You are on page 1of 20







The present study is a qualitative case study on the impact of parenting styles on the wellbeing of selected first-year college students of the Faculty of Arts and Letters of the University of
Santo Tomas. Results revealed that authoritative and permissive parenting were associated with
increased well-being of students compared to those brought up with an authoritarian parenting.
However, the most significant factors were family obligations and traditional parenting; these
had a negative impact on the well-being of selected students; such students described feeling
anxiety and stress. Results reveal that selected students generally have a positive well-being in
regard to their parents’ parenting style, however it can still be further improved through parentstudent reciprocity.

In a sociological perspective. the education of students becomes significant to social change. happiness and eventually as the deliverer of socioeconomic success to the family. (Collins et al. the educated individual acts as the social reformer of society. It becomes necessary in this case to understand how parents raise their children. solely responsible for the determination. are the parents (Medina 2014). According to a study by Mary Pritchard (2003). However. the one who will deliver society’s needs. 2000) Education is a great way to improve and develop our society (Dewey 1916). to further understand the development of individuals who compose the Filipino society. Student performance however is subject to many factors (Mushtaq et al. students in college higher levels of stress received lower GPA scores than those with lower levels of stress. . especially in the Philippines where the family is considered as “the center of the universe” (Jocano 1988). socialization and ultimately the future of this child. clearly it is our students who are responsible for carrying that out. assumes a connection between student performance and student well-being. The present study as supported by previous studies. And one of them is student well-being.3 INTRODUCTION The child or the anak in the Filipino family is considered as the source of love. (Patil 2012) Therefore in this case. However. One day the youth will inherit the country and become its future leaders. 2012).

including the promotion of the student’s well-being. results reveal that authoritarian and permissive parenting is associated with students feeling of anxiety and fear of failure. a relationship between student wellbeing and parenting styles.4 What is Well-being? For this study. low levels of negativity. and life satisfaction. Based on a study of 80 first-year College students’ by GJ Smith (2006). Parenting in the Philippines Though some researchers question whether these styles can actually be applied to the parenting styles of Filipino parents. permissive and authoritarian. the definition of well-being used is based on Diener. this study accounts only for how students perceive their own well-being. It was authoritative parenting that produced the most positive results to the well-being of students. Lucas and Oishi’s study on subjective well-being (2012). authoritative parenting produces the best effects in children. with less anxiety and fear of failure. They defined it as having positive reactions in an individual’s experiences. the present study seeks if any. there are still plenty of literature that prove correlations . authoritative. Parenting Styles While there are many studies that attempt to explain student wellbeing. This also includes the feeling contentment and happiness. However since there is no absolute way to study emotions objectively. The results of the study were expected as proposed by Baumrind (1971) who said that out of all three parenting styles.

33%). (Ochoa. Other studies.67%) and authoritarian (1. Beatriz. however contradict this claim and propose that authoritarian parenting is the most practiced parenting style in the Philippines (Alampay 2011). This is also evident in a recent study by Bacus (2014) which shows that most seventh grade students in Northern Mindanao claim that their parents practiced authoritative parenting. 2014) And according to Gilongos and Guarin (2013). The present study seeks to find a relationship between parenting styles and student wellbeing among selected students from the Faculty of Arts and Letters of the University of Santo Tomas.5 between the styles proposed by Baumrind and the actual styles of Filipino parenting. surveyquestionnaire data showed that Filipino parents would describe themselves as either authoritative (96%). authoritative parenting is the most common style of parenting. Statement of the Problem What is the impact of parenting styles on the well-being of selected students of the Faculty of Arts and Letters of the University of Santo Tomas (AB-UST)? Objectives . Danielle Torre. the use of discipline is present in both claims. It is important to note that in that study. Our researchers shall give emphasis on the use of discipline and its impact on students. This study will be qualitative a case study based on the findings of GJ Smith (2006) and Baumrind (1971). Nevertheless. permissive (2.

Previous research proves that the perception of students towards their parents may affect their mental health. The value of meeting familial obligations and expectations or utang na loob is one of the dominant values in Filipino parenting. parents sees this as a source of pride. anxiety and depression (Alampay et al. (Young et al. Significance of the Study The incorporation of traditional Filipino values is very evident in the Family as well in the parenting of the Filipino parents. (Wolf 1997) Sociological Application To better understand this phenomenon.6  Determine the links between well-being and parenting styles in selected students. when a child achieves.. yet students who are given high expectations report having stress. Our researchers believe that the way students interpret their parents’ parenting styles has a significant effect on the students themselves. 2005. Particularly in academics. 2011) . our researchers will be applying symbolic interactionism.

Authoritarian parents attempt to form. control and evaluate the behavior and attitudes of the child in order for the child to conform to the set standard of conduct which is usually absolute. the authoritarian parenting style does not encourage verbal give and take. The parents are willing to let the child regulate his own activities and . obedience is valued by the parents. Permissive parents tend to be lenient and behaves in a non-punitive and acceptant manner towards the child’s behavior and attitude. In this type of parenting. The child with authoritative parents can often experience conflict between his beliefs and what his parents think is right. issue-oriented manner. allow some exceptions.7 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Three Parenting Styles Baumrind (1971): Authoritative parents attempt to set the child's activities in a rational. The child’s feelings are highly considered in this type of parenting. parents set rules that the child is expected to conform to however. In this type of parenting. Unlike authoritative parenting. In this type of parenting. but also considers setting standards for future conduct. rewards system and tend to use more positive consequences rather than punishments. Authoritative parents encourage verbal give and take. exercise of control is often avoided by the parents.

Furthermore. self-perceptions and mental health compared to children raised by using the other parenting styles. On the other hand. children raised by authoritative parents score higher on the aspects of competence. The author also stated that children of authoritative parents tend to be good at socializing with other individuals. and are emotionally stable. Permissive parents have the possibility to take the role of a friend rather than a parent. in the same study conducted by Marites Bacus (2014). Culture-Related Factors that Affect Student Well-being . 2014). least prone to drug use in their teenage years. social development. Overall.8 does not encourage conforming to the externally defined standards. Effects of Different Parenting Styles According to a study by Marietes Bacus (2014). the study of Marietes Bacus emphasizes the positive effects of authoritative parenting on the development of a child’s character and well-being. children raised by authoritarian parents are more likely to have lower self-esteem than other children raised by authoritative parents and are more prone to suffer from emotional problems (Bacus. authoritative parenting is associated with greater social and emotional competence as the child grows.

2001 . Esteban 2006 ). 2001 . (Dela Cruz et al. they might feel too pressured to make parents proud. In this case. It is believed in the Filipino culture that the definition of a “good child” is associated with discipline. It is evident in the Filipino culture that discipline is generally given emphasis in the upbringing of children (Dela Cruz et al. This however would sometimes have a negative impact on the students. M. if a child feels pressured. (2011) “Filipino children generally adhere to their parents’ views in their own definitions” of what it means to be a good child. “Symbolic interaction theory analyzes society by addressing the subjective meanings that people impose on objects. the development of the self depends on the meanings that the individual assigns to things in life. Symbolic Interactionism Symbolic Interactionism according to George Herbert Mead. Jocano 1970 ). generally they do not have a say in it. Students in those families tend to want to give back to their family through educational attainment. Research shows that children often feel anxious and fearful when physical discipline is practiced on them (Sanapo and Nakamura 2011. this may also be known as “utang ng loob”. 2001 ) However there can be negative results to this kind of parenting on children. self-control and the practice of family values.9 In a study of Urdan et al (2007) Asian families. If the student however feels differently about these expectations.T. events. he does not have a choice but to accept it. According to Dela Cruz. including the Philippines share a sense of family obligation. and behaviors. Durbrow et al. Subjective meanings are given primacy because it is believed that .

” (Crossman. 2016). A qualitative interview is apt for this study as it will reveal how selected students feel and think about the topic. 1) Identifying parenting styles through the selected students . Therefore exploring how individuals use symbolic meanings to create the social world via interaction. our researchers may further understand the development of the individual that is interacting in that social world. our researchers will be interviewing selected first-year students from Faculty of Arts and Letters of the University of Santo Tomas. All data collected from this research will be analyzed by our researchers. Our researchers want to capture the student’s reactions and feelings since it is their first time in the university. our researchers limits this study only to the perception of selected students regarding the topic.10 people behave based on what they believe and not just on what is objectively true. Research Design Given that this study focuses on two main variables that is parenting and student wellbeing. METHODOLOGY Selection For this study. Our researchers believe that by understanding how students perceive how they were raised (via parenting styles) will influence their well-being.

we asked our respondents how they feel about the way their parents raised them.11 Using a semi-structured interview. . we asked our respondents how they feel now and about certain things such as college and exams. We revolved only on the questions regarding discipline. freedom and punishment to identify the parenting style they are describing. we used a recording device to record each interview. Also. 2) Identifying well-being through the selected students Using a semi-structure interview. We asked situational questions where we might find a link between their well-being and the parenting style they described previously. Data collection Interviews were held in controlled conditions wherein respondents could express their thoughts and feelings on the topic comfortably.

confidence. freedom and understanding is applied to the . Student Well-Being Levels of Conformity and Resistance towards parents Emotional Reaction Student Reaction & Interpretation Levels of discipline. negativity. happiness. understanding and freedom used. Depending on the level of discipline. Family Values/Expectati Parenting Variables ons Our conceptual framework describes how exactly a student’s well-being is affected by parenting.12 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK Statement of the Problem: What is the impact of parenting styles on the well-being of selected students of the Faculty of Arts and Letters of the University of Santo Tomas? Levels of anxiety.

The way the selected students interpret and react to these parenting variables will determine their overall well-being. the student is pressured: and “Baka hindi maging enough… baka bumagsak. the respondent is afraid of disappointing the family. Authoritarian One respondent said “Nakakabothered kase kilala daddy ko andami niyang clients yun nakaka pressure”. Results show however that parenting styles are not easily categorized among the three: authoritative. DISCUSSION With the results of the data gathered. It however has made the respondent feel anxious for their upcoming exams. the students may react in various ways. authoritarian and permissive. It is very evident there is an “utang na loob” mentality.13 parenting style of the parents of selected students. We also included here Family values since it is evident in most parenting styles in the Philippines. There are times where it is an in between or a mix of all the three. baka madisappoint ko family ko”. our researchers try to categorize the parenting styles described by our respondents. it may also have an impact on the students’ reaction.. And the selected students are trying to payback and fulfill their familial obligations. .

she expressed that despite these expectations. The statement “Ano kase. The respondent’s overall well-being was moderately positive. she is confident with herself. “Sometimes it [permissive parents] can be a bad thing because they should have a say on some things like they shouldn’t just always agree they should like I want like to hear their opinion sometimes” Authoritative Most respondents described situations wherein their parents were authoritative and the reactions of students and some were positive. The result is that the student seems to be more self-reliant and confident. However sometimes they feel parental involvement is lacking. One respondent says “fair naman kasi as parents siguro alam nila yung ginagawa nila” but the respondent describes his parents as “closeminded”. however many gave negative reactions as well. Another respondent finds her parents’ strictness “understandable na reasonable” however she is afraid of failing because of family expectations. pero hindi ko kasi sila iniinvolve” seems to show that parents are comfortable because of their attachment and trust with each other. close kami ng parents ko kasi. The Need for Parent-Student Negotiation .14 Permissive There are occasions wherein the respondents’ parents are described as permissive.

parents must be rational with their standards and students must feel free to express themselves. Students need to feel that they can come to their parents about school-related issues since that is their main concern in relation to family obligations. Parent-Child Reciprocity Reciprocity is key in good parent-child relationships and in student well-being. Most parents seem to be authoritarian and strict. there is a need for parents and students to talk about such expectations. Therefore. and this often has a negative impact on selected students. The lack of moderate parental involvement may cause them to have a negative outlook towards their parents which in turn may have a negative impact on their well-being. parents at times need to be permissive so students can .15 From our research and interviews we were able to get a glimpse of how selected students were being raised by their parents and how they reacted to it. In all interviews. Selected students are already feeling a lot of pressure in school and in fulfilling family obligations. But if they feel that their parents are not open to talk about it. Selected students accepted that they must obey their parents and will conform to their expectations. However if the parents are not giving positive feedback or emotional support. they will feel misunderstood and in turn feel anxious and insecure. one that is always present is family expectations. the student may feel misunderstood.

Reciprocity does not only improve student well-being. Students already accept their roles and responsibilities. Parents must understand how vital their roles are.16 feel they have a choice in certain decisions. . the benefit of the parent and the student will also be reciprocal. discipline) must be reasonable and equitable so students may understand the purpose of them and in turn learn from their mistakes. it will also develop the parentchild relationships. Students however in turn must maintain their roles and responsibilities. There are times when students tend to forget these and make mistakes. they are not only to serve as providers of financial support and family values. These consequences that are given by the parents (ex. they must understand that those mistakes will come with consequences. parents should in turn reward them emotionally and physically. By engaging in parent-student reciprocity. they are also key to the overall development of an individual.

013. The link between pupil health and wellbeing and attainment.1093/oxfordhb/9780195187243. http://doi. E. (2012).0017 . F. Nature. (November).org/10. & Lucas. (2 Ed. (2014).. Diener. The Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology. 123–123. D.. (1966). 1– 12.1038/nj7269-123c Baurmind. Effects of authoritative parental control on child behavior. Brooks.).17 BIBLIOGRAPHY Academic benefits. Subjective Well-Being: The Science of Happiness and Life Satisfaction. 462(7269). E. (2009). S. R. Oishi.

T. 2(2). M.. . A. H. The influence of authoritative parenting style on adolescents’ academic achievement..html Masud. A. http://doi. (2010). 217–222.kon. Journal Of Psychological Studies. 5(1952).1007/s11135-014-0120-x Nyarko. Kordi. A New Wave of Evidence A New Wave of Evidence. & Torre. S. http://doi. L. 49(6). Parenting styles and academic achievement of young adolescents: A systematic literature review.2. Quality & Quantity. (2014).2011. K. K. D. 2(3). Parenting Attitude and Style and Its Effect on Children ’ s School Achievements. Parenting in the Philippines: A Review of the Research Literature from 2004 to 2014. B. K. & Ahmad.. Retrieved from http://www. (2015).282 Ochoa. (2006).. (2002). 1– 2411–2433. & Buttram.5539/ijps. 278–282. R. Mapp.18 Henderson. L. Family Influences on the Development of a Child’s Behaviour. http://doi. Undergraduate Research Journal for the Hman Sciences. (2011).v2n2p217 Mahalihali. Thurasamy.. American Journal of Social and Management Sciences.

. N. E.1007/978-94-007-7503-9 . M... Seward. M. (2013). P. Journal of College Student Development. http://doi. 205–210. R. (November). P.2003..fcgi? artid=2538725&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract Patil. The Canadian Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Review = La Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie de L’enfant et de L' L. & Stanley-stevens. 459–474. 14(1).pdf Pearson. & Reppucci. The Impact of Parenting Styles on the Emotional Regulation of Adolescents. International Educational E-Journal. N. M. L. A. J. C. D.. Role Of Education In Social Change. G. I(Ii). 44.1353/csd. (2012). & Jarden. Burnette. Parenting Across Cultures. (2005).pubmedcentral.19 Odgers. Bathurst. http://doi. R. Chauhan. L. M. L. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.0008 Ross. S.. Misdiagnosing the problem: mental health profiles of incarcerated juveniles. 26–9.nih. Using emotional and social factors to predict student success. Pritchard. & Wilson. (2012).org/ejournal/Jan-Feb-Mar2012IEEJ/38. 18–28. C. Moretti. Retrieved from http://www. (2003).org/10. 7. A. Well-being and Academic Success.

A review of the relationship among parenting practices. 6(7). International Education Studies. parenting styles. (2013).5539/ies. http://doi. and Students Factors on Students Achievements in Reading in Developed (Estonia) and Developing (Azerbaijan) Countries. 131–143. Comparative Study: Impact of Family.1007/s10648-005-3950-1 . 17(2).org/10. C.v6n7p131 Spera. Educational Psychology Review. http://doi. B. 125–146. School. and adolescent school achievement. (2005).org/10.20 Shukakidze.