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Eccentric reducers and straight runs of pipe at pump suction
09.01.2010 | Bloch, H. P., Hydrocarbon Processing Staff,

Keywords: [pumps] [piping] [maintenance]
Questions relating to proper reducer application in centrifugal pump suction lines date back many decades. Until his death (at
age 84, in 1995), world-renowned pump expert Igor Karassik frequently corresponded with the writer and other pump users
on pump-related subjects. We rarely pass up an opportunity to highlight some of his experience-based comments.
Once, a pump user referred to Fig. 1 and noted that this was quite typical of illustrations found in many textbooks. In essence,
Fig. 1 indicates that, with a suction line entering the pump in the horizontal plane, the eccentric reducer is placed with the flat
at the top. Available texts often give no indication as to whether the pumpage came from above or below the pump.

Fig. 1. Illustration of eccentric reducer
mounting from
Hydraulic Institute Standards.

Igor Karassik agreed that, if the supply source was from above the pump, the eccentric reducer should be installed with the flat
(horizontal) surface at the bottom. Entrained vapor bubbles could then migrate back into the source instead of staying near the
pump suction. If the pump suction piping entered after a long horizontal run or from below the pump, the flat of the eccentric
reducer should be at the top.1
Still, in many older texts it has been assumed that the pumpage source originated at a level below the pump suction nozzle.
Karassik reminded us that older Hydraulic Institute Standards commented on the suction pipe slope:
“...Any high point in the suction pipe will become filled with air and thus prevent proper operation of the pump. A straight
taper reducer should not be used in a horizontal suction line as an air pocket is formed in the top of the reducer and the pipe.
An eccentric reducer should be used instead.”
This instruction applies regardless of where the pumpage originates. Depending on the particulars of an installation, trapped
vapors can reduce the effective suction line cross-sectional area. Should that be the case, flow velocities would tend to be
higher than anticipated. Higher friction losses would occur and pump performance would be adversely affected.
In the case of a liquid source above the pump suction, and particularly where the suction line consists of an eccentric reducer
followed by an elbow turned vertically upward and a vertical pipe length—all assembled in that sequence from the pump
suction flange upstream—it will be mandatory for the eccentric reducer flat side to be at the bottom. That said, Fig. 2 should
clarify what reliability-focused users need to implement.

http://www.hydrocarbonprocessing.com/Article/2663961/Eccentri... 2/6/2015

com/Article/2663961/Eccentri.28. etc. Igor J. viscosity. the line size upstream of any low point must be governed by an important criterion.). however. Find the 2nd edition under ISBN 0-88173-517-5. Straight pipe lengths are.blogspot. Inc. HP LITERATURE CITED 1 Karassik. he advises process plants worldwide on reliability improvement and maintenance cost reduction opportunities. Centrifugal Pump Clinic. one usually gets away with five diameters of straight length next to the reducer. For more detail about pump piping at http://piping-info. Page 2 of 4 Fig.2014 Some of the EPCs using a standard where they use ecentric reducer at Pump suction with flat side always at the top.. it might be wise to install as many as 10 diameters of straight length next to the reducer inlet flange.ca/2011/02/pump-piping-layout-design-guidelines.. Thanks for bringing this clarity !! susheel 05. The author Heinz P. His coauthored Bloch/Budris text. Suggested modifications for eccentric reducer mountings. Antony 01.hydrocarbonprocessing. In a proper installation. Pump User’s Handbook. The line must be a diameter that will limit the pumpage velocity to values below those where bubbles will rise through the liquid. the reducer flange will thus be located at the pump suction nozzle and there is usually no straight piping between reducer outlet and pump nozzle. connected to the eccentric reducer inlet flange. 1989... Bloch is HP’s Equipment/Reliability Editor. Great article .2014 Eccentric are placed flat side down in line .19. The two different rules-ofthumb explain seeming inconsistencies in the literature.. Very valuable reference to ask them to be flexible with their standard if the pumpage is from above the pump. In the case of certain unspecified velocities and other interacting variables (e. In general.. He can be contacted at HB@HydrocarbonProcessing. 2nd Ed. pump style.2014 why use eccentric reducer in pump suction line Manish Joshi 05. it can be stated that wherever a low point exists in a suction line..g.Eccentric reducers and straight runs of pipe at pump suction | H. NPSH margin. 2. Also. whenever vapors must be vented against the flow direction. 2/6/2015 .html ali 06. is comprehensive and very widely used.2015 This article is really nice and it clears some myth. I have argued this point with engineers who INSIST that a reducer shall be placed flat side up.12. Marcel Dekker.. http://www.06. the horizontal piping run at that point should be kept as short as possible.. The author of 17 textbooks and over 470 papers or articles. where both the 5 and 10-D rules can be found. regardless of the source of the pumpage.com.. On most pumps.

gravity) are more suitable for eccentric reducer? Mr...11.14.2012 Thanx for your info. 01.com/Article/2663961/Eccentri. varun 06.spe.c om Consider this article BOOKMARKED! 03. I want solution. Abid Bhatti 11. www..2011 Why should provide the eccentric reducer in the pump suction and why not provide concentric reducer????.2014 Can we use eccentric reducer instead of concentric reducer if we do what will be the effect...2013 Thanks for very help full article.Kindly elaborate the same akshay 01.25..08.2014 I know I'll be pulling it out for reference.10.2011 As to why the eccentric reducer should be mounted with flat bottom at bottom for pumpage Source above pump suction is still very unclear to me.. Regards Shankar 12.13.ir CHARLES 02..05..28..06.2014 Pradip Sinha 01. what benefits of eccentric reducer with 1".2012 tanks for this paper..2013 Dear....max.Eccentric reducers and straight runs of pipe at pump suction | H.2013 As to why the eccentric reducer should be mounted with flat bottom at bottom for pumpage Source above pump suction is still very unclear to me. Rgds Anirban http://www.08. Abdul 03.. Coz one of the fitter had used eccentric instead of concentric in PSV connection.2014 we have 8 nos high pressure pump (capacity 156m3/hr.if any special purpose of providing the eccentric????. every month one of them pump shaft is being damaged.hydrocarbonprocessing...2012 is there any possibility that concentric reducers be used on horizontal line piping? mojtaba javan 06.2" pipe at suction of C F pump? also which type of material service & parameter required in pump (Viscocity. 2/6/2015 ..2013 thanks a lot ... Mohamed metawa 08. Upper side Big Dia Lower side Small Dia Please suggest i want to know that the use of concentric and eccentric reducer.09.Piper007 08.. 02.pressure 15kg/cm2) with a single suction header. Now i know. is there any disadvantage?.mojtabajavan. pls give suggestion.30.25..Kindly elaborate the same . Page 3 of 4 pipingdesigners. So.

There are innumerable references & books propagating the incorrect reducer connection And there must be millions of incorrect installations.Eccentric reducers and straight runs of pipe at pump suction | H. All material subject to strictly enforced copyright laws. I as a project man (non Mech. 09.2010 Thank God you clarified. © 2014 Gulf Publishing Company. Kiran 09. http://www. 2/6/2015 .21. © 2014 Hydrocarbon Processing. single / double suction (2) If due to Lay out constrain can we go for 3D stratght length for suction Waitng for your reply Thanks. I had the priviledge to attend a pumping problems class led by Igor Karrasik..hydrocarbonprocessing. I still have the course notes and have used them for over 30+ years.23.2010 09.com/Article/2663961/Eccentri. Please read our Term and Conditions and Privacy Policy before using the site.2010 Please also include some guide line for (1) straight length requirement for various types of Pumps i.20.) and going by basic principals had argued with Pump specialists over this anomaly when a pump was misbehaving but was shown the text book.e. OH2 / BB1 / BB2 / Multistage Pumps and for type of Suction i... Page 4 of 4 Dear Sir.e..