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P AR T ONE Words

[Í]. So comfort /'kömfət/ in narrow transcription is [khöÍfəʔth,khöÍfəʔ];
some verses /səm 'vÆ:səz/ is [səÍ 'vÆ:səz8]. Similarly /n/ before /f, v/ also
becomes labiodental; the articulation is ‘fronted’; inform, in verse /n'fɔ:m/,
/n 'vÆ:s/ in narrow transcription are [Í'fɔ:m], [Í 'vÆ:s]. In these cases,
the fronting and backing are transcribed by a special phonetic symbol.
In other cases, the fronting and backing are indicated by diacritics. /n/
in like manner becomes dental before /θ, ð/; fronting (in this case, towards
dental articulation) is transcribed by the diacritic [9]. Tenth, in there /tεnθ/, /
n 'ðεə/ in narrow transcription are [thεn9θ], [n9 'ðεə]. The consonants /k, DZ/
are fronted from a true velar position in the direction of the palatal position
when followed immediately by front vowels, e.g. key, geese /ki:/, /DZi:s/ are thus
transcribed narrowly as [k´hi:], [DZ´i:s]. On the other hand, they are backed from
a true velar position when followed immediately by back open vowels, e.g. car,
guard /kɑ:/, /DZɑ:d/; in narrow transcription they become [khɑ:], [DZɑ:d8].
Rounding, or labialization, of consonants occurs immediately before
rounded vowels and /w/. The diacritic to show this is [w]. For example, soon,
twin /ʃu:n/, /twn/ are, in narrow transcription, [swu:n], [tww
8n].
Fronting, backing and rounding are more or less automatic in English,
and so it is usually not felt necessary to indicate them. They are included here
simply to alert you to their existence in case it should ever be necessary to
include them in a narrow transcription.
*

Summary of allophones for each consonant
Plosives
/p/
[ph]
[p]
[ʔp]
[p§]

voiceless bilabial
aspirated (but with weaker aspiration in unstressed syllables)
unaspirated after /s/ in a syllable-initial cluster
glottal reinforcement in syllable-final position before a consonant
or silence
unreleased in syllable-final position before a consonant; optional
before silence

/pa/ [phai]; /spa/ [spa]; /m{p/ [m{ʔph]; /m{ps/ [m{ʔps]; /m{p ʃɒp/
[m{ʔp§ ʃɒʔph]
/b/
[b]
[b
8]
[b§]

voiced bilabial
voiced initially and between voiced segments
devoiced before a voiceless consonant or silence
unreleased in syllable-final position before a consonant

/ba/ [ba]; /bebi/ [bebi]; /n{b/ [n{b8]; /{bsənt/ [{b8§sənth]
/t/
[th]
66

voiceless alveolar
aspirated (but with weaker aspiration in unstressed syllables)

/b{kbəυn/ [b{ʔk§bəυn]. [fυʔt§phɑ:θ]. /ska/ [ska]. /sta/ [sta]. /r{DZ b{DZ/ [r{DZ§b{DZ˚]. /n{DZ/ [n{DZ˚]. /mdnat/ [md§naʔth]. /fυtpɑ:θ/ [fυʔphɑ:θ]. /kɑ:/ [khɑ:] /g/ [DZ] [DZ˚] [DZ§] [DZ´] [DZ] voiced velar voiced initially and between voiced segments devoiced before a voiceless consonant or silence unreleased in syllable-final position before a consonant advanced before front close vowels retracted before back open vowels /DZa/ [DZa]. /wdθ/ [wd9θ]. /DZɑ:d/ [DZɑ:d 8] Nasals /m/ [Í] [m] 67 voiced bilabial labiodental before /f. /etθ/ [eʔt9θ]. /DZi:s/ [DZ´i:s]. /tra/ [tɹ>˚a] /d/ [d] [d 8] [d§] [d9] [d] voiced alveolar voiced initially and between voiced segments devoiced before a voiceless consonant or silence unreleased in syllable-final position before a consonant dental before dental consonants retracted before /r/ /da/ [da]. /fυt/ [fυʔth]. /b{k/ [b{ʔkh]. ʔ] [t6] [t§] [t9] [t] unaspirated after /s/ in a syllable-initial cluster glottal reinforcement or glottal replacement in syllable-final position before a consonant or silence voiced flap as an alternative between vowels unreleased in syllable-final position before a consonant dental before dental consonants retracted before /r/ /ta/ [thai]. v/ elsewhere . /bεtə/ [bεt6ə]. /dra/ [dɹ>a] /k/ [kh] [k] [ʔk] [k§] [k´] [k] voiceless velar aspirated (but with weaker aspiration in unstressed syllables) unaspirated after /s/ in a syllable-initial cluster glottal reinforcement in syllable-final position before a consonant or silence unreleased in syllable-final position before a consonant advanced before front close vowels retracted before back open vowels /kand/ [khand8]. /ki:p/ [k´hi:ʔph]. /m{d/ [m{d8].CH AP T ER 4 Allophones [t] [ʔt.

/ [h{v 8 thə . s.P AR T ONE Words /kömfət/ [khöÍfəʔth] /n/ [n9] [Í] [®] [n] voiced alveolar dental before dental consonants labiodental before /f.... tʃ. j/ elsewhere /tεnθ/ [thεn9θ]./ [z8 thə .] /T/ voiceless dental /D/ [ð 8] [ð] voiced dental devoiced before a voiceless consonant or silence elsewhere /wð θ{ŋks/ [wð8 θ{ŋks] /s/ voiceless alveolar /z/ voiced alveolar [z8] [z] devoiced before a voiceless consonant or silence elsewhere /z tə . /kən'öÆ:s/ [khəÍ'öÆ:s]. Ȣ... /löntʃ/ [lö®tʃ] /N/ voiced velar (limited distribution – before /k.] /S/ voiceless palato-alveolar/post-alveolar /Z/ voiced palato-alveolar/post-alveolar [Ȣ˚] devoiced before a voiceless consonant or silence [Ȣ] elsewhere /m'rɑ:Ȣ/ [m'ɹɑ:Ȣ] /h/ [È] voiceless glottal voiced between voiced segments /b'hand/ [b'Èand] (limited distribution – syllable-initial position only) Affricates /tS/ voiceless palato-alveolar/post-alveolar 68 . g/ or in syllable-final position only) Fricatives /f/ /v/ [v8] [v] voiceless labiodental voiced labiodental devoiced before a voiceless consonant or silence elsewhere /h{v tə ... v/ post-alveolar before /r.. dȢ.

t. ð/ devoiced after aspirated /p. t. /wεlθ/ [wεà9θ]. /hju:dȢ/ [çu:dȢ 7] (limited distribution – syllable-initial position only) /w/ [w 8] ([÷] [w] voiced labial-velar devoiced after aspirated /p. (/hwal/ [÷aà]) (limited distribution – syllable-initial position only) Vowels There are three processes that affect the articulation of all the vowels of English: nasalization. /ple/ [pl8e] /r/ [ɾ] [ɹ>] [ɹ8] [ɹ] voiced post-alveolar tap after /θ.CH AP T ER 4 Allophones [ʔtʃ] [tʃ] glottal reinforcement in syllable-final position before a consonant or silence elsewhere /m{tʃ/ [m{ʔtʃ] /dZ/ [dȢ˚] [dȢ] voiced palato-alveolar/post-alveolar devoiced before a voiceless consonant or silence elsewhere /hεdȢ/ [hεdȢ˚] Approximants /l/ [à] [à9] [l8] [l] voiced alveolar lateral velarized (dark) before a consonant except /j/ or before silence dental before /θ.. /bljən/ [bljən].. k/ for /hw./) elsewhere /kwi:n/ [kw 8 i:n]. /pre/ [pɹ8e]. /rεd/ [ɹεd] (limited distribution – syllable-initial position only) /j/ [Ê˚] [ç] [j] voiced palatal devoiced after aspirated /p. k/ elsewhere /bl/ [bà]. /bld/ [bàd]. k/ for /hj. and two other processes that affect the articulation of just the long vowels: smoothing and diphthongization. k/ elsewhere /θri:/ [θɾi:]. t../ elsewhere /tju:n/ [tju:n]. /dra/ [dɹ>a]. 69 . ð/ fricative after /d/ devoiced after aspirated /p. clipping and breaking.