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Ryu et al.

: PAPR Reduction Using Soft Clipping and ACI Rejection in OFDM System


Heung-Gyoon Ryu, Byoung-ll Jin and In-Bae Kim
Department of Electronic Engineering, Chungbuk National University
San 48 Kaesin-dong, Cheongju Chungbuk, 361-763, Republic of Korea
E-mail:, bravo1,

conventional hard clipping method. By the results


o f proposed method, the wanted PAPR can be
OFDM(orthogona1 frequency division multiplexing) is usefully applied for the DAB (digital
audio broadcasting) and

obtained and there is no out-of-band radiation
caused by clipping process.

DVB(digita1 video

broadcasting) system due tu the high spectral
efficiency and


robustness to the

1. Introduction


Due to a high spectral efficiency, the robustness

(intersymbol interference) and multipath fading.
However, the OFDM signal has a large PAPR


(peak to average power ratio), which results in the

multipath fading, OFDM(orthogona1 frequency

significant nonlinear distortion when it passes

division multiplexing) is a very useful system for

through a HPA(high power amplifier) such as


TWTA(trave1ing wave

amplifier) and

DVB(digita1 video broadcasting) applications. In

SSPA(so1id state power amplifier). We propose a

spite of many advantages, a major drawback of

new PAPR reduction method using soft clipping

OFDM is a high PAPR problem. When the

and filtering. Unlike the conventional bard

OFDM signal with high PAPR passes through

clipping, soft clipping has non-zero slope in the

nonlinear device, the signal may suffer significant

clip region. Next, filtering which uses the

nonlinear distortion[l]. To lessen the signal

additional FFT and IFFT transform processes is

distortion, it requires a linear amplifier with a

applied in order to reject the out-of-band clip

large dynamic range.. However,

noise. Although the filtering removes the out-of-

amplifier has poor power efficiency and is so

band noise, it oppositely increases PAPR in small








DAB (digital audio broadcasting) and

this linear

quantity. Since HPA (high power amplifier)

To reduce the PAPR, several techniques have

increases the power consumption according to the

been proposed, such as clipping[2][3], block

linearity range, soft clipping for SSPA lowers the

coding[4], phase shift[5][6]. Clipping is the

power consumption and is more efficient than the

simplest technique and an effective PAPR

Contributed Paper
Manuscript received October 29, 2001

0098 3063/00 $10 .OO

2002 IEEE

Characteristics of the typical SSPA. In addition. This CCDF(comp1ementary cumulative distribution makes function) = reduction method. the spectral efficiency ‘kA dAI= (1) gets worse since the side informations for the phase shift should be transmitted. The out-of-band radiation. . the proposed method shows Fig. soft-clipping is more applicable to SSPA. SSPA and soft clipping coding solutions which can maintain a reasonable coding rate for arbitrary large number of subcarriers. -10 5 0 5 . we propose a new method that is composed of the soft clipping and filtering. but is constant in SSPA. When the amplitude of the input OFDM signal excesses the linear region. Unlike the conventional A is the input signal.subblocks and comnlex structure in OFDM transmitter. 1 for V k = I and different values of pk : pk= I . I . Thus. 2 shows the transfer characteristic of soft .Vol. No. the output signal is decreased in TWTA(trave1ing wave tube amplifier). a companding method that decreases system complexity and has good spectral efficiency has been proposed[7]. The SSPA output is written as[3] . hard clipping.dB1 Fig. and IO. The filtering method uses additional FFT and IFFT transform stages[S]. which is different form the TWTA(trave1ing wave tube amplifier). FEBRUARY 2002 18 However. For PAPR reduction.“phi P m r . but PAPR reduction in this method is not great. it requires so many IFFT stages equivalent to The SSPA(solid state power amplifier) has the transfer characteristic that is constant over the linear region.2dB in AWGN. It is depicted in Fig.9dB at in-band and out-of-band clipping noise. is about 12. its slope is made suitable to SSPA characteristic. filtering is applied in order to reject the outof-band clip noise. vk is the small signal amplification. is the output amplitude at the saturation point( A. it causes a serious that PAPR is reduced to about 6. t 0). BER performance degradation and 10” . pk is the model parameter and A.where The smoothness of the transition into the saturation region can be adjusted by the parameter pk as indicated in Fig. When the subcarrier number is 16 and QPSK modulation is used. In this work. 1. but there is no proper 2. 1. the required SNR at adjacent channel interference(AC1).IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics. soft clipping limits in a skew line. However. 48. Although the filtering removes the out-of-band noise. it oppositely increases PAPR in small quantity. Phase shift method representative and flexible is another PAPR reduction method without signal distortion. Next. Block coding BER= 10. 2.’ seems attractive because it does not create any proposed method can be applied to the other cases.4.

QPSK symbol is converted in serial-to-parallel block and is modulated into OFDM symbol in IFFT block. Fig.I ) he a E{*) is the soft-clipped signal and is expectation. which is made by nulling the input of subcarriers of the second IFFT equivalent to the out-of-band. Relationship of the input and output is expressed as s(t)=s. In other words.(o 5 k 5 N . Filtering has the bandpass property to get rid of the out-of-band soft clip noise.O<n<N-l.c 2 s. Then. The soft-clipped signal passes through FFT and IFFT block which functions as filtering [7].: PAPR Reduction Using Soh Clipping and ACI Rejection in OFDM System clipping and hard clipping. k=O clipping a n d hard clipping.where s . Hereafter.where N denotes the number of suhcarriers. (s. Fig. Out-of-band soft clip noise is a spectral regrowth component which becomes ACl(adjacent channel interference). ( f ) is the input signal. L is the peak amplitude of IFFT output signal. The t r a n s f e r characteristic of soft x. (2) . 3 shows block diagram of the proposed OFDM system including PAPR reduction. (3) Soft clipping has non-zero slope which is different from the conventional hard clipping. Ols. OFDM transmit signal is the sum of N independent QPSK suhsignals with identical bandwidth. PAPR after filtering is given by . it may have the .clipped.where x. 2. Block diagram of t h e proposed OFDM system The n-th OFDM signal can be written as 1 Fig. the OFDM signal is soft.(t)<C. as shown in Fig. N-I =-EX. . 2.. Let X.( t )5 L . The clip ratio is defmed as the ratio of the clip level to the average signal amplitude.(t) =(-.e fi j2mkiN .u-c L-c . uand c are the start and end points of soft clipping region. 3. Hard clipping is the complex QPSK symbol conventional clipping scheme.(t)-Q 1+c.. the PAPR is expressed as middle properly between the two hard clipping cases.Rvu el al.

8 and 1.. 11' . there is a little BER degradation that is similar to the conventional hard clipping method due to a clip noise. 4 ~ \ ~ . 5. .. . Softdipping reduces PAPR to the medium level between the two hard clipping of clip ratio = 0...... 4(a). An OFDM signal is over-sampled by a factor of 8. (b) After filtering ~ :l ~ 12 ..0.. the OFDM system is assumed that N=16 and QPSK modulation format is used... .... 4(b) where x..... 48.. In Fig....S and 1 ... 5 ....... The proposed soft clipping system is compared with the conventional hard clipping system whose clip ratio=O.. :: : : ::: i. In this paper..\. PAPR reduction.. Table 1 shows the performance comparison between the original OFDM and the proposed OFDM system.O........ No. . 10 PbF'RldBl Fig.... Fig... .. is the filtered signal shows that the spectrum of the filtered signal becomes identical to the original OFDM spectrum............... : I : j ...... Vol.....E..Tj... the spectrum regrowth of soft clipping is medium between the two hard clipping cases of clip ratio = 0..IEEETransactionson Consumer Electronics. . 7 . . (a) Before filtering ~ 0 .:...: .. FEBRUARY 2002 20 Fig.8 and 1.....0..... .. ....... Fig. 1 ... . 4.. ... ~ .. which causes a little BER degradation similar to the conventional hard clipping. However.... I .. so that the ACl(adjacent channel interference) may not be occurred. > !.......... ...... 1.. The spectrum comparison before and after filtering.. Soft clipping has the medium BER performance... we can see CCDF (complementary cumulative distribution function) of PAPR. = ' (5) As shown in Fig.. ~ 6 8 \ ~ . 1 I : I: 1::: I : :II:. ...... The filtering removes the out-of-band clip noise... it can't remove the in-band noise from the clip process.... ...... PAPR/i. : . .. ~ 2 ~ ........TTT. 1 .. ... 4 shows the spectrum of the softhard-clipped signal before and after filtering. .. as shown in Fig 2. :: :: : ..... 7.mi.~. ~ .... .

" in Proc. no. W. Wilkinson. A. robustness to system nonlinearities in OFDM.9dB at - ~~~ to the original OFDM spectrum. subcarrier number is 16 and QPSK modulation is In this paper.Ryu et al. the spectrum after filtering is identical using soft clinoine and filtering has been r. Average and Reduction of the Peak-to- Power Ratio in Multicarrier Communications. "Combined error control and increased GLOBECOM'93.'' IEEE Trans. Dec. Metzer. Clip slope of the soft-clipping is not - when the used. Mini-Conference vo1. Jun Gu. pp.9 dB 7.5 dB 6.1433 -1438."Reduction of peak-to average . The filtering method simDlv . T. 28 April-I May 1996. on "Influence trellis-Coded broadcasting of of nonlinear HPA OFDM digital for Theory "Block coding scheme for reduction of peak to terrestrial mean envelope power ratio of multicarrier Global transmission schemes. L." [2] X. vo1. zero. E. Conclusion reduced to 6. May 1998.30. a new PAPR reduction method - 21 no spectral regrowth causing the ACI. The PAPR comparison \ PAPR I The original OFDM a CCDF= 1o . Sauer-Greff. Jianhua Lu. Li and L. pp. K. .6 dB 1 - 3. Jan. 2000.~ b i Hard clipping CR * 1 . Tarokh and H. on Commun.2098-2099. "Effects of clipping and filtering on the performance of OFDM. uses additional - there is a little BER degradation that is similar to FFT and IFFT transform stages and removes the the conventional hard clipping. 1994. Jafakhani. out-of-band clip noise. pp. Bogenfeld.2 dB I References [ l ] E. [ 5 ] A. By the soft clip method between the clip ratio 0. Valentine.1. I.. Cimini Jr.9dB 3. [3] Xiaodong Li and Cimini. Letters. vo1. May 1997. E.. v ~~~ m3 CCDF. pp. Jones and T.8 and 1. pp.: PAPR Reduction Using Soft Clipping and ACI Rejection in OFDM System 4. "On the computation Con/. K.3. J. HDTV. Jr. IEEE Vehicular Technology [6] V. for IEEE 46th Vehicular Technology on the performance of OFDM with transmitter Con/erence. including a Communications [4] A. Jones. R. Barton.131.133. [7] Xiao Huang. Chuang. PAPR is Table dB I I 2. However.J. coding 1993. diversity." IEEE Communications pp. IEEE. vol. so that there is proposed.904-908." Telecommunications Conference.37-44." Electronics Letters. Junli Zheng.O 10.1 dB I PAPR reduction 6. Wilkinson and S. 3. "Effects of clipping Proc. Also. A..1634-1638.

He is currently working towards M.S.506 507.8. vo1. degree 110. cheonan. degree on digital communication system.IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics. degree on digital communication system. and Ph. Byoung-Il Jin was born in cheonan. Korea in 1978. he has been with Chungbuk National University. National University February Chungbuk 2000. No. in the department of electrical and electronics engineering. Korea in communications and signal processing. April 2001. His research interests are 4G mobile communication systems and consumer electronic system communication system. 1984 and 1989. He received the B. He is currently working towards M. Vol. spread spectrum system and communication signal processing. He is currently professor of electrical and electronic department. He received the B." IEEE Electronics Letters. His research interests are BIOGRAPHIES Henng-Gyoon Ryu was OFDM born in Seoul. degrees in electronic engineering. pp.S. 1982. Korea in 1976. 1959. degree in the department of electrical electronics and engineering.S. - He received the B.S.S. Korea. FEBRUARY 2002 22 power ratio of OFDM signals with companding In-Bae Kim was born in transform. Since 1988. satellite . and M. Seoul National University. 48.S. Chungbuk National University February 200 1. 1.D.37. His main research interests are in the field of digital communication systems. circuit design.