You are on page 1of 12

2/1/2015

COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE AND PLANNING

Department of Architecture and Building Sciences

ARCH 436
Contemporary Building Construction Methods

4. PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

Dr. Mohammed Ghonim

Lecture Objectives
Upon completion of this lecture, the student will be able to:
1. Describe the concept of prestressed concrete construction.
2. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of prestressed concrete.
3. Compare between pretensioned and posttensioned concrete.
4. List and explain the types of prestressed concrete.

1

• Prestressing Process. • Historical Brief. It can be used to produce beams. • Applications of Prestressed Concrete. • Advantages of Prestressed Concrete. • External & Internal Prestressing. • Disadvantages of Prestressed Concrete. 2 .are used to provide a clamping load which produces a compressive stress that balances the tensile stress that the concrete compression member would otherwise experience due to a bending load. Prestressing tendons -generally of high tensile steel cable or rods. • Linear & Circular Prestressing. floors or bridges with a longer span than is practical with ordinary reinforced concrete.2/1/2015 Lecture Content • Introduction. • Structural Background. Introduction Prestressed concrete is a method for overcoming concrete's natural weakness in tension. • • • Types of Prestressed Concrete. • Posttensioned Concrete: Tools & Materials. • Posttensioning. • Understanding Prestressed Concrete. Limited & Partial Prestressing. Pretensioned & Posttensioned Prestressed Concrete. Pretensioning. • Full.

H. was revolutionizing the construction methods for prestressed concrete bridges. Following this success. lacked the teaching qualities necessary to communicate his ideas to other engineers. the Roebling family developed the first stress-relieved wire followed by the first stressrelieved strand. Freyssinet’s major prestressed works came after the reinforced-concrete Plougastel Bridge and included a the Luzancy Bridge (1946). Freyssinet introduced prestressed concrete beams. Unfortunately. T. he joined the firm of Campenon-Bernard and went on to design several prestressed bridges.2/1/2015 Historical Brief The concept of prestressed concrete appeared in USA in 1888 when P. Lin published a technical paper in the “Prestressed Concrete Institute . HE invented the free-cantilever construction method of prestressed concrete bridges. Jackson’s idea was perfect. In 1935. France. and jacked up the shipyard buildings. Luzancy Bridge. a brilliant structural designer and bridge builder. Le Havre maritime station It was not until the French engineer Eugene Freyssinet defined the need for these materials that prestressed concrete could be used as a structural building material. with a span of 54 meters. but the technology of high strength steel that exhibited low relaxation characteristics was not yet available. Jackson was granted the first patent in the United States for prestressed concrete design. Urlich Finsterwalder. Later. he used prestressing to strengthen the maritime station of Le Havre which was threatening to settle beyond repair. Historical Brief Simultaneously.Y. 3 . although Freyssinet. the German bridge engineer. Lin once again brought prestressed concrete back into the spotlight when he organized the “First Prestressed Concrete World Conference” in 1957.PCI” Journal that introduced a new Load Balancing technique which allowed most structural engineers to design prestressed concrete very easily. Shortly after this conference.

so it is a smaller and lighter structure. It is difficult to be recycled. especially if not stressed properly. It has better corrosion resistance It is very effective for deflection control. 4 . Special tools are needed to provide the prestressing. It usually has no cracks. It is more risky. and requires high skilled labour. Increasing span lengths increases the usable floor space in buildings. since the distance that can be spanned by post-tensioned slabs exceeds that of reinforced constructions with the same thickness.2/1/2015 The Advantages of Prestressed Concrete The advantages of prestressed concrete include crack control and thinner slabs that are important in high rise buildings in which floor thickness savings can translate into additional floors. • • • • • • It takes the full advantages of high strength concrete and high strength steel It needs less materials. Concrete casting needs superior quality and accurate supervision. diminishing the number of joints leads to lower maintenance costs during the life of a building. because of using the entire section to resist the load. It is more technically complex. since joints are the major focus of weakness in precast concrete buildings. It needs higher quality materials. It has better shear resistance The Disadvantages of Prestressed Concrete • • • • • • • It is more expensive.

Structural Background Bending in a beam.2/1/2015 Applications of Prestressed Concrete Prestressed concrete is the main material for floors in high-rise buildings and the entire containment vessels of nuclear reactors. and due to its ability to be stressed and then de-stressed. Also. it is commonly used in bridges and parking garages. Prestressed concrete is commonly used in parking garages because of the relative high loads and height limitations as well as wide span requirements. it can be used to temporarily repair a damaged building by holding up a damaged wall or floor until permanent repairs can be made. Beam failure due to overloads Bending in a beam causes compression stresses in the upper part of the beam and tension stresses in the lower part. 5 .

carry a greater load. or span a greater distance than a reinforced member of the same size. placing the entire cross section of the member in compression. proportion. and weight. Pretensioning is accomplished in a precasting plant. There are two types of prestressing techniques. The resulting compression counteract the tensile bending stresses from the applied load. enabling the prestressed member to deflect less. especially when the structural units are too large to transport from factory to site.2/1/2015 Understanding Prestressed Concrete Ordinary concrete beam structural behavior Prestressed concrete beam structural behavior Concrete beam test. Prestressing Process Prestressed concrete is reinforced by highstrength steel tendons within their elastic limit to actively resist a service load. The tensile stresses in the tendons are transferred to the concrete. 6 . while posttensioning Is usually performed at the building site. The idea of prestressed concrete is to produce a compressive stress that balances the tensile stress that the concrete compression member would otherwise experience due to a bending loaded.

When the concrete has sufficient strength the tendons are tensioned by means of portable jacks. The force is transmitted to the concrete over a certain distance from each end of a member known as the transfer length. 2.2/1/2015 Types of Prestressed Concrete Types According to 1. Post-tensioned concrete is made by casting concrete that contains ducts through which tendons can be threaded. 3. External & Internal Based on the location of the prestressing tendons. After the concrete has developed sufficient strength the tension is slowly released from the frame or anchorage to transfer the stress to the concrete to which the tendons have by that time become bonded. Limited & Partial Based on the amount of prestressing force. The load is transmitted to the concrete through permanent anchorages embedded in the concrete at the ends of the tendons. Linear & Circular According to the shape of the member prestressed. 4. 7 . The concrete is then cast around it. Ducts are usually grouted later to protect the tendons against corrosion. An alternative is to cast the concrete around tendons that are greased or encased in a plastic sleeve. Posttensioned External Circular Full Pretensioned & Posttensioned Prestressed Concrete In Pretensioned concrete. Pretensioned & Posttensioned According to the sequence of casting the concrete and applying tension to the tendons. the steel is first tensioned in a frame or between anchorages external to the member. Full.

Attached elements that would be affected by this movement should be constructed after the posttensioning process is completed and be isolated from the posttensioned members with expansion joints. shrinkage. and creep. 8 . These members tend to shorten over time due to elastic compression. Anchorage Abutments Posttensioning Posttensioning is the prestressing of a concrete member by tensioning the reinforcing tendons after the concrete has set.2/1/2015 Pretensioning Pretensioning prestresses a concrete member by stretching the reinforcing tendons before the concrete is cast.

External prestressing requires a great deal of accuracy in planning.2/1/2015 Posttensioned Concrete: Tools & Materials Stressing Jack Anchors Tendons External or Internal Prestressing When external steel wires known as tendons are placed on the outer section of the region being stressed. Prestressing applications use internal technique because it is easy to achieve a greater degree of accuracy. The technique is suited for strengthening buildings and constructing bridges. therefore. The tendons lie outside or inside the hollow space of a box girder and forces are only transferred at the deviations or anchorage blocks. On the other hand. executing and maintenance. internal prestressing is achieved by placing the tendons within a structure. it is not very common. Internal Prestressing External Prestressing 9 . then the technique is called external prestressing.

On the other hand. Limited Prestressing When the level of prestressing is such that the tensile stress under service loads is within the cracking stress of concrete. this include pipes. Full Prestressing When the level of prestressing is such that no tensile stress is allowed in concrete under service loads. silos and tanks. when using this technique during construction. the tendons are wound in circles. The technique can even be used on curved structures as long as the tendons don't go round in circles because they are linearly prestressed. The area of prestressing steel is more than the area needed for safety at ultimate state. for example. the crack width is within the allowable limit.2/1/2015 Linear or Circular Prestressing Linear prestressing is a type of prestressing used in straight or flat structures. therefore leading to inefficient use of prestressing. Partial Prestressing When the level of prestressing is such that under tensile stresses due to service loads. The part under tension is reinforced using additional mild steel bars to control the cracks and hence the crack width is within allowable limit. For example. Linear Prestressing Circular Prestressing Full. In contrast. full prestressing is a technique where no tensile stress is allowed in concrete under service loads. cracking and fatigue on the structure. prestressing of slabs and beams can be done using the linear prestressing technique. curved or circular structures employ the circular prestressing technique. Limited & Partial Prestressing The technique where no restrictions are placed on concrete tensile stresses under service conditions is called partial prestressing. you must always monitor the prestressing force carefully. 10 . therefore. Deviations from the set prestressing can cause deformation.

new developments. this is very effective for deflection control and better shear resistance. Post-tensioned concrete is made by casting concrete that contains ducts through which tendons can be threaded. limited or partial.. 3. Linear or circular. Pretensioned or posttensioned. successive and local case studies or important details. The concrete is then cast around it. Full.2/1/2015 Summary • • • • • • Prestressed concrete is a method for overcoming concrete's natural weakness in tension.e. The advantages of prestressed concrete structures are as follows: they take less materials. 2. Also. It can be used to produce beams. 1. In pretensioned concrete. i. Lecture Activity Each student is required to prepare a brief but informative internet-based research about one of the topics related to this lecture (Prestressed Concrete). 4. the steel is first tensioned in a frame or between anchorages external to the member. 11 . External or internal. Prestressed concrete is the main material for floors in high-rise buildings and the entire containment vessels of nuclear reactors. Prestressed concrete is classified into four categories as follows. it is commonly used in bridges and parking garages. The research should be presented in only one A4 sheet. so they are smaller and lighter structures with no cracks and have better corrosion resistance. floors or bridges with a longer span than is practical with ordinary reinforced concrete.

 http://en.2_Advantages_Types_of_Prestressing. al.& Gorse. C.  Mehta. Pearson. (2009) Fundamentals of building construction materials and methods. John Wiley & Sons.wikipedia. (2013) “Building Construction”. Madan et.in/courses/105106117/pdf/1_Introduction/1.britannica. USA. Blackwell Publishing.  Emmitt. S. John Wiley & Sons. EA.pdf  http://vimeo.  http://nptel.com 12 .2/1/2015 References  Allen. (2006) “Barry’s Advanced Construction of Buildings”.org. Francis (2008) Building Construction Illustrated.  Ching.com  http://www.ac.com  http://youtube.