone blackandwhite-and forty-onedesignsas hanshita-e the seriesalong with the poet'sname and poem are presentedin a rectangleand a squarecartouche. a collection of romanticepisodesin the life of a courtier. are reduced to scattered dots under the prominent bridge. shapesof the sheetsof papertraditionally hunterswarmingupbya fire. 13.butthoseof Hokusai's set againsta flatmassof blackand gray. The sparrowsand the hat are drawnwith dabsof brownwash and broadbrushstrokesthat are contoured withcontrastingthin lines (p.wasa placecelebratedforthe plankbridge).butalsoin his drawings. 33.exemplifiesHokusai'sabstractsense of color. about 1833-34. below. above.ormenrowingboats(pp.but he goes farbeyondmorphologicalaccuracy.TheHundred no Teika. the so-called "rear-view Fuji. In The GreatWaveoff Kanagawa. Fujitowerspeacefullyabove the turbulentweather suggestedby the white rainclouds and the thunderbolt. below). Ten prints with black outlines.nowAichi prefecture. 36-37. above).In the printof irises(pp. In his lateryears. 38.with a genresceneof the Edoperiod(1615-1867)showingordinarypeoplecrossingthe bridgeto pursuetheir dailyactivities. 46-47). 30-31). swiftly taken upwardby the splashing waves. 44.Whetherworkersrepairingrooftiles. The viewer's eye is directed by the boats toward the left. Countless imagesproducedfor the Mangamay have servedas a groundworkfor Hokusai'sbest-known single-sheet prints.In is slightlyalteredto forma Hokusai'sprint (pp.withblueoutlines. as wellas his inexhaustible originality-someof the qualitiesthathavegivenhis artits universalappeal.His imagesof plantsare basedupon observationfromnature.22. In other genres. shape.about1835-36.capturinghis subjects'very essence. 44.theJapaneseliteratipaintinginspiredby Chinesepaintingof the samekind.the imagesdepicted own. Irisflowers. huge anthropomorphicwavesappearto engulf the tiny people holding onto their wooden boats. Hokusai has replaced the Heian period (794-1185) ideal of yatsuhashi. whereas landscapesare shaded with angularstrokes and dots-a common conventionin Chineselandscapepaintingas wellas in Nanga.usuallyshown filling the space.Hokusaifrequentlysought ideasfromthe classics. no matterhow smallFujimaybe portrayed.Forsome hundred hundredpoemsbyone poetscompiledin 1235by the famouspoetFujiwara reason the serieswas never completed.40-41. 33. derivesfromananthologyof one Anotherseries.wherestreaksof smokeare arenot thoseof the Heianperiod. as well as by the torn leaf that mayhavebeen eaten by the grasshopper holdingonto it.The yatsuhashi lovely irises surroundingthe bridge and was one of the subjects favored by artists ever since it was mentioned in the tenth-centuryTalesof Ise. PoemsToldbytheNurse. and then returnedto the center where Fujistandsundisturbedbeyondthe roughwaves. the viewer'sattention is alwaysdirectedto the gracefulview of this admiredmountain.a senseof vibrantlife is suggestedby the flowersin different discreetly stagesof bloom. Fuji. 10-11). Throughout the series.twenty-eightdesignsare known to exist as prints-twenty-seven arein the FreerGallery. The Thirty-six Views of Fuji. 42-43. YASUKOBETCHAKU 8 . Hokusaiprovedthat birdsand flowerscould be just as exciting subjectsforsingle-sheet printsas actorsand beauties.usuallyassociatedwith elegant court nobles and largeiris flowers.24-25. where landscapebecame the major theme for the first time in the history of Japaneseprints. spontaneousbrushwork He capturesplayfulsparrows hoppingaroundan oldhatwiththe utmostsimplicityandeconomyof line.A WinterScene.34-35.for example.whilein otherprintsin the set (pp. about 1831-33. below. Other prints in the series (pp."weresubsequentadditionsto the initialset of thirty-six. 45) the human element is unobtrusivelypresent. In RainstormBeneaththeSummit(pp. In one of the printsfromthe series FamousBridgesin VariousProvinces. Mt. Hokusai's maybe seennot onlyin his printedbooks.accentuated contour lines.themesfavoredby the masses. and design. the familiarzigzagpatternof the yatsuhashi trianglein the center that echoes the shape of the mountain.

Vol. III. Fromthe Manga. __I_ ABOVE: RIGHT:Assorted leaves.___ __ _ Landscapes:trees in the rain. . i .' 9 .. 1815. Fromthe Manga. islands in the sea.

10 .Irises."late 1820s.Froman untitled groupknown as the "large-sheetflowerseries.

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Brushdrawingin ink and color.cranes. ABOVE: Birdsin flight over reeds.1819. FromHokusaiGashiki. Fromthe Manga. and geese. RIGHT:Variousbirds. W. finches. III. and geese. I :"I. FromHokusaiGashiki. 13 .BELOW:Birdson a tree at the water'sedge: thrushes.cormorants. ABOVE:Old hat and house sparrows. L * 14 1 OPPOSITE.I.finches. Vol. OPPOSITE.

One of a seriesof views of famous places drawnin variousweathers. Hokusaihas enlargedthe rhubarbof Akita to preposteroussize with leaves largeenough to serve as umbrellas.__ f i 1^1al~ Rainbowat Mitakegura. BELOW: Bog rhubarbof Akita in the rain.This may be his comment on the boastfultales of the residents. ABOVE: Mount Harunain the rain. Wayfarers. VII.Vol.Vol. hastily raiseumbrellasand cover themselves with coats and rugs.rushingacrossthe bridge. 14 . From the Manga. VII. In the backgroundis a panoramicview of the farbank of the Sumida. FromEhonSumidagawa Ryogan Ichiran.From the Manga.about 1801-2.A showerfalls at the new YanagiBridgeover a canal joining the SumidaRiver. OPPOSITE. ABOVE: OPPOSITE.

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lit . 1 4 -t - ... . | M1AA .)l4 1 i / \:AMA4 lAk. 9A.N - I I I L\l\ I \ 1 \..- I 04 ' o- I. \ .Ii . .\1.! !'" * T - Y 11 t W ^ ll 4 ---.

.\^^"i' * ": " <* ^: ... /0'7///w ^^'' rr"/ ?. v V V ? 0%~~~~~~~~~~ <4 -.Pale Fujiis seen from the plain.> ^^^-'* ' _*' 'v _^~ . . . ....r f-tIr f'\ w ti Yl"/'"Y 1'* }I ij:t -- . I II.1. /y^^ 1/^^ . Travelerson the raisedpath throughthe rice fieldsstruggleagainstthe wind. and one man has lost his hat.w . j . about 1831-33. A gust of wind at Ejiri. Sheets of paperare swept into the air. in the province of Suruga. FromThe Thirty-sixViews of Fuji....t. i 17 . .

but the womancontinues to walk at her relaxedand unhurriedpace. XII. 1834. IX.These studiescaricaturethe reaction of the harassedpedestriansto the unpredictablegustsof the wind. IX. The woman. A rearingwild horse is held fast by the delicate high wooden clog of the woman'ssandalon the halter rope. To Hokusai.The maddeningwind. A mighty and muscularwarriorpusheswith all his strength. ABOVE: OPPOSITE. Fromthe Manga. 18 . gesturesspoke louderthan words. At the edge of the path an empty sake bottle has been stuck upsidedown on a bamboopole. ABOVE: A woman of remarkable strength.Vol. oblivious of the plunginganimal. Fromthe Manga. From the Manga.Vol. BELOW:Another woman of remarkablestrength.Vol. 1819. OPPOSITE. admiresa birdflying above the irisesin the lake.

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half-bird)displaytheir skills while an equallylong-nosedwomancompetes with them by writingelegant cursive scripton a folding screen with an ink brushtied to the end of her nose. a famouswrestler. XII. and in the center a figure slumpslike a pile of discardedclothes. BELOW:Talentsof the longnosed.a partiallyclad woman takes a pickled radishfrom a barrel. From the Manga. XII. BELOW: Variousunseemlysights.At the bottom a posturingdandytreadson another'srobe.Goro of Matano village. a woman's face is unflatteringlymagnified. XII. OPPOSITE. Below.Fromthe Manga.Vol. makesan ostentatiousdisplayof strengthby lifting a boulder.Vol.One figure at the top paints eyebrowson his forehead. Vol.Top right.ABOVE:Caricatures of the descendantsof a noble family. the other paints his lips and teeth with the aid of a magnifyingmirror.OPPOSITE. Fromthe Manga. 21 . Long-nosedtengu(monsters.Below. At the top a man is about to commit hara-kiri with a frog beside him.halfhuman.

carryloads. thin people are tense and active. break crockery. AX-t 22 . .I I LEFT:Thin men and thin women. They wrestle. fight. In contrast to relaxedfat people (opposite). FromThe HundredPoemsTold by the Nurse. about 1835-36. 1818.and provoketrouble. VIII. BELOW:Twowomen in a house are look- ing at the peach blossomsbelow their porch.Vol. work. A workmanis throwingtiles to another on the roof above. while a third is laying them in position. Fromthe Manga. . In the distance is a well-traveledroad.

. Fromthe Manga.vj' ^^gl---L^^^^ . i 23 . smoke. BELOW:Pottersmakingroofingtiles on > ^^^^^^the yVt ^9^^'. a tributary of the SumidaRiver. Randomsketches of fat men and LEFT: --~^'?.g. Early1800s. XIII. The fat peo- . Hokusaifinds their characterto be vastly differentfrom that of the thin people (opposite). relax and sleep. 1818./^r. read. -- ^ icomfortable ple. or amusethemselves in a manner.. <HSr A fat women in various poses.Vol.--:. for the most part.^iSB^Ts-\ _ bank of the ImadoRiver.. ^BSS^ \i ?^" .

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25 . men warmthemselvesover a fire.Illustrationof a poem by Minamoto no Muneyuki.A winter scene in the mountains. FromThe HundredPoemsTold by the Nurse. Outside a snow-coveredhut. Winter loneliness in a mountain hamlet grows Only deeperwhen guests are gone And leaves and grassare withered. So runsmy thought.

The helmeted figuresin the center weargauntletsand wield swordsof wood. 161-223). OPPOSITE.BELOW: of the Chinese warlord. the god turned the sea wavesinto sand.Vol. so that the general could cross to the opposite shore. Fromthe Manga. 26 . Fromthe Manga. FromEhonWakanno Homare.D.ABOVE:General Nitta no Yoshisadaprayingto the dragongod in the sea.Vol. An episode in the life OPPOSITE. The lances are tipped with protective cushions.bent low in his saddle.Liu Hsiian-te (A. The warlord. plungesdown a cliff into the foamingtorrentof the riveras he escapesfrom his enemies. 1817. A wave of sand following the contour of a wave of watermay be seen in the foreground.ABOVE: Variousmodes of fencing. VI. VI. In response.1850.

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performing magic. the legendary Buddhist-followermonkey. FromEhon Wakanno Homare. Hairsthat the monkeyhas pluckedfromhis beardformthemselves into other monkeyscarryingstaves.OPPOSITE. the famouscruel and beautifulconcubine of the last emperorof the Shang dynasty.Tokimasa was granteda vision of Benzaitenin the formof a serpent. ABOVE: Sun Wu-K'ung. After three weeks of incessantprayer. 1836.Her scatteredashes were said to have turned into a many-tailedfox. 1203) set out to slay the monsterthat was said to inhabit the darkcavernsdeep under Fuji. FromEhonMusashiAbumi. 29 . As she disappeared.Vol. which were treasuredby Tokimasaas a pledge of divine protection. According to the legend. Benzaitenleft behind her three serpent scales. Vision of H6j6 no OPPOSITE.Nitta no Tadatsune(d. On the left is the double manifestationof T'a Fei. From the Manga. ABOVE: At the requestof the emperor. Tadatsuneis shown here apparently lighting a magic torch from raysof sunlight reflectedon the sea. Tokimasaprayedto the Goddess Benzaitenfor her protection. BELOW: Tokimasa(1138-1215). X.

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in the province of Mikawa. FromViewsof FamousBridgesin Various Provinces.The middle partof the bridgeis raisedin an arch. and men and women on differentpartsof the bridgeadmire the iris blossomsin the waterbelow. 1833-34.a construction of narrowplatformsbuilt out zigzagover a swamp.Yatsuhashi(The Eight-plankBridge). 31 .

ABOVE:Viewing the sunset over Ry6gokuBridgefrom the bank of the SumidaRiver at Ommayagashi. OPPOSITE. and two other boats are mooredon the river. OPPOSITE. FromThe Thirty-six Viewsof Fuji.I . .+iw.0> _ -fL It 0- i ik .The broadSumida is spannedby the great bridge. -r \4 of 07 -4 ~~~~~ ^'. f . n. '1 'j .. Long I sought the cloud-coveredmoon. From the near shore a ferryboatfull of men and women is startingto cross the water.t >'ii iI t k 0 * At* i .'A l .'a.The large prowof a pleasureboat is hung with lanterns. Beyond its farend Fujirisesdark and clear against the evening sky. 32 . FromThe HundredPoemsTold by the Nurse. Late 1790s-early 1800s. U'.&w~~~~~~~~~ ABOVE:A ferryboatcrossingthe bay. .4 .l /9 e I .:) txI4 A . '.tA> f -? -r.Silhouettes of houses are seen on the opposite bank.I'.<. How quicklythe night flowsin summer And dawn breaks. BELOW: Illustrationof a poem by Kiyowarano Fukayabu. tF 75 1 r 4 -O .

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FromThe Thirty-sixViews of Fuji. a laden boat is poled upstreamin the foreground. 1 I i I I P.Distant Fujiis seen between the tall piersof the wide arch of Mannen Bridgeover the FukaRiver. and a man fishesfrom a rock in the stream. * * . .Under Mannen Bridgeat Fukagawa. . 35 . People cross the bridge.

Ushibori in the province of Hitachi. Two herons take wing as a man leans out of the cabin to pourawaywaterin which rice has been washed. FromThe Thirty-sixViewsof Fuji. 36 . A largejunk is mooredamong reeds. In the distance acrossthe marshesis Fuji.

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and another womanwashesherbs in the stream. the other standingon the log. OPPOSITE. FromThe Thirty-six Viewsof Fuji.one kneeling below. The peak of the mountain appearson the horizonthroughthe circle of a greatunfinishedvat upon which a cooper is at work. FromThe Thirty-sixViews of Fuji.the Totomi Mountains. Twomen saw. 39 . OPPOSITE. Fujirisesover fields and mists. FromThe Thirty-sixViews of Fuji. Beyondthe streamtwo men with bundles appearover the hill. BELOW:The waterwheelat Onden. which sends up a dense column of smoke. ABOVE: In ABOVE: Fuji-viewFieldsin the province of Owari. A woman and a child watch. In the foregrounda boy drawsa tortoise by a string. a womancarriesa bucket. A workmansits by a fire. A huge squarelog is supported aslant on tall trestles.between the poles is a view of the cloud-wreathedcone of Fuji. A greatwaterwheelis turnedby a streamrunningunder it.

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. FromThe Thirty-sixViewsof Fuji.The dark blue watercrests above three fragile boats. snow-capped. Fujiappears.. 41 . which speed like arrowsthrough the troughof the wave..on the distant horizon. a * _ The greatwave off Kanagawa. .

which partlyhides the roofs of Edo and the stacksof a timberyard. FromThe Thirty-sixViews of Fuji. A waitressis pointing out Fujito two ladies seatedon the balcony of the wide window.ABOVE:Sazai Hall of the Tem- ple of the 500 Rakan.BELOW: Tokaido. At the left are two litter bearers. ABOVE: OPPOSITE.A man and a woman sit on the floorof the balcony restingagainstboxes containing the imagesof Kannon. On a balcony adjoiningthe hall of the temple. A room in the Fujimiteahouse. View of Fuji from a lumberyardin the Honj6 district. God of Mercy.Two workmenare resting.Tatekawaat Honj6. Yoshida on the OPPOSITE.From The Thirty-sixViewsof Fuji.one of them softening his sandalby beating it with a mallet. FromThe Thirty-sixViewsof Fuji. 42 . men and women look out acrossa silver-gray lake to Fuji. The mountain risesbeyond a bank.

It r I I . I .' 43 .

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t (-W-cY OPPOSITE. FromThe Thirty-sixViews of Fuji. Below are the roofs of Edo with the scaffoldingof a fire station risingabovethem. Fuji. is seen between the trunksof pines fringingthe high road.BELOW:Honganji Temple at Asakusain Edo. OPPOSITE. A kite is flying high in the air. blue and white.Eijud6. In the foregroundis the gable of the temple with workmenrepairing the tiles of the roof. 45 . FromThe Thirty-sixViewsof Fuji.and travelersare measuringits girth with joined hands. In the foregrounda man leads a horse riddenby a woman. The crest of the print publisher. A huge cyptomeriatree rises in the foreground. and over floatingmist appearsthe cone of Fuji. appearson the horse cloth. ABOVE: Hodogayaon the Tokaido. ABOVE:The Mishima Passin the provinceof Kai. and the bearersof a litter rest. FromThe Thirty-sixViewsof Fuji.

I 1 ? we 46 _" . and snowstreakedFujirisesred into a clear sky with white clouds at the horizon. A forked flash lights up the luridgloom. From The Thirty-sixViewsof Fuji.Rainstormbeneath the summit.

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weredonelast.The monochrome impresimpressions sionswereusedforcuttingadditionalblocks. Phillips. Gift of bookno. CharlesStewartSmith.1914(14. 16-17.The gradualshadingoftenseen in representations of skyandwaterwasachievedbywipingthe blockwitha wetclothandthengoingoverthe areawitha wet brushdippedin pigment.1936(Japanese 1931 illustrated Vol. Y. Brushdrawingin ink. 1324.Specialeffects.whichoriginatedin 1765. below. 110) HowardMansfield. 14.76. above.Pig- mentwasbrushedon the raisedsurfaceof the blockanda sheetof paperplacedoverit.in memoryof CharlesStewartSmith.in memoryof CharlesStewartSmith. Havemeyer Collection(JP1859. 22. CharlesStewartSmith. below:Giftof SamuelIsham.33. 1939 (JP2935. H. Man ridinga donkey.a printer.44: RogersFund. above.Gift of Mrs. Havemeyer. 48: CharlesStewartSmith Collection. above. 23. 32: Purchase.76. (Japanese Rogers Manga. 42.anda publisher. 1847) pp. natedanddirectedthe entireproduction.44.60[106]) THE PRINTING OF JAPANESE WOOD BLOCKS Multicolorprints. bookno.VII-X. 0. Charles p. 120) illustrated HowardMansfield.1936(Japanese Manga.43.1936(Japanese Gift of Mrs.a circular padcoveredwiththe toughsheathof a bambooshoot.2983. 0.III.suchasembossing. and HowardCaswell Smith.werecut to registerthe colorsin the correctposition.1914(14.2565. 36-37.1919(JP1108) p. 24-25. 107) illustrated HowardMansfield.The colorswereprintedin the orderof lighterto darkercolors. bookno. 6: CharlesStewartSmith Collection.1323) p.Gift of bookno.60[25]) CharlesHewittFund.The artistmadecolornoteson monochrome madefromthiskeyblock. 111) illustrated Giftof HowardMansfield.above.2973. 33. PhillipsCollection. 12-13) was madeby John Bull of the AmericanMuseumof NaturalHistory.RogersFund. below. EhonMusashiAbumi:The HowardMansfieldCollection. XII.1922 (JP1398. and HowardCaswell Smith. 38.Charles StewartSmith.a carver.werethe collaborawhocoorditionof an artist.Thisprocesswasrepeatedforeachcolor. 10-11:Frederick 1929. Captionsof the wood-blockprintsother than those fromthe by LaurenceBinyon.1285.orL andhorizontal-shape guide marks.6) HokusaiGashiki:The HowardMansfieldCollection.RogersFund.38.The artistcarefullylaid his slightlymoistenedfinaldrawingfacedownon the paste-coveredsurfaceof a woodblock.The pp.leavingthe linesto be printedin relief.Giftof illustrated bookno.Whenthe blockanddrawingwere dry.1911(JP747) pp. 43. StewartSmith.H.CREDITS arewoodUnlessotherwisespecifiedin captions. .On everyblockkento.Bequestof HenryL.1936(Japanese The HowardMansfield EhonWakan noHomare: Collection.B.The identiMangaarebasedon descriptions ficationof the birds(pp.The HowardMansfieldCollection.1914(JP1013) pp.2997.39: Purchase.Jr.1936(JP2580.RogersFund. 2984. Purchase.Vols. below. below. VI: Fund.2939.19) p.1936(JP2548.2966.usuallyone foreach color. 46-47: The HenryL. 45: Purchase.2556) pp.2967.the carvercut awaypartsof the block.2961) pp. 2553.Jr.all illustrations blockprints. The paperwasrubbedwitha baren. 13.34-35.40-41: Bequestof Mrs. 81. 30-31.

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