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Parenting in the Philippines

:
A review of the research literature
from 2004 to 2014
Danielle Ochoa and Beatriz Torre
University of the Philippines, Diliman and
Pambansang Samahan sa Sikolohiyang Pilipino

PETA Arts Zone Project
Terre de Hommes Germany

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Executive Summary

4

Introduction

6

Methods

7

Results

13

Parenting characteristics and parenting styles

13

Parenting cognitions: Attitudes, beliefs and attributions

27

Parental socialization practices

29

Discipline and punishment

32

From discipline to abuse

37

Parenting risks and resources

29

Conclusions

45

Recommendations

49

References

53

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including stressful contexts such as neighborhood danger and poverty. they went beyond teaching parents how to discipline their children and also sought to help parents deal with other sources of stress such as health. both published and unpublished. livelihood. Many of these studies focused on parenting styles. and that it is viewed by most Filipinos as moderately normative. the literature on parenting interventions suggests that successful interventions tend to take a holistic approach. It also discusses recommendations about possible opportunities for strengthening efforts to advocate positive discipline in Filipino families. The research reviewed also shows that Filipino parents’ use of corporal punishment is associated with certain circumstances. parenting cognitions.Executive Summary This document provides an overview of research on parenting. Further. were selected for inclusion in the review. and parental discipline practices. education. Meanwhile. other topics that were investigated included parent-child relationships. The review also discusses several parenting interventions and their outcomes. or family relationships. These findings remind us that discipline practices are interconnected with many other aspects of parents’ and children’s lives. parental socialization. A total of 34 studies. they 4 . child-rearing and discipline conducted among Filipino families from 2004 to 2014. Corporal punishment appears to be linked with children’s anxiety and aggression. The research included in this review suggests that corporal punishment continues to be one of the common discipline practices used by Filipino parents. Empirical work on parenting and discipline in Filipino families were identified by searching online databases as well as the catalog of the National Library. a finding that echoes those of researchers in various other cultural contexts. that is. and parenting risks and resources.

This can help organizations gain a better idea of the effectiveness of their interventions. Programs can target both parent and child behaviors. including the need for more research among families outside Metro Manila and the importance of understanding the links between parenting styles and parenting practices. They may also target parenting styles. Interventions should also be tailor-made to suit family’s socioeconomic and cultural contexts of the family. using clear.  Intervention programs should be rigorously evaluated throughout the process. interventions can target parents’ authoritarian attitudes and endorsement of corporal punishment. and both parents and children can be consulted and involved in the design of programs. are also discussed. but also the contextual factors that influence the use of particular discipline practices such as stress.  Interventions should account for the bidirectional influence of parents and children on each other. measurable objectives as well as feedback from stakeholders. 5 .underscore the importance of promoting positive discipline in Filipino families in ways that recognize the circumstances in which they live. which set the climate for children’s receptiveness to the socialization practices used by their parents. Other recommendations for future research on parenting and discipline in Filipino families. Children’s age and gender also need to be accounted for to ensure that interventions are appropriate. 01 nknown Key recommendations include:  Interventions should not just focus on teaching specific positive discipline practices. Programs may start by assisting parents in dealing with the various stressors that may have an impact on their behaviors before targeting specific practices.  Aside from discipline practices.

including research on parenting styles. However. 2001). in which the family is generally seen as central to one's social world (Jocano. For instance. With this in mind. Bornstein. Parenting and child-rearing in Filipino families have been the subject of several previously published reviews. parenting cognitions. One notable example is Liwag. this review looks at research on Filipino parents' disciplinary practices. and fulfillment of mutual obligations (Chao & Tseng. 2014. 1998). such as a shift from authoritarian towards more permissive or autonomous attitudes towards parenting. Medina. Scholars such as Medina (2001) and Alampay (2014) have suggested that with these changes might come shifts in parenting beliefs and behaviors. parenting is seen as an integral social role with great influence on the lives of children and of parents themselves (Alampay. Local and cross-cultural researchers have described the Filipino family as characterized by cohesiveness. 2001). the social contexts in which Filipino families are embedded have changed rapidly over the past ten years. growing numbers of families involve one or more parent going abroad to work. the current publication reviews local and cross-cultural studies that have investigated various aspects of parenting in Filipino families from 2004 to 2014.Introduction In most if not all cultures. and Macapagal's (1999) review of 6 . and socialization practices. The importance of parenting is particularly highlighted in Philippine society. de la Cruz. possibly shaping in turn the ways in which parents and children think about and relate with each other. or adolescent children going to the city to study. deference to parental authority. respect for elders. 2002. In particular. such as the use of punishment as well as positive discipline.

neither focuses specifically on recent research on disciplinary practices. the existing reviews have included mainly published research on Filipino parenting and childrearing. In addition. including parents' cognitions and behaviors towards children. which focused on Filipino parents' child-rearing beliefs and practices and how these influence children's development and learning of gender roles and stereotypes. we conducted online searches on Google Scholar and EBSCOHost using the keywords parenting.  To provide a broad view of the discipline practices used by Filipino parents.  To gain insight into possible areas and opportunities for furthering efforts to advocate positive discipline in Filipino families and communities. the current publication was written with the following objectives:  To review published and unpublished research on parenting. Since our online searches yielded predominantly published studies that were conducted in Metro Manila.research on child-rearing and gender socialization in the Philippines. child-rearing. While both of these reviews discuss discipline as an aspect of child-rearing and parenting. and parents combined with Philippines or Filipino. A broader view of parenting in the Philippines is provided by Alampay's (2014) review of locally and internationally published empirical research on various aspects of Filipino parenting. child-rearing and discipline conducted among Filipino families from 2004 to 2014. and the differentiated roles of mothers and fathers. Thus. the nature of parent-child interactions. discipline. Studies that were identified from these searches were included in the review if they were 7 . corporal punishment. Methods To identify empirical work on parenting and discipline in Filipino families. we also searched the catalog of the National Library for theses and dissertations on the topics of interest.

2012. & Lansford. Peña-Alampay. The following table summarizes the geographic distribution of the research samples in the studies that were selected for inclusion: Region National Capital Region (NCR) Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR) Studies that included research sample from region Total number of studies included Alino. Peña-Alampay & Jocson.published or produced between 2004 to 2014. 2011. Deater-Deckard et al. 2007. 2012. 2011. the studies included in the review may or may not have been conducted solely in the Philippines. the majority of the studies included in the review were still based in Metro Manila. de Leon. feeding).. 2014. 2009. 2011.. So as not to be overly centered on findings from research samples in Metro Manila. 2014 18 ARNEC. Thus. Bernardo & Ujano-Batangan. Despite our efforts. 2006. 2011 1 Ilocos Region (Region I) Cagayan Valley (Region II) Central Luzon (Region III) CALABARZON (Region IVA) Abarquez. 2004. Parcon. and if the research participants included a Philippine sample. 2010. Jocson. 2008. or if they focused on non-psychological aspects of parenting (i. Pesigan et al. 2014. 2012. Ochoa. we took efforts to identify research that had been conducted among Filipino families based outside the NCR. 2013. 2005. Garcia. de Guzman-Capulong. Shao. Gershoff et al. Skinner et al. 2012. Studies were excluded from the review if they were published or written before 2004... 2011.. 2008 MIMAROPA (Region IV-B) Bicol Region (Region V) 8 2 . Santos & McCollum. Esteban. ARNEC.e. Molina. Lansford et al.

Taylor. 2011 1 Caraga (Region XIII) Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) ARNEC. Calleja. 1 7 Table 1. 2013. 2009 (unspecified). 2014 (Metro Manila and other provinces. Geographic distribution of research reviewed The studies that were selected for the current review include published empirical work. 2005 (national). 2014 1 Davao Region (XI) SOCCSKARGEN (Region XII) ARNEC. Orbeta. 2005. More specific concerns about the implications of the quality of certain studies on the soundness of their conclusions are noted in the review. 2011 Other Del Castillo. 2008 (unspecified). reports by local and international NGOs. and unpublished theses and dissertations.1. & Restubog. unspecified). Loh. Pesigan et al. as seen in the succeeding table. majority of the studies stem from basic academic settings. it must be noted that there are some disparities in the quality of the studies that were reviewed. 9 . 1 Central Visayas (Region VII) Eastern Visayas (Region VIII) Capoquian. Because we included articles that were published in peer-reviewed academic journals as well as unpublished research. Parreñas 2005a (unspecified).Region Western Visayas (Region VI) Studies that included research sample from region Total number of studies included Gilongos & Guarin. 1 Zamboanga Peninsula (Region IX) Northern Mindanao (Region X) Bacus. only a few involved applied work geared towards specific interventions. 2011 (unspecified). conference proceedings. review papers. Moreover. Parreñas 2005b (unspecified).

al. Esteban (2006) Garcia (2012). Ochoa (2014). and conclusions and recommendations. Gilongos & Guarin (2013). 29 Basic (2005). Deater-Deckard. background. methods. findings. et. Molina (2008). ARNEC (2011). Shao (2013). al. Alino (2012). Pesigan. Parreñas (2005a. Jocson. Calleja. al. Capoquian (2005). al. Skinner. et. Solayao (2009). Gershoff. Lansford. et. Luyckx. and a sizeable number also considered the views of multiple informants (n = 12). research objectives. Bacus (2014). et.Type of Research Studies Total number of studies included Al-Hassan (2009). Schulze (2004). Santos & McCollum (2007). Loh. & Restubog (2010). De GuzmanCapulong (2004). As summarized in the tables below. Taylor (2008) Table 1. Bernardo & Ujano-Batangan (2007). Del Castillo (2009). 5 Applied Orbeta (2005). & Lansford (2012). Peña-Alampay& Jocson (2011). we extracted the following from each study: bibliographic information. PeñaAlampay (2014). 2005b). majority of the studies include children as participants (n = 21).2. Alampay. Save the Children (2006) Abarquez (2009). (2014). (2011). Parcon (2011). & Alampay (2014). (2010). De Leon (2012). 10 . Types of research in the review After selecting the material to be included in the review.

Ochoa (2014). & McCollum. et. Deater-Deckard.. other adults. & Alampay (2014). Parreñas Parents and children (2005b) 10 Both parents and children: Capoquian (2005). 2011. Skinner. Bernardo & Ujano-Batangan (2007).M. Taylor (2008) Mothers only: Santos. al.Sample Studies Total number of studies included Adolescents: Alino (2012). Research samples in the review 11 3 . et. (2014) Parents & other adults Solayao (2009) 1 Loh. Luyckx. Save the Children Parents. Molina (2008). (2010). Garcia (2012). al. Esteban (2006).3.A. (2005). et. Shao (2013) 10 Adolescents and adults: Parcon (2011). al. De Guzman-Capulong (2004). Gilongos. & Guarin (2013). & Restubog (2010). & children Family unit 2 (2006) ARNEC. (2011). et. Calleja. Lising Children (2008). Gershoff. Bacus (2014). Lansford. Parreñas (2005a). Alampay. al. Pesigan. Jocson. & Lansford (2012). (2007) Parents Mothers and fathers: Del Castillo (2009). Peña-Alampay & Jocson (2011) Mothers and children: Abarquez (2009). J. De Leon 6 (2012). R. Orbeta (2005) Table 1.

et. Alino (2012). Luyckx. et. (2010). Deater-Deckard. Garcia (2012). Gershoff. Santos & McCollum (2007). & Restubog (2010) Parreñas (2005a. Skinner. & Alampay (2014). et. Alampay. particularly their implications for future interventions to promote positive discipline. Survey questionnaires Lising (2008). Capoquian (2005). Shao (2013) Multiple methods 8 Qualitative: De Leon (2012). Save the Children (2006) 12 . Peña- 18 Alampay & Jocson (2011). al. al. Orbeta (2005). et.In terms of methods used. Ochoa (2014). (2005). Bacus (2014). After reviewing each study. Pesigan. In-depth Interviews 4 Taylor (2008) Quantitative-qualitative: Esteban (2006). Parcon (2011). Calleja. Solayao (2009) Qualitative Loh. Methods Studies Total number of studies included Quantitative: Abarquez (2009). we then discussed themes that we observed in the articles that we had reviewed. (2011). Bernardo & Ujano-Batangan (2007). Jocson. while a smaller number used multiple methods (n = 8) to collect data. Lansford. al. 2005b). & Lansford (2012). Gilongos & Guarin (2013). Molina (2008). al. majority of the research reviewed here (n = 17) used survey questionnaires. (2014).

In particular. Schulze (2004) 2 Al-Hassan (2009). control. including parenting styles and characteristics. Methods used in research reviewed Results We begin with an overview of recent studies on more general aspects of parenting. researchers have sought to examine the influence of various parenting characteristics and/or styles on outcomes such as children's social adjustment. and emotional support 13 . 2014). and social outcomes. emotional intelligence. Some of these studies focus on describing patterns that can be observed among many Filipino families. parent-child interactions.4. Del Castillo Program evaluation 3 (2009) Table 1. 2007. identity development. while others investigate the impact of these aspects of parenting on children's developmental outcomes such as academic performance. Parenting Characteristics and Parenting Styles In recent years.Methods Studies Total number of studies included Quantitative: De Guzman-Capulong (2004) Review of literature Peña-Alampay (2014). Pesigan et al. a substantial number of studies on parenting in the Philippines have focused on parenting characteristics and parenting styles.. ARNEC (2011). and identity processes (Bernardo & Ujano-Batangan. While some researchers focused on specific parenting characteristics such as parental warmth. academic goal orientation. and parenting cognitions.

in Bacus' (2014) study on relationships between parenting styles. 2009. and control. referred to as parenting styles (Abarquez. researchers from various regions have applied this approach in an attempt to determine how parenting styles influence children's academic. permissive. and academic outcomes among seventh grade students in Northern 14 . social. Adopting a somewhat more critical stance. self-concept. which describes three broad patterns in parenting characteristics and methods of childrearing: authoritarian. others examined the outcomes associated with broad patterns in parenting characteristics and methods of child-rearing. others have questioned the assumption that Filipino parents can easily be classified as authoritarian. support. considering that there may be meaningful differences in cultural notions of parental autonomy. authoritarian parents emphasize unquestioning obedience while remaining aloof and detached. and psychological outcomes. Many of the studies in this review that relied on Baumrind's classification of parenting styles found authoritative parenting styles to be the most commonly practiced among Filipino families. 1991) work on parenting styles.(Deater-Deckard et al. 2011. attitudes towards school. and authoritative parents are characterized by strong emotional support. high expectations. According to this framework. 2011). In the Philippine context. permissive parents place few demands or limits on their children. and granting appropriate levels of autonomy. 2013). Parcon. Much of the Western literature on parenting styles suggests that authoritative parenting is positively associated with outcomes such as academic achievement and social competence. and authoritative.. For instance. permissive. A considerable number of researchers drew from Baumrind's (1989. or authoritative. Gilongos & Guarin.

and students' behavior. with far fewer parents using parenting styles that could be described as permissive (2. and reported engaging in prosocial. though. and the majority of students were found to demonstrate energetic-friendly behavior. the majority of parents were also found to use authoritative parenting styles. it is not clear whether this conclusion can clearly be drawn from the data they obtained. The researchers concluded from these findings that parents' self-reported authoritative parenting styles were associated with children's healthy relationships with their parents and peers. Capoquian found no significant relationship between parenting styles and students' behavior and concluded that “parenting had no bearing on the behavior of students”. that the 15 . however.Mindanao. Bacus found that students' attitudes towards school and authoritative parenting style were strongly associated with academic performance. In Capoquian's (2005) thesis. cooperative behavior.33%). and loving. who utilized survey-questionnaires. survey-questionnaire data from Northern Samar-based high school students and their parents were used to examine the relationship between parenting styles. the parenting styles in the majority of these households (96%) were described as authoritative. supportive. and focus groups to investigate the relationship between parenting styles and schoolage children's social adjustment among families in Aklan. which was categorized according to Baumrind's framework. Using path analysis. interviews. and energetic-friendly. Based on parents' self-reports. It must be noted. Meanwhile. In this study. most of the children described their relationships with their parents as warm. However. conflicted-irritable. and perceived their relationships with their peers to be healthy. the majority of students perceived their parents as practicing an authoritative parenting style. which was categorized as impulsive-aggressive.67%) or authoritarian (1. Similar patterns were observed by Gilongos and Guarin (2013).

suggesting that they tended to be high in emotional warmth but low in control as parents.measures and analysis used in the study make it difficult to reach such a clear-cut conclusion. For instance. Finding no significant differences between the children of working and nonworking mothers in self-concept and academic performance. which supposedly characterize authoritative parenting. According to Bernardo and 16 . the analysis used by the author did not allow for any insights with regards to the impact of parenting styles on children's psychological and academic outcomes. the authors found that while college students' perceptions of their mothers' and fathers' emotional support and autonomy granting were positively correlated. might have different meanings for Filipinos. Meanwhile. emotional support. Abarquez also sought to analyze the relationship between children's self-concept and academic performance with their mother's work status. One example is Abarquez's (2009) master's thesis on the parenting styles of working and non-working mothers of high school students in Tagaytay City. and high demands. The majority of mothers were found to be nurturing-permissive. Other studies that have drawn on Baumrind's framework reached somewhat different conclusions regarding predominant parenting styles. some researchers have questioned whether Baumrind's conceptualization of parenting styles can be readily applied to the Philippine context. Bernardo and Ujano-Batangan (2007) noted that the notions of autonomy. the dimension of high demand was found to be either negatively correlated or not correlated at all to these two dimensions. However. the author suggested that working mothers find ways to compensate for the time spent away from their children through quality interactions. In their investigation of the relationship between Metro-Manila based college students' perceived parenting characteristics and goal orientation.

Ujano-Batangan, Filipino adolescents might construe parents' high demands or expectations as
manifestations of control, possibly perceiving them as the opposite of parental autonomy and
emotional support. In light of these findings, the authors suggested that the notion of an
“authoritative” parenting style that combines emotional support, autonomy granting, and high
demands might not be a viable construct in the Philippine context.

Given this caveat, Bernardo and Ujano-Batangan also examined the relationships between
gender, perceived parenting characteristics, and college students' goal orientation, a construct
which is associated with academic achievement. Perceived emotional support from both mothers
and fathers was positively associated with mastery orientation, which involves a focus on
acquiring new knowledge and skills, improving one's levels of competence, and gaining mastery
in a specific domain based on personal standards. Gender also appeared to influence the
relationship between parenting and goal orientation: among female college students, fathers'
emotional support was negatively associated with performance-avoidance goals, which focus on
avoiding failure and demonstrations of incompetence. Further, fathers' autonomy granting was
also negatively associated with performance-avoidance goals and work-avoidance goals among
female college students. These findings underscore the need for further study of cultural nuances
and gender influences with regards to the relationship between parenting and academic
outcomes.

Local research has also sought to examine how parenting characteristics may influence outcomes
beyond childhood or adolescence. For example, Parcon (2011) sought to investigate the
relationship between mothers' and fathers' parenting characteristics on Filipino young adults'

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patterns of attachment. Defined as an enduring affective bond characterized by a tendency to
seek and maintain proximity to a specific figure (Bowlby, 1969), attachment can be described in
terms of four distinct categories of attachment orientation: secure attachment style,
preoccupied/anxious attachment style, dismissing-avoidant attachment style, and fearfulavoidant attachment style. Using questionnaire data from Filipino young adults based in Metro
Manila, Parcon studied the relationship between individuals' retrospective perceptions of their
mothers' and fathers' parenting characteristics (specifically warmth, rejection, and inconsistency)
and their attachment orientation. Perceived parenting characteristics were found to be associated
with young adults' attachment orientation; further, this relationship was modified by parents' (but
not children’s) gender. The study's results support the “importance of warm and responsive care
in securing optimal attachment development” (Parcon, p. 131): Mothers' perceived warmth
predicted lower anxiety attachment, while fathers' perceived inconsistency predicted higher
anxiety attachment. Meanwhile, avoidance attachment appeared to be influenced by fathers' (but
not mothers') parenting characteristics, with fathers' perceived rejection predicting higher
avoidance attachment. Noting that being a disciplinarian is among the roles expected of fathers
in the context of Philippine culture, Parcon suggested that children may experience corporal
punishment by their fathers as a form of rejection, which could consequently lead them to
develop a negative view of others as a potential source of hurt.

Parenting characteristics such as support and control may also influence processes that are linked
with mental health outcomes. Pesigan and colleagues (2014) examined the links between
parenting characteristics, identity processes, and mental health outcomes in Filipino late
adolescents and young adults using the dual-process model of identity (Luyckx, Goossens,

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Soenens, and Beyers, 2006). This model describes four dimensions of identity commitment and
exploration: commitment-making (CM) or the degree to which individuals have made decisions
about identity-relevant issues; identification with commitment (IC) or the degree to which
individuals have identified with and internalized their choices; exploration in breadth (EB) or the
process of searching for different alternatives in ideals, goals, and values before forming
commitments; exploration in depth (ED) or the evaluation of existing commitments to ensure
that they resemble one's internal standards. It also incorporates ruminative exploration (RE), a
maladaptive component of exploration that characterizes individuals with elevated levels of
anxiety and depression who get “stuck” in the identity formation process. Parental support was
significantly positively associated with adolescents' and young adults' psychological well-being
and identity processes, including commitment-making, identification with commitment, and
exploration in depth. On the other hand, parental control had a significant positive association
with adolescents' and young adults' ruminative exploration, and a significant negative association
with psychological well-being.

Of course, even constructs as seemingly simple and universal as parental support and control
may be associated with different meanings and practices across various cultures. In a study that
spanned thirteen cultural groups in nine different countries, Deater-Deckard and colleagues
(2011) examined cross-cultural differences in the correlation between two parenting
characteristics: parental warmth and parental control. Parental warmth, which includes parents'
affection and acceptance of their children, is generally seen as a positive dimension of parenting;
parental control, which refers to actions intended to modify children's thoughts, emotions, and
behaviors, may be more culturally variable with respect to its normativeness and meanings.

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Metro Manila). particularly behaviors related to parental control. Kenya. The next section reviews research that explores several aspects of Filipino parent-child relationships. correlations between warmth and control varied widely across cultural groups. Colombia. 20 . conflict. Greater parental warmth was associated with more parental control for most of the cultural groups.Using questionnaires and interviews with children and parents. including communication. and psychological well-being. Deater-Deckard and colleagues emphasized the need to consider the cultural variation in the meanings associated by children and parents with parenting practices. including the Philippines. and cohesion. the Philippines (specifically. Thailand. Sweden. Italy. Parents and children engage in play. These studies primarily focus on the perceived and self-reported behaviors of parents. in studying the outcomes associated with these practices. and the US. identity development. However. The previously summarized research literature has yielded important insights on patterns of parenting characteristics and styles among Filipino parents as well as their influence on children's academic outcomes. Parent-child relationships and interactions Although parenting characteristics and styles influence children's development outcomes in different domains. ranging from strongly positive associations to near zero and even negative (albeit not statistically significant) associations. Jordan. the researchers compared the correlations between parental control and warmth among cultural groups in China. but do not say much about the dynamics of the relationships between Filipino parents and their children. parenting is not a one-way street: parents and children interact and relate with each other in ways that change throughout the life course.

and negotiate the shifting boundaries of autonomy. perhaps because of common perceptions of adolescence as a developmental stage characterized by conflict. 2008). researchers have explored various themes regarding Filipino parent-child relationships. including child-parent communication (Lising. Alino (2012) aimed to develop a Filipino parent-adolescent relationship scale that would measure the three dimensions of parent-adolescent relationships described by Steinberg and Silk (2002): Autonomy (the adolescent’s capacity to make independent decisions and follow through with them). In light of robust empirical findings on the impact of parent-child interactions and relationships on children's development. Alino also found high mean scores for the Harmony subscale and low mean scores for the Conflict subscale. transnational families and the experiences of children of OFW parents (Parreñas. and parents' interactions with children with disabilities (Santos & McCollum. Taylor. Data from a sample of Metro Manila-based teenagers confirmed (?) the measure's validity and reliability.talk about their day-to-day activities and concerns. 2008). suggesting that Filipino parents and their children are likely to remain close and connected during adolescence. sometimes experiencing conflict in the process. and emotionally close). (the extent to which the parent-adolescent relationship is contentious and hostile). 2013). suggesting that parental 21 . 2007). Conflict. 2005). Most of the research on Filipino parent-child relationships within the past ten years appears to have focused on those involving adolescents. In addition. For instance. and Harmony (the extent to which the parent-adolescent relationship is warm. Alino found a significant positive correlation between the Autonomy and Harmony subscales and a significant negative correlation between the Autonomy and Conflict subscales. conflict and cohesion in Filipino-Chinese families (Shao. involved.

Shao's findings also underscore the importance of taking into consideration factors that may be culturally meaningful in parent-adolescent dynamics. For instance. although there were no significant gender differences in overall conflict frequency.. such as age and gender. and with either one or both parents being Chinese by blood) completed measures of parent-adolescent conflict. In particular.recognition of adolescent children's independence is associated with more harmonious. Overall measures of family cohesion yielded moderate results. High school and college students of Chinese-Filipino ethnicity (defined as holding Filipino citizenship. Pesigan et al. family cohesion and autonomy in Chinese-Filipino families. occurring once a month or less on average. cohesion. perceived family cohesion. adolescents reported the use of positive problem-solving most frequently and conflictive engagement least frequently. Shao sought to examine whether there are differences in patterns of conflict. 2014). Another recently published study that focused on relationship dynamics between parents and adolescents was Shao's (2013) research on parent-adolescent conflict. These findings appear to echo those reviewed in the previous section on parenting characteristics and styles which similarly underscored the importance of parental autonomy (Bernardo & Ujano-Batangan. Further. At the same time. and autonomy across age and gender in ChineseFilipino adolescents residing in the vicinity of Chinatown in Metro Manila. Her overall findings paint a generally positive picture of parent-adolescent relationships in Chinese-Filipino families: results showed that the frequency of parent-adolescent conflict was relatively low. 2007. and adolescent autonomy. 22 . less hostile relationships. suggesting that Chinese-Filipino adolescents perceived their overall family relationship as neither too close nor too distant.

pre-adolescents (sixth-grade students about 11-12 years old) reported significantly higher levels of conflict than did early adolescents (second year high school students about 13-15 years old). at the same time. making independent self-identity goals with a confident and meaningful feeling in those choices and goals) compared to male adolescents—possibly reflecting gendered cultural expectations of girls as more nurturing and caring. and defining interdependent self-identity goals with a feeling of identification and meaningfulness) but not individuating autonomy (defined as a capacity for specifying independent self-identity options. and male participants reported significantly higher conflict frequency with fathers than did female participants. and late adolescents (college students about 19-21 years old). these patterns might reflect the integration of more gender-egalitarian views of socialization among Chinese families in the Philippines. with female adolescents reporting significantly higher levels of relating autonomy (defined as a capacity for specifying interdependent self-identity decisions. they suggest that certain traditional expectations regarding the roles of sons in Chinese families (such as supporting their parents in their old age and carrying on the family name) might continue to be endorsed by at least some parents. According to Shao. These findings highlight the complexity of parent-child interactions and relationships. Gender differences were also observed in adolescents' autonomy orientation. and 23 . Age also appeared to influence parent-child relationships.both parent's and child's gender seemed to influence the dynamics of parent-adolescent relationships: adolescents reported significantly more frequent conflict with their mothers than with their fathers. middle adolescents (fourth year high school students about 16-18 years old).

mostly within Western cultural contexts. parent-child interactions might be framed in terms of what the specific child needs (i. Santos and McCollum (2008) sought to expand on these findings by exploring the characteristics and contexts of daily interactions between Filipino mothers of infants and toddlers with and without disabilities. were less likely to talk about playing with their children. 256). Bornstein. 24 . therapeutic goals) rather than in terms of what children in general need.the need for researchers and practitioners to be sensitive to the diversity in cultural backgrounds of different Filipino families. or what the parent and child do for “fun”. Of course. However. in comparison to mothers of children without disabilities. the authors also observed a number of differences between the two groups of mothers: for instance. adolescence is not the only developmental phase during which parent-child dynamics are of critical importance. Decades of empirical research. and were more likely to cite professionals as a source of information on how to interact with their children. 2002.g. Using qualitative analysis of transcripts from open-ended interviews with Filipino mothers based in the Metro Manila area. Wolff & van Uzendoorn.e. show that parent-child interactions during even the earliest years of childhood can influence children's cognitive and socio-emotional development (e. 1997). mothers of children with disabilities were more likely to emphasize their roles as their child's director or teacher. with parent-child interaction such as play behaviors and interactions during daily routines emerging as a “natural part of everyday life” (p. Santos and McCollum observed more similarities than differences between the two groups of mothers. These findings might indicate that in the context of having a child with disabilities.

and disability status. or transnational families. suggesting that there might be more “shame” associated with having children with “obvious” disabilities. 2005). parent-child relationships are also shaped by broader social forces such as economic conditions. 2008). phone calls. Beyond individual factors such as age. In these studies. This non-traditional family structure and the ways in which it affects parent-child relationships has been the focus of several research investigations within the past ten years. Taylor. For instance. Among Filipino families. gender. letters. Given the greater reliance on input from professionals observed among mothers of children with disabilities. Parreñas (2005a. migrant mothers not only provide financial support through 25 . Thus. most of which have looked primarily at this experience from the perspective of young adult children in transnational families (Parreñas. Recent estimates suggest that approximately nine million Filipino children grow up geographically separated from their father. mother or both with one or both parents being migrant workers (Parreñas. 2005b) conducted interviews with young adult children in motheraway transnational families to explore their relations with their OFW mothers. 2005a. Santos and McCollum called on practitioners and therapists to make an effort understand the family's perspectives and cultural context before engaging in interventions. 2005b. Parreñas. Parreñas found that migrant mothers rely on multiple modes of communication including text messages. one salient example of this is the growing number of children whose parents are overseas foreign workers (OFWs).The authors also noted that these findings were more pronounced among mothers of children with more obvious disabilities such as Down syndrome or autism. and balikbayan boxes to maintain a sense of intimacy despite spatial and temporal distances.

most fathers rarely did housework. They also emphasized their recognition of the sacrifices made both by their overseas parent and their present parent. daughters. somewhat different themes emerged from Taylor's (2008) analysis of adult children’s perceptions of their experiences of parenting within Filipino transnational families. Further. and felt that they had developed a greater sense of autonomy and resilience due to their experience of growing up in a transnational family. In follow-up interviews. However. relying instead on female relatives. adult children of mother-away families in Taylor's study mostly reported that their fathers performed household tasks that are traditionally viewed as feminine. However. fathers of young adult children in motheraway households also expressed the view that their role in parenting was primarily to instill discipline. 26 . such as cooking and caring for children. In this study. and that nurturing or caring work should still be women's work. In contrast to Parreñas' findings with regards to gendered division of labor. Taylor noted that her study relied on a much smaller sample size that was mostly composed of middle-class young adults who were college students or recent graduates.remittances but are also able to provide emotional support. adult children were somewhat more likely to perceive their relationship with their overseas parent as emotionally distant and to describe their relationship with their present parent as stronger. possibly limiting the generalizability of her findings. most young adult children did not perceive their fathers as a potential source of emotional support and guidance. Parreñas underscored the ways in which traditional gender roles persist even within the non-traditional structure of transnational families: in mother-away transnational families. and/or paid domestic help to do the work “left behind” by their wives. On the other hand. preferring to turn to their migrant mothers or other female relatives instead.

& Martini. 2011. In a 2004 review article. attributions. Schulze. Mothers' and fathers' parenting attitudes. However. Within the past ten years. 2004). and beliefs with regards to parenting (Peña-Alampay & Jocson. few researchers have examined parenting cognitions using empirical methods (Peña-Alampay & Jocson. 2011. less empirical attention has been directed towards the cognitive aspect of parenting in Filipino families. Peña-Alampay & Jocson. However. The next section summarizes two papers that examine Filipino parents' attitudes. beliefs. most investigations of parenting cognitions in the Philippines have tended to rely on intuitive ways of describing culturally shared family values. understanding parenting cognitions is integral to efforts to investigate socialization practices and children's developmental outcomes (Grusec. 1997. Parenting cognitions: Attitudes. 2004). Rudy. In particular.Both parenting styles and parent-child relationships are informed by parents attitudes. 2011). and other cognitions regarding parenting. and attributions As developmental psychologists have pointed out. Schulze discussed previous research on Filipino mothers' beliefs about parenting in light of ongoing questions about the usefulness of the individualism–collectivism construct in cross-cultural research in psychology. among others. can shape their child-rearing practices and the ways they interact with their children. beliefs. Schulze. goals. knowledge. and attributions about success and failure. Schulze cited one of her earlier studies which compared Anglo-American and first-generation Filipino-American mothers’ 27 .

Using questionnaire and interview data from Filipino mothers and fathers based in Quezon City. her discussion of the implications of these findings posed a challenge to cross-cultural researchers to move beyond dichotomous views of culture and to incorporate dimensions of cultural differences beyond collectivism and individualism. Although the studies cited in Schulze's review were somewhat dated. Schulze found that Filipino mothers responded more positively to other adults disciplining their children even in their presence. This need for a nuanced understanding of cultural differences in parenting cognitions was also highlighted in a more recent study by Peña-Alampay and Jocson (2011). the authors sought to investigate the relationship between Filipino mothers’ and fathers’ attitudes (described as either progressive or traditional). On the other hand. 1995).socialization goals and beliefs about the roles of other adults in disciplining their children (Schulze. Consistent with the popular notion that Filipino culture is collectivistic while Western culture is individualistic. Cultural differences in socialization goals also appeared to bolster the individualism-collectivism construct: whereas Filipino mothers emphasized respectfulness. The author argued that although this finding appeared to contradict the notion of a collectivistic Filipino culture. demonstrating a seeming willingness to allow other adults to play a role in disciplining their children. it could be an instance of a seemingly individualistic belief serving collectivist goals such as bringing prestige and economic security to the whole family. Results showed that mothers scored more highly on modernity (encouraging greater 28 . and their attributions about successes and failures in caregiving situations. Schulze also found in the same study that Filipino mothers placed greater value on their children's achievements than American mothers did. Anglo-American mothers tended to highlight autonomy and empathy.

parents’ cognitions such as attitudes. particularly setting rules and compromising. maternal socialization did not have a significant relationship with the ability to delay gratification (i. the specific socialization practices of parents will be examined in greater depth. The authors noted that this coexistence of traditional and modern attitudes among mothers not only showed that these attitudes are not necessarily mutually exclusive. which emphasize the importance of respect and obedience towards elders. explanation. Children of the top 20 and bottom 20 scorers were selected for the delay of gratification task. As mentioned earlier. but also highlighted the multiplicity of influences on parents in our changing culture. mothers and fathers were similar in their endorsement of authoritarian attitudes. Mothers were asked to answer a scale on maternal practices socializing children to delay gratification. where they were asked to wait for 15 minutes before they could get a preferred prize. beliefs and attributions can contribute to their specific parenting behaviors. This link was examined by De Guzman-Capulong (2004) in a study conducted among 7-year-old children and their mothers based in Quezon City. At the same time. this might reflect the emphasis in Filipino culture on adults’ need to control children’s behaviors in instances when children misbehave. In the succeeding section.rather than child-controlled. In addition. Peña-Alampay and Jocson found that both mothers and fathers were more likely to attribute failure situations as adult.e. Contrary to expectations.independence and expression in their children) compared to fathers. According to the authors. such as delaying gratification. Parental Socialization Practices Parenting practices may be geared toward achieving very specific goals. Metro Manila.. 29 . and discipline.

2012). However. that 30 . non-delayers with high maternal socialization of delay behavior were able to wait significantly longer for their preferred reward compared to non-delayers with low maternal socialization. differences did arise among children who were unable to wait for the entire duration (i.e. the study recommends parents’ greater mindfulness and guidance to ensure that children are kept away from these negative influences and taught to be more critical of what they see on television. parents also remove television viewing privileges when their children misbehave. With this study. it becomes apparent that some parenting practices may actually work against parents’ goal of socializing their children’s positive behaviors. maternal socialization of delay behaviors appeared to have at least achieved some of its desired effect in these children. Thus.. The exception to this lack of parental guidance occurs when there are sexually explicit scenes are shown on television. non-delayers). parents opt to change the channel. Specific practices. This study found that television viewing is sometimes used as a reward for children’s good behaviors.wait the full 15 minutes). the study pointed out that in doing so. In this case. and allow them to continue viewing despite the parental guidance (PG) rating of a particular program. 2008). focusing on a wider range of practices used by parents to socialize their children’s moral (Ochoa. In particular. 2014) and prosocial behaviors (de Leon. However. parents sometimes fail to supervise their children’s television viewing. Thus. Other research takes a broader approach. particularly the use of television in rewarding and punishing children. Little action is taken even when programs feature themes that are inappropriate for children and thus run the risk of influencing them negatively. have also been examined in other research (Molina. Conversely.

cursing. putting chili on lips. assigning responsibilities. and cognitive. 2014). Parental socialization practices can also be understood along two dimensions: verbal and behavioral. pulling ears. with the direction only from parent to child. Although the studies had different participants and examined different stages of the lifespan. setting rules. meanwhile. pinching. slapping the child in order to reduce negative behaviors. Among punitive behavioral practices are spanking. and shouting. and punitive and non-punitive (Ochoa. and involve bidirectional interaction between parent and child.is. flicking (pitik). and Ochoa’s including children in middle childhood to early adolescence and their respective mothers. Non-punitive verbal practices include direct instruction. cognitive practices consist of discussions with the child to assist them in understanding what is wrong with a particular behavior. Both studies were qualitative. and pointing out other children as an example. threatening. In contrast. Verbal practices include affirmation and reminders to increase positive behaviors. correction. spanking. or speaking harsh words to reduce negative behaviors. they yielded a similar repertoire of parenting practices. and stopping the misbehaving child. pinching. albeit with different classifications. 31 . De Leon classified parental socialization practices based on whether they were physical. to teach their children to become good persons. verbal. direct assistance. Nonpunitive behavioral practices. punitive verbal practices include scolding. Meanwhile. punching. In contrast. and are the most commonly reported practices by both mothers and children. involve modeling. and beating. monitoring the child. explanation. physical practices include hitting. with de Leon’s research focusing on preschoolers’ parents.

2012). Such practices were commonly mentioned in both studies. In both studies. parents claimed to use these punishments when verbal reminders were no longer sufficient. Working mothers were more likely to use physical punishment. Parents were also more likely to use this form of discipline among younger children. even if parents admit that they would rather not use these harsh methods. discipline and corporal punishment feature prominently. both studies clearly distinguish the use of physical punishment from other socialization practices. perhaps because of the stress experienced with their dual responsibilities (de Leon. whom they believed were less able to understand their explanations. This suggests the centrality of discipline in Filipino parents’ practices to socialize their children’s good behaviors. as 7to 9-year-olds mention spanking more frequently as a practice used by their parents compared to other age groups (Ochoa. discipline and corporal punishment will be discussed at greater length. 2014). and Ochoa highlights the effect on the child. In the succeeding section. This was corroborated by the children’s reports.While de Leon focuses on the direction of the interaction. However. even if the researchers did not intentionally focus on these. and when the child’s misbehavior was severe. This is apparent in the studies discussed in this section. In both studies. and the normativeness of corporal punishment within the local setting. all of which were part of large-scale research projects conducted among several countries in Southeast Asia and the 32 . there were certain conditions when these physical punishments were more likely to be used. Discipline and Corporal Punishment Recent research on Filipino parents’ use discipline and corporal punishment stemmed from international efforts.

2005). Adults often use implements to carry out such physical punishment. as children tend not to report emotional punishment. Fiji. al. & Lansford. It is worth noting that the research used creative methods such as drawings. Hong Kong. A small number of children within each country report that they were not punished. Indonesia. and diaries.. These punishments are likely to be carried out when children engage in “bad” behaviors.000 adults as participants. 2010.000 children and 1. They also made sure to balance the negative feelings brought about by the discussion of punishment by ending the sessions with a focus on the positive aspect of the children’s lives. Jocson. The study by Save the Children (2006) examined children’s experiences of corporal punishment in Cambodia. Across the region. Lansford. while private punishment may increase fear. Mongolia. the Philippines and Vietnam.. al. et. Protocols and networks were also established beforehand to ensure that instances of abuse may be addressed. Such practices provide an exemplar for ensuring not just the quality of data but also adherence to strict ethical standards in corporal punishment research. fail to obey their parents’ orders. body maps. Such international collaborations reflect the increasing attention to the use of corporal punishment.Pacific (Save the Children.public punishment increases likelihood of humiliation. or fail to perform academic or 33 . essays. However. 2006) and around the world (Gershoff. 2012. this is likely to mean that they were not physically punished. sentence completion. and the need to understand and address the issues tied to it. Alampay. with over 3. with indirect physical assaults and verbal attacks as secondary methods of punishment. The setting for the punishment also matters . the most commonly used punishments were direct physical assaults. Korea. et.

.household tasks. This may create cognitive dissonance in adults. In particular. Separate analyses were also done with mothers’ and fathers’ responses to distinguish possible differences in the 34 . This is precisely what Jocson and colleagues (2012) set out to do in their research examining parental cognitions (i. including the Philippines. younger children. children are more likely to be punished for failing to obey their parents. In the Philippine sample. while older children. However. but continue to use this form of discipline anyway. However. especially girls are more likely to receive verbal abuse and humiliation or less severe measures such as grounding. older siblings and grandparents may also sometimes punish children. which they address through their justification of punishment as a ‘demonstration of love. made use of structured interviews with 117 mothers or mother figures and 98 fathers or father figures. and for trivial reasons such as persistent requests for money and accidentally breaking objects. which is part of the larger Parenting Across Cultures project. especially mothers. Parents’ use of this harsh practice can be better understood by examining their cognitions about it. collected in two waves one year apart.e. children also reported being punished for no reason other than anger or irritation of adults. Punishments may vary depending on the child’s age. especially boys are more likely to receive direct assaults.’ The previous study suggests that corporal punishment is a widely used discipline practice in Southeast Asia and the Pacific. The research. authoritarian attitudes and endorsement of corporal punishment) and parental education as possible predictors of Filipino parents’ use of corporal punishment. This physical punishment is more likely to be enforced by parents. Filipino adults report experiencing negative feelings toward physical punishment.

parents’ educational attainment was associated with parental cognitions. Parental education was also indirectly linked to actual corporal punishment use via authoritarian attitudes for mothers.. al. particularly authoritarian attitudes toward children. Kenya. and collected data using orally administered questionnaires. interventions to prevent harsh discipline practices among parents could target their attitudes and beliefs about their children. endorsement of corporal punishment) weighed more heavily in their actual behaviors.relationships among the variables. Indeed. al.. However. such that their general parenting attitudes are more likely to influence their parenting behaviors compared to specific attitudes about discipline. particularly as a moderator between discipline practices and child aggression and anxiety (Gershoff. Thus. et. In contrast. parents with higher educational attainment held less authoritarian attitudes toward their children. Another important cognitive factor to consider is the perceived normativeness of certain discipline practices. fathers were involved in specific child-rearing domains.e. Given these findings.. Lansford. That is. India. so their particular cognitions about discipline (i. 2010. and endorsement of corporal punishment among fathers. Italy. The studies included both mothers and children from China. It is possible that this difference resides in mothers’ wider range of child-rearing responsibilities. the Philippines and Thailand. particularly corporal punishment. the study highlighted the importance of cognitive factors acting as a link between education and actual parenting behavior. 35 . et. the studies differed in the forms of discipline examined: Gershoff and colleagues (2010) included a variety of discipline techniques to identify which ones had the strongest associations with children’s aggressive and anxious behaviors. 2005).

perceived normativeness of these practices played a moderating role. and yelling or scolding moderated their relationship with child behavior. al. using corporal punishment. and shaming were associated with higher levels of child anxiety. However. expression of disappointment. In contrast. children’s perceived normativeness of corporal punishment. we see that the use of harsh discipline techniques is indeed associated with negative outcomes. (2010) found that more frequent use of corporal punishment. With these findings. some country differences emerged: There was a stronger relationship between expression of disappointment and motherrated aggression in the samples from China. et. and Thailand than from Kenya. Thus. expression of disappointment. However. expressing disappointment. 36 . so that the associations between these harsh practices and negative outcomes were still present. In particular. Italy. giving a time out. mother and child perceptions of normativeness may serve different functions on child behavior outcomes. and yelling or scolding are linked to higher levels of child aggression. the Philippines. Gershoff. it must be noted that the direction was not reversed. with the relationship weakened when children perceived these practices as normative. However. as the researcher’s hypothesized. On the other hand. mothers’ perception of normativeness of expression of disappointment moderated its effect on child-reported anxiety.while Lansford and colleagues focused only on physical punishment and its link to anxiety and aggression.

both studies shed light on the role of cultural normativeness in the relationship between physical punishment and child adjustment. These country-specific findings also highlight the significant relationship between use and normativeness of physical punishment.Focusing specifically on physical punishment. we find that harsh discipline practices pose serious threats to child development across cultural contexts. Thus. both in mother and child reports. However. The role of normativeness as a mediator was similar to Gershoff et. al. they also highlight the potential problems in using physical discipline even in contexts in which it is normative. negative child behavior outcomes remained regardless of the normativeness of physical punishment. As with the aforementioned study.’s (2010) findings: perceived normativeness moderated the relationship between physical discipline and child anxiety and aggression. Lansford. verbal 37 . followed by India and the Philippines. (2005) found that use and normativeness of such practices varied among countries. al. In sum. This suggests that children's cognitive interpretations of discipline events might be more important than parents' interpretations in determining how the event will relate to children's adjustment. with Kenya and Italy having the highest frequency and normativeness of physical discipline. Although physical abuse tends to call greater attention due to the evident damage that it causes. Children's perceptions of normativeness also appeared to be a stronger moderator between use of physical discipline and child adjustment than do mothers' reports of normativeness. From Discipline to Abuse The impact of harsh discipline on child development becomes even more alarming when parenting practices cross the vaguely defined line between discipline and abuse. et. and then China and Thailand.

This may be used as a method of social control. et. In contrast. al. several categories of verbal abuse were found: put downs and shaming. Through content analysis of the responses. However. et. were asked to list down words or phrases uttered by parents that might inflict emotional pain or distress on adolescents. & Restubog. with females more likely to quietly endure and rationalize incidents of parental abuse. Participants also turned to media consumption and creative extracurricular activities to get a sense of relief.. invoking harm. rejection.. Calleja. unfair comparison.abuse is also a serious matter that must be addressed in both research and interventions. and negative prediction. pain. thus pressuring adolescents to adhere to norms set by their parents. and lowered self-esteem as a result of this. frustration. they still expressed feeling sadness. Lansford. using humor and turning to an intermediary in communicating with one’s parent were less common coping strategies. child 38 . regret. 2005). One such study focuses on different types of verbal abuse used by parents of Filipino adolescents (Loh. Esteban (2006) created a scale to measure the extent of verbal abuse experienced and coping mechanisms used by 294 college students. threat. parents. consisting of students. Silence was the most preferred coping mechanism among the participants. blaming. 2010). 2010. which reduce the child’s self-worth was overwhelmingly the most common type. al. Respondents. It is notable that while students considered these experiences of abuse as normal. discouraging independence and inducing anxiety. Interviews were also conducted among 24 of those identified as highly verbally abused to deepen and validate the survey findings. To better understand how adolescents deal with verbal abuse. Put downs and shaming. fault exaggerating. fear. These findings suggest that verbal abuse is associated with internalizing behaviors among adolescents. as the studies in the previous section highlighted (Gershoff. and guidance counselors.

stressful life events. Save the Children. different paths toward parental hostility and aggression were uncovered. 2012). In contrast. Parents themselves acknowledge that these practices may not necessarily be best for their children – even if they continue to use them (de Leon. Through separate analyses of mothers’ and fathers’ responses. Parenting Risks and Resources Thus far. a more complex interplay of variables was observed among fathers. we identify the risks that increase parents’ likelihood of using harsh discipline. Parental hostility and aggression was measured through the hostility subscale of the Parental Acceptance-Rejection/Control Questionnaire. In this section of the review. and discuss some promising programs that aimed to improve parenting practices. only child externalizing behavior significantly predicted parental hostility and aggression. 2012. regardless of whether these practices were labeled as abusive or not. 2014. Among mothers.aggression is also linked to the use of harsh parenting practices. Ochoa. Parenting Risks One such study under the Parenting Across Cultures project examined child externalizing behaviors. 2006). and physical and verbal aggression. punitiveness. which includes items on harsh discipline. this review has consistently shown that use of harsh discipline practices indeed increases the likelihood of children’s negative developmental outcomes. Child externalizing behaviors and stressful life events significantly predicted parental hostility 39 . coercion. and parental efficacy as predictors of parental hostility and aggression (Garcia.

which may help parents deal with their children during moments where they lack confidence in their parenting skills. Beyond parent-child interactions and parents’ experiences of stress. The research collected reports from mothers. The role of parental stressors may be more apparent among fathers. This is precisely what Skinner and colleagues (2014) explored in another study within the Parenting Across Cultures project. In particular. which did not specifically examine how parents handled children’s externalizing behaviors. fathers. with a total of 1. The researcher suggests that this may be due to the measure used. This may also be attributable to the presence of strong support systems among Filipino parents.and aggression. they examined the link between neighborhood danger and child aggression. while also being influenced by their children’s behaviors.293 families (103 from the Philippines) participating. with parental monitoring as moderator and harsh parenting as mediator. and yielded a number of noteworthy findings. making it most influential in their mothers’ choice of discipline practices. harsh discipline mediated the relationship between neighborhood danger and child 40 . According to child reports. In contrast. as the researchers predicted. frequent interactions between mothers and their children bring the child’s behavior to the fore. these results highlight the reciprocal nature of child-rearing. as parents influence their children’s developmental outcomes. and low to moderate levels of parental efficacy interacted with stressful life events in predicting hostility and aggression. and children alike. Overall. The absence of any effects in relation to parental efficacy is also worth noting. as they experience more pressure to provide financially for the family. the neighborhood context may also play a role in parenting practices. neighborhood danger and aggression were significantly related. For one. However. Data from each source was analyzed separately. parental monitoring did not appear to moderate this relationship.

a typically larger family size compared to non-poor families (Orbeta. with each batch composed of eight to 15 couples.aggression. Parenting Resources One such program is the Parent Effectiveness Service (PES). In the Philippine sample. mothers’ perceptions of neighborhood danger did not have any significant relationship with use of harsh parenting. Certain populations are more likely to experience parental stress and neighborhood danger. These differences in the results depending on parent and child reports emphasize the importance of considering multiple informants in research. building children’s positive behavior. In contrast. 2005). parent reports showed less consistent relationships across countries. keeping your child safe from abuse. Stressors abound with the difficulty to make ends meet. The program consisted of nine modules. 2014). it comes as no surprise that parenting programs are likely to target these vulnerable populations. It is also meant to serve as a venue to identify and assess family functioning that may need social work intervention. perceived neighborhood danger was significantly related to the use of harsh discipline. based on UNICEF’s Manual on Effective Parenting: myself as a person and a parent. child development. the Filipino family. and concern about both danger and negative influences in their neighborhood (Ochoa. Thus. Perhaps most vulnerable are those families living in poverty. 2009). The PES was implemented among fathers and mothers belonging to low income groups in three rural barangays. which was in turn linked to child aggression. which aims to strengthen families to help them transcend poverty-associated risks (Del Castillo. There were three batches of participants. challenges of parenting. health 41 .

UNICEF. and keeping a healthy environment for your children. The messages and content of these materials focus not only on parenting.e. An example of such a program comes from UNICEF Philippines. it also calls for cooperation at different levels (i. It also emphasized that family values and parenting programs need to be integrated with other concrete services rather than being just a stand-alone program. and the learning and discovery about themselves and their families. However. What is notable about the program is the comprehensiveness of the materials. aiming to integrate and strengthen local child-rearing practices and customs. In an evaluation. However. education. and implementation involves various settings.and nutrition. parents said that the PES sessions were beneficial because of the relief from stress that these brought. sanitation. parent meetings. Female Functional Literacy Manuals. School-on-the-Air on Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD). and NGOs). community centers. Integrated Counseling Cards for Maternal and Child Health.. as well as their dual purpose of guiding both service providers and parents. health centers. other materials include a Resource Book on Responsible and Effective Parenting for Children in Need of Special Protection. 2009). home management. which developed materials for parent education to improve child care and development (Al-Hassan. but also address important issues of health and safety. the study did not elaborate on actual parenting outcomes as a result of the program. which was described in the previous study. and child abuse prevention. Materials are also culturally sensitive. Aside from the Manual on Effective Parenting. the program still needs to expand its 42 . particularly the home. Likewise. government ministries. and Empowerment and Reaffirmation of Paternal Abilities (ERPAT). psychosocial emotional development. They also aim to reach the most disadvantaged families in their target areas. and clinics.

and evaluate its outcomes through assessment of parents’ knowledge. including the urban poor. and Saranggani. and understanding of early childhood development. rural communities. At the time of the report. Another intervention showing promise is the Healthy Start Program initiated by the Consuelo Foundation and implemented by partner organizations around the country (ARNEC. medical. and increasing access to services (i. establishment of daily routines. or employment) for the family. social.e. but even in family dynamics. indigenous peoples. the program served 444 partner families from marginalized sectors. In relation to child-rearing. Family Support Workers. and use of non-violent discipline methods showed an increase. and begins interventions at the prenatal period. improving relationships within families. 43 . and practices as well as their response and feedback. positive practices such as breastfeeding. who interact most with target families. Healthy Start is a home-visiting program promoting positive parenting behaviors and reducing environmental risks through parental education on child development. and a religious minority within a conflict area. Being an ECCD program. Through this program. time for stimulation and play. spanning five municipalities and 42 barangays.. several improvements have been observed among target families. Likewise. Northern Cordillera. 2011). also observed improvements not just in relation to the child. Target areas included NCR.coverage. Baguio. Maguindanao. supporting healthy development and learning through provision of games and activities. there was an improvement in sharing of parenting responsibilities between parents. slum dwellers. attitudes. Healthy Start targets families with either a pregnant female or a child aged 0 to 3.

and strong partnerships among organizations. It is apparent here that influencing parenting practices requires strong partnerships. practitioners. and a systemic approach that looks not only at changing the behavior itself but the contexts within which these behaviors occur. the practices mentioned in the report do provide directions for effective parenting interventions. and within the community. and hard-to-reach populations. relational approach. focus on vulnerable. marginalized. the program faces a number of challenges.There are several notable elements in Healthy Start: the inclusion of the prenatal stage of development. particularly in capacity-building among family support workers. use of developmental assessment. an empathic. program evaluation. contextualization to the local community. 44 . and sustainability. While the program focuses on early childhood development. Still. LGUs.

Still. characterized by autonomy. However. Aside from parenting styles. However.. Still. emotional support. there is also a growing body of research on specific parenting practices. Parent discipline practices are undoubtedly important to discuss. As seen in the review. it is important to acknowledge that the two are intertwined. and parenting cognitions. Abarquez. 2007). parent-child relationships. 1991). and high demands. distinct differences exist 45 . The specific research topics investigated in the studies included in this review varied considerably. but the local material focusing mainly on discipline is still somewhat limited. Gilongos & Guarin. heavily influenced by research by Baumrind (1989. 2009.Conclusions The present review primarily sought to understand parenting. 2013). with both influenced by parents’ socialization goals for their children. other recent research has also been more critical of the relevance of such conceptions of parenting. Such research serves as a reminder that predominant theories of parenting also need further reexamination in the Philippine context. especially parent discipline practices based on research done in the past 10 years. there is still much attention given to parenting styles in the recent body of work (e. and positive child outcomes. with no observable trends emerging in the ten-year span covered by the review. there is much to be gained in trying to understand this area of parenting when we recognize that such practices exist within a constellation of other aspects of parenting such as parenting styles.g. Most of these studies assume a link between authoritative parenting style. as Filipino children may have different interpretations of parental control (Bernardo & Ujano-Batangan.

et. 2012). Thus. 2006). 2014). Thus. Still. examining the combination of these two could yield a clearer understanding of parents’ influence on their children’s development – an endeavor that has yet to be explored in the local setting. Of the array of discipline practices used by parents. saying that they would rather not hurt the child. 1993). 2014). 2012). even if there is actually a wide range of practices that parents may use to raise their children (de Leon. 2006). al. Ochoa. parents may be more likely to turn to other discipline practices that are non-punitive and guide children both through verbal and behavioral means (de Leon. they may rationalize the use of these harsh practices as an expression of love for the child (Save the Children. 46 .. parenting styles creating the emotional climate for specific parenting behaviors to occur. Save the Children. et. During less stressful instances. Ochoa. but they may not always choose to use these. In the studies focusing on parental socialization. and stressful contexts such as neighborhood danger and poverty (Skinner. the frequency of the child’s externalizing behaviors (Garcia. et. it is apparent that these behaviors are strongly associated with discipline. Lansford. Moreover. and moderate the influence of parenting practices on developmental outcomes (Darling & Steinberg. parents do experience conflict about its use. al. corporal punishment is still common and deemed moderately normative among Filipinos (Gershoff. In particular.. This suggests that positive practices already exist in parents’ discipline repertoire.. 2005. al. such as the severity of the child’s misdemeanor (de Leon. parenting practices are the behaviors that parents engage in to achieve particular socialization goals for their children. There are also certain circumstances that are associated with corporal punishment. while parenting styles represent parents’ attitudes toward their children. 2012. 2014). 2012. 2010.between the two.

2005). successful interventions discussed in the review also tend to be more holistic rather than focused solely on teaching parents how to discipline their children. 2012. et.. 2010.Alongside this research on the use of various discipline practices are the studies that examine the outcomes associated with harsh discipline practices. 2013. As with these recent research trends that focus on multiple contexts and perspectives. et. 2005).. et. al.g. such research allows for both corroboration and contradiction. Lising. other factors such as parenting cognitions (Gershoff. Santos & McCollum. Several studies reviewed here also strive for a more holistic understanding of parenting and child outcomes by including both parents and children as participants.. these initial findings do emphasize the need to promote more positive approaches to discipline. al. et. & Lansford. In particular. 2005) and the child’s behavior (Garcia. et. al. 2014). 2010. neighborhood (Skinner. Lansford. et. 2010. The research discussed in this review also highlights that parental discipline and child development outcomes are better understood in context – be it of the parent-child relationship (Alino.. Alampay.. In doing so. Lansford. al. al. 2012. Taylor. 2005) context. et. al. A striking finding in such research is the link between corporal punishment and children’s anxiety and aggression (Gershoff. et. Likewise. family (Shao.. et. Lansford. al. Though more studies are needed to further explore the child development outcomes brought about by corporal punishment and discipline practices as a whole.. or cultural (Gershoff. 2007). 2008). 2012) are also important areas in the research that contribute to our knowledge about parent discipline practices. 2008.. 2014). 2010. al. al. Lansford. and elucidation of the different effects of child and parent beliefs on both parenting practices and child development (e.. Gershoff. 47 . socioeconomic (Ochoa. Jocson. these programs help parents.

once again. such as health and sanitation. or family relationships (AlHassan. Del Castillo. education. and addressing parents’ other concerns could positively impact on their parenting practices.especially those from disadvantaged backgrounds. livelihood. This is. 2009. 2011. deal with other pressing issues that they are faced with. 2009). there are a multitude of factors that could influence parenting. Rather. a reminder that discipline practices do not exist in a vacuum. 48 . ARNEC.

Thus. as this style sets the climate for children’s receptiveness to the various socialization practices used by their parents (Darling & Steinberg. interventions cannot just focus on teaching the practices. be it socioeconomic or cultural. Skinner. 2014. Garcia. One such factor that needs to be addressed is the stress experienced by parents. Particular stressors may include experiences of neighborhood danger and poverty (Ochoa.Recommendations The various research in this review points to directions for interventions seeking to promote positive discipline practices. 2012. al. and attributions may also have an impact on their choice of practices. training on parenting styles could also be another approach. 2012). 1993). before even targeting their specific practices. 2012). albeit through different paths for mothers and fathers (Jocson. In relation to this. but also the contextual factors that influence the use of particular discipline practices.. et. such as their attitudes. Programs may also focus on facilitating communication between parent and child. parents’ internal cognitions. not just in raising their children but also in other challenges that they face inside and outside the home (de Leon. these programs must take into account that discipline practices are embedded in the context of the family system. Aside from these external pressures. which have been linked to their use of corporal punishment. Thus. et. 2014). programs may also assist parents in dealing with the various stressors that may have an impact on their behaviors. Such interventions also need to be tailormade to suit the various contexts of the family. beliefs. training parents to communicate in a non-confrontational manner.. In particular. al. One possible target for change in parents’ cognitions could be their authoritarian attitudes and endorsement of corporal punishment. while also giving children an opportunity to 49 .

both in terms of feedback from stakeholders and actual changes in relation to the objectives. In addition to these recommendations for interventions. By systematically assessing such programs. Evaluation must also be done both during and after the intervention. and baseline assessments of these behaviors taken before the beginning of the program. Likewise. measurable objectives must be established. children’s age and gender also need to be accounted for in the creation of interventions to ensure that they are appropriate. it is of utmost importance to ensure that a rigorous program evaluation is conducted throughout the process. comparing associations between parenting and developmental outcomes across different age groups. longitudinal studies are necessary to be 50 . Thus. For one. interventions are likely to be more effective when they target both parent and child behaviors.express their thoughts and feelings. However. clear. the review also points to directions for future research on parenting and particularly discipline practices in the Philippines. ensuring that both parents and children are consulted and involved in the design of programs. Whatever program organizations decide to adopt. organizations can have a better grasp of their effectiveness. An often-mentioned limitation of the research on interventions is the lack of objective measures of their effectiveness. The directions in recent research have also increasingly considered perspectives of both the parents and children. many of the studies included in the review used a cross-sectional design. Thus. one cannot assume causal relationships using such designs. interventions also have to account for the bidirectional influence of parents and children on each other. Moreover. and make better guided recommendations for succeeding interventions. the basis for interventions can also share a similar approach. Given this.

g. 2007). For instance. al. but researchers also need to establish how children perceive and attach meaning to these parenting styles (Bernardo & Ujano-Batangan.. For instance. However. rigorous methodologies. 2014). However. Garcia. al. Different areas of research on parenting may also still be further explored. especially with its use of such a design. this seems to be in conflict with the prevalence of corporal punishment. Parenting styles and practices are also often examined separately. et. Skinner. and how these might influence children’s development. 2011. much of the work still focuses on parenting styles. DeaterDeckard. which may not necessarily be representative of the Filipino population. Jocson. these mainly came from the Parenting Across Cultures project (e. et. it is important to note that their conclusions are based on a single urban sample based in Quezon City.. The project certainly has its merits. Peña-Alampay & Jocson. focusing on parenting styles may lead one to overlook the actual practices used.. Moreover. 2012. While a considerable number of studies in the review did make use of a longitudinal design. studies in the review suggest that authoritative parenting appears to be predominant in the Philippines. 51 . 2012. Much more can still be done to understand parenting in other parts of the country. it may be more informative to understand the interaction between the two in influencing child development. It has also contributed to both local and international understanding of parenting in the Philippines. and multiple informants. 2011. but given that parenting styles act as the context for specific practices to be effective or ineffective. Research still needs to reconcile how a warm and structured parenting climate and the use of harsh practices can coexist.able to do so.

researchers may also further explore such differences. there is still more work to be done. both in terms of research and interventions toward promoting more positive discipline practices among Filipino parents. they need to be better prepared with protocols and referral systems for dealing with these possible cases. However. Finally. dealing with the sensitive nature of information on child discipline also requires clearer ethical guidelines. there is still a dearth of research that systematically examines parent discipline practices and child development outcomes across the stages of childhood and adolescence. research on parenting and discipline practices has taken great strides in the past ten years. 2014. 52 . 2006). it is possible for researchers to encounter instances of abuse. thus. Overall. which may also better guide age-appropriate interventions. Thus.While studies suggest that parents tend to use different practices depending on the age of the child (de Leon. 2012. Save the Children. After all. Ochoa.

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Annotations Parenting in the Philippines : Ochoa. Beatriz 01 Unknown Unknown 30/4/2016 8:07 More on discipline Page no. Torre. 5 . Danielle.