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Supersymmetry in quantum optics
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Supersymmetry in quantum optics and in spin-orbit coupled systems
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M. Tomka, M. Pletyukhov, V. Gritsev
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FNWI: Institute for Theoretical Physics (ITF)
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2015

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Therefore. University of Amsterdam. and therefore spin-orbit coupled systems at the SUSY lines should be robust with respect to various types of disorder. Supersymmetry (SUSY) is one of the most beautiful and attractive concepts in physics. RWTH Aachen. Science Park 904. The dimension of this subspace is given by the Witten index and thus is topologically protected. Here we show that SUSY systems can be engineered in simple and fundamental models. in order to observe its signatures. the dissipative dynamics is constrained by a robust additional conserved quantity which translates information about an initial state into the stationary state. it needs to be a broken symmetry. cures divergency problems and resolves the mass hierarchy in quantum field theory1. We found here that spin-orbit coupled systems can possess SUSY in a broad range of parameters. Mikhail Pletyukhov2 & Vladimir Gritsev3 received: 06 March 2015 accepted: 17 July 2015 Published: 19 August 2015 Light-matter interaction is naturally described by coupled bosonic and fermionic subsystems. 1 Department of Physics. are robust with respect to dissipation and decoherence. Boston University. (email: tomkam@bu.5 and Majorana fermions6. since in our surrounding environments there exists no phenomenon in which a boson is converted into a fermion. Further. the stationary density matrix at the supersymmetric lines in parameter space has a degenerate subspace. Our findings suggest that optical and condensed matter systems at the SUSY points can be used for quantum information technology and can open an avenue for quantum simulation of SUSY field theories. This suggests that a certain Bose-Fermi duality is naturally present in the fundamental quantum mechanical description of photons interacting with atoms. As a consequence.www. where the SUSY is unbroken. We show that SUSY is robust with respect to decoherence and dissipation.nature. synthetic gauge fields and spin-orbit coupling have also been realized in ultracold Bose and Fermi gases with Raman beams7–14.edu) 2 Scientific Reports | 5:13097 | DOI: 10. However. we demonstrate that the same SUSY structures are present in condensed matter systems with spin-orbit couplings of Rashba and Dresselhaus types. USA. 1098 XH Amsterdam. Recently. either by means of solid state devices or by quantum optical schemes. the anomalous Hall effect. Massachusetts. 590 Commonwealth Avenue. trapped ions or coupled cavities systems) opened a new possibility of realizing supersymmetric systems in a nowadays laboratory. Germany. spintronics3. Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to M. since it establishes a duality between bosons and fermions. The Netherlands. 02215 Boston. Furthermore.1038/srep13097 1 . the common opinion is that we need powerful accelerators. 52056 Aachen. recent progress with quantum simulators using synthetic matter (like cold atoms. it can serve as an explanation of the dark matter essence2.com/scientificreports OPEN Supersymmetry in quantum optics and in spin-orbit coupled systems Michael Tomka1. If SUSY exists in nature. we reveal that the manifolds in parameter space. 3Institute for Theoretical Physics. Postbus 94485. Institute for Theory of Statistical Physics and JARA—Fundamentals of Future Information Technology. for example the spin Hall effect. Behind all these developments stands the simple single-particle Rashba and Dresselhaus model. We reveal submanifolds in parameter space of a basic light-matter interacting system where this duality is promoted to a supersymmetry (SUSY) which remains unbroken. in cosmology. This suggests that SUSY systems have an advantage of being used in quantum information science. One implementation we discuss is based on a generalized version of the Rabi model of quantum optics. In particular. In addition. topological insulators and superconductors4.T. while the other one is based on the two-dimensional electron gas in a magnetic filed with the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling. The role of spin-orbit coupling is central for a number of current developments in low-dimensional materials.

driving transitions from the ground states to the excited state(s).b. However. These models describe a system of a single bosonic mode coupled to a two-level system via dipole interaction. Δ = (Ω a2 /Δa − Ω b2 /Δb ) and λ = −(g a2 /Δa − g a2 /Δb ) /2. RWA). z).b . an even more fundamental role is played by the Jaynes-Cummings and Rabi models. Ref.19. two classical laser fields with Rabi frequencies Ω a. The Jaynes-Cummings model was studied extensively in the literature and can be solved exactly since the ˆ =aˆ †aˆ + σˆ σˆ . Δ a. In the weak coupling regime close to resonance ω ~ Δ . while it is much less studied for arbitrary g1 and g2. with couplings g a. The understanding of the dynamics in these models led to a breakthrough in cavity-QED systems15 and nanophotonics. The solid-state devices are able to approach the strong-coupling regime. when the strong coupling regime is realized. i  =  ± . Similarly ˆ ). the analytical solutotal number of excitations. possesses an additional conserved quantity when the system is supersymmetric. we studied the behavior of this additional conserved quantity. superconducting qubits.bΩa. The same model appears in various branches of condensed matter science.b /Δa. the spectrum consists of two quasidegenerate harmonic ladders21. a number of spectral and dynamical properties are known. Furthermore. We emphasize that.2 can be arbitrary real numbers. The model and its realizations We consider one of the simplest and most fundamental models describing the interaction of a single mode bosonic field (represented by the canonical operators â. In particular. nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers.2 = g a. In the realm of quantum optics. Both models are of immense experimental interest for circuit. If Δa. in two-dimensional Scientific Reports | 5:13097 | DOI: 10. it is known as the Jaynes-Cummings model16. the spectrum of the Rabi model is 20 given by a self-consistent set of equations which can be solved numerically . this is the case for a two-dimensional non-interacting electron system with Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling in a perpendicular magnetic field. H ˆ =H ˆ + λ aˆ †aˆ σˆ (see of the generalized Rabi model (=H gR eff gR z the Supplement for an overview of the derivation). as shown in Fig. where the g2 term becomes relevant22–25.b. In the field of quantum optics. In these limits. The resulting effective Hamiltonian then takes the form ˆ ) with an additional Bloch-Siegert shift. The parameters of the generalized Rabi model are then given by g 1. the Bloch-Seigert shift can be canceled if we choose g a2 /Δa = g b2 /Δb and we obtain the generalized Rabi model (1). Indeed.www.b is assumed. both co. when either g2 =  0 or g1 =  0. then the coupling constants are such that g1 =  g2. the model (1) describes a single mode electromagnetic field interacting with a two-level emitter via dipole interaction and represents a direct generalization of two fundamental models in quantum optics.b are predefined. respectively. g a. via a quantum field â. 1. and the g2 term scales to zero (this is called the rotating wave approximation. consider two non-degenerate ground states |a〉 . In the next step. where the spin-orbit interaction plays an important role. N ex + − tion of the Rabi model is still under active discussions20. etc. Further. is a conserved quantity.b are applied to the system. if the system slightly deviates from the supersymmetric submanifold in parameter space.b as well as the detunings Δ a.b  Ωa. it becomes the Rabi model18. Namely. while when g1 =  g2. only the g1 term is relevant. ˆ =  ω aˆ †aˆ +  Δ σˆ +  g (aˆ †σˆ + aˆ σˆ ) +  g (aˆ †σˆ + aˆ σˆ ). one can perform an adiabatic elimination of the excited state(s).and counter-rotating terms have to be kept.and cavity-QED15 setups. On the contrary. we show that the generalized Rabi model can be realized in a two-dimensional electron gas with Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling subject to a perpendicular and constant magnetic field. In contrast. the Hamiltonian (1) commutes with the parity operator Pˆ = exp (iπ N ex while the spectrum of the Jaynes-Cummings model is well known.1038/srep13097 2 . H gR z − + + − 1 2 2 (1 ) The energies of the bosonic field and the energy splitting of the two-level system are ω and Δ .2. governed by the master equation in the dressed state picture.2/ω are large). We observe that. the influence of this SUSY on the dissipative dynamics of the generalized Rabi model is studied. the model with unequal g1 and g2 can be realized using the Λ-type 3.b can be tuned in a wide range and we can therefore consider the model (1) for variable g1. While the couplings g a. ω = (g a2 /Δa + g b2 /Δb ) /2. |b〉  coupled to the excited state(s). In solid state devices.nature.27. We note that in the limit of strong coupling (both g1. despite the long history of the model. Further.b denote the detunings between the lasers and the excited state(s). The very presence of bosons (light quanta) and fermions (two-level systems) suggests that there is a hidden SUSY in these quantum optical models. while the interaction constants g1. â†) with a single two-level system (described by the Pauli matrices σˆ i.com/scientificreports/ In the field of quantum optics. In this paper.or 4-level transition schemes26. when the Rabi model is derived from the microscopic principles. due to the supersymmetry the dissipative dynamics.17. we reveal explicitly the presence of a supersymmetric structure in a generalized version of the Rabi model of quantum optics. this can be realized either by the electron gas in quantum wells. to the Rabi model. the Rabi frequencies Ω a. In addition. 28 proposes a simulation of the Rabi model with unequal g1 and g2 and with an effective Bloch-Siegert shift (∝aˆ †aˆ σˆ z ) based on the resonant Raman transitions in an atom that interacts with a high finesse optical cavity mode (four-level transition scheme).

or 4-level transition schemes (b). For the case of a two-dimensional electron gas subject to a perpendicular magnetic field B =  B0ez. 29 a possible realization of tunable Rashba and Dresselhaus spinorbit coupling with ultracold alkali atoms is proposed (e). topological insulators or in the quantum dots with a parabolic confinement potential. (1). the SUSY lines occur when the parameters satisfy g12 − g22 = ∆ω. spin-orbit coupling can be achieved artificially7–14.29. in terms of Eq. In (d) we show the energy spectrum of these models as a function of the coupling parameter g1 ~ αR and for αD ~ g2 =  0. where each state is coupled by a two-photon Raman transition. SUSY appears in a generalized Rabi model which can be realized in cavity-QED systems (a) using the Λ-type 3.com/scientificreports/ Figure 1. In Ref.2. the spin-orbit coupled Hamiltonian reads Scientific Reports | 5:13097 | DOI: 10. In cold atomic systems.nature. In solid state systems the two-dimensional electron gas with Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings subject to a perpendicular magnetic field (c) can also be mapped to the Rabi model with unequal couplings of the coand counter-rotating terms.  In the field of quantum optics.www. (f).1038/srep13097 3 .

i. The operator qˆ transforms a state of negative Witten parity into a state with since Q positive Witten parity and vice versa for qˆ †. This is illustrated below by investigating the quench dynamics in both models. This implies that the spectrum of H ˆ =Q it immediately follows that H 1 2 the supercharges commute with the SUSY Hamiltonian. This establishes an equivalence between the electronic Rashba and Dresselhaus model with a magnetic field and the Jaynes-Cummings-Rabi model from quantum optics. the strictly positive eigenenergies of the super partner Hamiltonians ˆ are the same. In The SUSY of a quantum system is called unbroken if the ground state energy of H case that the ground state energy is strictly positive (E0 >  0). The operator W HS into a positive and negative Witten parity space. have supersymmetric quantum mechanics (SUSY QM) as their low-energy limit. Therefore. that for an unbroken SUSY all the ground states are annihilated by all ˆ |Ψ 〉=0 . Q ˆ †]/ {Q ˆ. parity eigenstate of H ˆ† ˆ − Ψ+ E = (1 / E ) Q ΨE and vice versa for Q . the SUSY is said to be broken. Π x σˆ y − Π ( y x x x y y   (2) ˆ = pˆ − eB0 yˆ . where for an unbroken SUSY the supercharges leave the vacuum invariant. This allows us to represent the operators acting on H by 2 ×  2 matrices. The supercharges of a SUSY QM system generate transformations between different eigenstates of the SUSY Hamiltonian with non-zero eigenenergy. ˆ and Q ˆ that satisfy the algebra This SUSY QM is characterized by two supercharges Q 1 2 {Qˆ .nature.j is in analogy to supersymmetric field theories. ˆ =H ˆ has the potential to cross-fertilize two areas of research where these The correspondence H RD gR models play a fundamental role: condensed matter physics and the field of quantum optics. ∀ i . g* is the gyromagnetic ratio and μB =  eħ/(2mec) is the Bohr magneton. Q ˆ † =  qq ˆ = Q H ≡ . making them constants of motion. where H± = { Ψ ∈ HS . which we called the generalized Rabi model.2. The factor 1 / E appears due to the normalization condition of the eigenstates.  †    ˆ   0 qˆ qˆ   0 H − { } (6) ˆ transforms a negative Witten ˆ are called the super partner Hamiltonians. Q ˆ =  0 qˆ  . For that W S example we can write     ˆ =  1ˆ 0  . Q ˆ †} is ˆ . From the definition (3). j=1. This the supercharges Q i 0. H ± ˆ is zero (E0 =  0). HS = H+ ⊕ H−. W} ˆ =0. Q ˆ †} = H ˆ 2 = (Q ˆ †) 2 =0 and {Q ˆ ≡ [Q ˆ. The SUSY Hamiltonian becomes diagonal in this representation  ˆ ˆ † 0  H   ˆ + 0  ˆ. This becomes more apparent when one introduces the following linear combinations of the supercharges ˆ = 1 (Q ˆ + iQ ˆ ).www. A short derivation of the mapping from the Hamiltonian (2) to (1) is reproduced in the Supplement. anti-commutes with the superˆ gives a natural way to decomposes the Hilbert space charges and has the eigenvalues ±  1. Here we are interested in the N =  2 SUSY QM. W       0 0   qˆ 0   0 − 1ˆ  (5) ˆ 2=0 and {Q ˆ . Q 1 2 1 2 2 2 (4) ˆ. αR represents where Π x y x y 2c 2c the Rashba spin-orbit coupling. Supersymmetry Supersymmetric filed theories. Q ˆ † = 1 (Q ˆ − iQ ˆ ). The Witten parity operator W which imply Q constructed in such a way that it commutes with the SUSY Hamiltonian. i j ij ( 3) ˆ is known as the SUSY Hamiltonian acting on some Hilber space H . while αD denotes the Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling. The supercharge Q where H ± ˆ into a positive Witten parity eigenstate with the same positive energy.1038/srep13097 4 . Introduced in 70's the SUSY QM became a subfield by itself30. j. Q ˆ † =  0† 0  . From this definition it immediately follows. which were studied intensively during the last 40 years. m* is the effective electron mass.31 with many applications. Π ˆ = pˆ + eB0 xˆ are momentum operators in symmetric gauge. such ˆ Ψ = ± Ψ }. Scientific Reports | 5:13097 | DOI: 10. where j enumerates the possible degeneracy of the ground state. where H S ˆ is non-negative and that ˆ2 = Q ˆ 2.com/scientificreports/ ˆ H RD = ˆ2 +Π ˆ2 Π x y 2m ⁎ + g ⁎μ B B0σˆ z + 2α R ˆ ˆ σˆ ) + 2α D (Π ˆ σˆ + Π ˆ σˆ ). Qˆ } =2 Hˆ δ .

ˆ . (in the special case of g1 =  g2 SUSY exists only for degenerate atomic levels. ρˆ  + L ρˆ . The explicit derivation of the supercharges and the zero-modes for the generalized the eigenstates of σ Rabi model are given in the Supplement. the Hamiltonian are two zero eigenmodes of  H − + ˆ (1) commutes with the parity operator P. This implies that the Witten index same spectrum as H − is equal two. g12 − g 22 = Δω . Similarly. H gR j   Ldr = D ∑ Φ j j j  +  j  ˆ ρˆ = where D[O] 1 2 (2Oˆ ρˆ Oˆ † ∑ (Γκjk + Γγjk ) D [ j j. as demonstrated in the Supplement. qˆ =    ω aˆ   ω aˆ   . and the Hamiltonian has the form of a shifted harmonic oscillator). The Witten index Wind is given by the difference between the number of zero eigenmodes n ±  of H ± ˆ − dimker H ˆ = n − n . The generalized Rabi model is thus part of the supersymmetric system at the SUSY line (7). When λ ≠ 0 the SUSY condition reads Δ  2  − λ (ω − λ)(ω + λ) = g12 (ω − λ) − g 22 (ω + λ). describes the diagonal part of the dephasing of the two-level system in the eigenbasis and γφ(0) is the dephasing rate quantified by the dephasing noise spectral density at zero frequency. the Hamiltonian H ˆ strictly positive. † ˆ ˆ ˆ D (ν ) = exp[ν (a − a) is a coherent state displacement operator with ν = g 1g 2 / ω and |↑ 〉 .com/scientificreports/ Our findings can be summarized as follows: 1) SUSY as a symmetry exists in the generalized Rabi model for a special combination of parameters. ˆ j =ε j. where the dissipator Ldr should be sity matrix in the dressed picture33–36: ∂t ρˆ = − i H dr  gR  written in terms of the jump operators j k between the exact eigenstates j . g 2   ω  (8 ) ˆ . Δ  =  0. They cause transitions between eigenstates Scientific Reports | 5:13097 | DOI: 10. (12) − ρˆ O correspond to different sources of decoherence: The first term Φ j = γ φ (0)/ 2 j σ ˆ z j . i. (12) ) ˆ †O ˆ −O ˆ †O ˆ ρˆ is a quantum dissipator. to the Rabi case. and zero for H ˆ . and has the property of topological invariance32 according to the Atiyah-Singer index theorem.H ˆ ) = {Q ˆ. therefore the two zero-modes are the eigenstates of the parity ˆ ˆ where operator Pˆ and can be written as Ψ− 0. with ˆ = diag (H At the SUSY line (7) we can write H + − Δ ˆ = qq ˆ ˆ † =  ω aˆ †aˆ +  σ ˆ z +  g 2 aˆ † σ ˆ − +  g 2 aˆ σ ˆ + +  g 1 aˆ † σ ˆ + + g 1 aˆ σ ˆ − +  (c + ω) 1ˆ .1038/srep13097 5 .nature. k of the Hamiltonian. We show explicitly in the Supplement that there ˆ . Effects of relaxation and decoherence are described by the Lindblad master equation for the denˆ . thus Wind =  2. H + 2 (9) ˆ = qˆ †qˆ = H ˆ +  c 1ˆ . H − gR (10) and c = (g12 + g 22 )/(2ω). The other two terms describe contributions from the oscillator and the two-level system baths. Q ˆ †}.e.k : k > j k ]. |↓ 〉  are ˆ z . Here.www. Apart from the ground state of H has the − + ˆ if the parameters satisfy the SUSY condition (7). W ind = indqˆ = dimker ˆq − dimker ˆq †. The different terms in Eq.  2  (11) ˆ has a 2) On the SUSY line in parameter space the SUSY is unbroken and only the Hamiltonian H − ˆ are doubly-degenerate ground state with zero eigenenergy. The eigenenergies of the Hamiltonian H + ˆ with zero eigenenergy. (7) when the Bloch-Siegert shift is zero. λ =  0. This index is related to the index of the annihinamely W ind ≡ dimker H − + − + lation operator qˆ . The associated supercharges in matrix representation are given by  g 1   ω   ˆ 0 q ˆ =  Q  0 0  . we show that the SUSY in the generalized Rabi model is stable against couplings to several types of dissipative baths. Dissipative dynamics In the quantum optical realization of the generalized Rabi model the effects of coupling the system to the environment are usually accounted for by the master equation in the Lindblad form.± = (D (ν ) 0 |↑〉 ± D (− ν ) 0 |↓〉 ) / 2 .

another conserved quantity commuting ˆ . The conserved quantities can directly be used to calculate the Scientific Reports | 5:13097 | DOI: 10. while away from the SUSY line the dynamics is damped. the stationary solution of the ˆ . The spectral density is assumed to be contransition coefficients are C (jkc ) = j cˆ + cˆ † k with cˆ = aˆ . I i = ρ(i) ρ (0) . Using the dressed-picture dissipative formalism we checked that the dynamics preserved the trace property and that the ground state evolution has no time dependence. Usually a dissipative quantum system has a unique limit for the stationary state density matrix. Lindblad equation Ldr ρˆ st − i H  gR st  This manifold of the stationary states density matrices is spanned by the operators |i〉 〈 j|. However. where dc (Δ k j) is the spectral density of the bath and αc (Δ k j) is the system-bath coupling strength at the transition frequency Δ kj =  εk− εj. only the diagonal part of this SU(2) matrix survives and the stationary state is only doubly degenerate. The stationary value (dashed line) was computed with the help of the conserved quantity I1 and I2. These conserved quantities are constructed as an overlap between with the Liouvillian − i H dr  gR  left and right eigenstates of the Liouvillan. which are the standard dampω ing rates of a weak coupling scenario for the bosonic and spin channels of dissipation35.  Dissipative dynamics of the generalized Rabi model: The time evolution of the mean-photon number for the initial state |0〉 |↑ 〉  (zero photons and excited two-level system). where i. when γφ(0) ≠ 0. 2 with the relaxation coefficients Γcjk =2π d c (Δkj ) αc2 (Δkj ) C (jkc ) . where ϕc =  κc. 2 label the two degenerate states. Namely. while αc2 (Δkj ) ∝ Δkj.www. Hence. In this case the stationary state is given by I1. On the other hand. has a four-fold degenerate zero eigenvalue when γφ(0) =  0. Upper panel: evolution for parameters of the model tuned to the SUSY line (7). ⋅ + L . σ Δ 2 stant. The evolution at the SUSY line exhibits oscillatory behavior.1038/srep13097 6 . in addition to the trace. We explicitly show how to find these conserved quantities in the Supplement. this is not always the case. which corresponds to the trace and gives the ground state expectation value of the mean-photon number. γc. Here we found that the stationary solution of the density matrix equation has a manifold of stationary states at the SUSY line. Γcjk = ϕ c kj C cjk . In the Supplement.  2 we illustrate the time evolution of the mean-photon number when the initial state is taken in the “spin up” state with zero bosonic occupation. The ˆ −. In Fig. j =  1. ρˆ  =0. and thus the manifold of the stationary states is equivalent to the space of unit quaternions. we demonstrate that the dimension of the space of the stationary density matrices is topologically protected by the Witten index and the supercharge cohomology. As a consequence of the degenerate stationary subspace there is.com/scientificreports/ Figure 2. and can be parametrized by the SU(2) group. Lower panel: dissipation far away from the SUSY line.nature.

This leads to the XY-model without an effective magnetic field. where τˆ q = exp[ ( − iq aˆ − iq ⁎aˆ †) / 2 ] is a displacement operator. when the evolution starts with a coherent state. Starting from two cavities and transforming to the bonding unit-bonding basis. would be to design a system ˆ as introduced which is described by H = ∫ dxQ† (x ) Q (x ). each described by the generalized Rabi model and tuned to the SUSY line. Cross-links: dynamics Time evolution starting from a given initial state is very natural in the framework of quantum optics. Another possibility to observe SUSY. Discussion Further connections between dissipative dynamics of quantum optical models and spin-orbit coupled systems can be foreseen in view of the finding of44: for a vanishing magnetic field and when g1 =  g2.1038/srep13097 7 . when we are slightly detuned from the SUSY line. From a more general viewpoint this brings an analogy with the classical KAM theory. using an ensembles of NV centers coupled to superconducting microwave cavities. The SUSY we found here has the same effect on transport for g12 − g 22 = ∆ω and a nonzero magnetic field Δ . We conjecture that. it is easy to show that the doubly degenerate SUSY line will exist in parameter space. This operator is nothing but a generator of the GMP algebra of the lowest Landau Level projected density operators39. 3. This demonstrates a robustness of the SUSY-related dynamical properties even outside of the SUSY line. where the invariant tori stay stable for a long time. which is invariant under the exchange Ω E ↔  Ω B.41. In general. the time after which the Rabi oscillations reappear. We also investigated the robustness of the SUSY-like dynamics. The conserved quantities encode certain information about the initial state into the stationary state. three time scales can be identified: the Rabi oscillation −1 period (2Ω R ) . We observe a persistent degeneracy of the ground state in a range of the tunneling parameter. in the weak tunneling limit the coupled systems can be mapped to an effective XY-model with a magnetic field (similar to42). and corresponds to the electro-magnetic self-dual line in parameter space. ( ) Coupled systems: prospects for quantum simulation of the SUSY field theories We coupled several (up to three) cavities. An experimental implementation of coupled generalized Rabi cavities. for a system with a large average number of photons n  137. Still another example of cross-links between quantum optical models and spin-orbit coupled condensed matter systems could be provided by the Ramsey π-pulse scheme (kicks) applied to the two-level subsystem40. and their collapse and revival. was recently proposed43.B =  g1± g2. there is a SU(2) dynamical symmetry.g. This inspires a profound study of the nontrivial topology of the density matrix encoded in dissipative Scientific Reports | 5:13097 | DOI: 10. becomes a time-dependent function with an extremely slow decay. By breaking these symmetries separately in the generalized version of the Dicke model. one should be able to observe collapse and revival of the Rabi oscillations. τˆ p = 2i τˆ q+ p sin q ∧ p . and e. respectively. in the continuum limit. which leads to non-diffusive spin transport in disordered spin-orbit coupled systems. 2.1 from the SUSY line.2 / ω ∼ 0. These transformations are best defined in terms of the electric and magnetic coupling constants Ω E. one should use a degenerate perturbation theory to study the SUSY points. one observes Rabi oscillations with a frequency Ω R = g12 n + Δ2/4 .com/scientificreports/ stationary value of observables for any initial state. where the effective theory is a super-conformal field theory. although its position is altered by the tunneling rate.or Rabi-cavities undergo the Mott insulator-superfluid transition. where q^p =  l2(q ×  p)·ez and l =  (ħc/eB0)1/2. What would be the interpretation of these phenomena in terms of the Rashba model? Consider the operator ρˆ q = exp ( − q 2 /4) τˆ q. corresponding to the scale of Fig. This is demonstrated in Fig. In the Jaynes-Cummings model. Following the previous analogy with Jaynes-Cummings model one can suggest a Ramsey spectrometry magnetic field pulse scheme to measure decoherence effects in the Rashba model. Therefore. A number of recent studies suggest that coupled systems of Jaynes-Cummings. by preparing the 2   condensed matter system with Rashba spin-orbit coupling in the eigenstate |q〉  of the projected density operator ρˆ q q = (iq 2 ) q . It is interesting to note that in this picture. To include the effect of the tunneling between the different cavities. Namely.nature.38.. for deviations up to δ g 1. We do not exclude that the continuum model could have a critical line in parameter space. We observe a nontrivial structure of the stationary state density matrix forming a SU(2) manifold. where Q(x) is a continuum analogue of Q before. coupled generalized Rabi cavities could be described by a continuum SUSY field theory at a specific parameter manifold. I2.  2. We observe that the additional integral of motion. see Fig. satisfying τˆ q. We attribute this behavior to the topological nature of the stationary states manifold discussed above. This issue will be addressed elsewhere. one can establish separate electric and magnetic phases. the collapse time T c = Ω R / g12 n of the Rabi oscillations and the revival time T r = 2π Ω R / g12. our SUSY line (7) is given by Ω EΩ B =  ωΔ .www. In45 it was found that the parity operations of a generalized Dicke model (a many-level extension of the generalized Rabi model) are discrete transformations of the electric to the magnetic field or vice versa. the decay can be fitted with an exponential function I 2 (t ) ∼ exp (− κt ) with κ ~ 10−3 for a very long time interval.

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