You are on page 1of 37

GeologicalSociety,PiccadillyW1J0BG

17thNovember2011

RobLeveridge
Schlumberger

Excellence
ExcellenceininExecution
Execution

Schlumberger Public

IntroductiontoE&P
BasicLoggingandPetrophysics

IntroductiontoE&P
BasicLoggingandPetrophysics
Schlumberger Public

Excellence
ExcellenceininExecution
Execution

Wirelinesetup

UpperSheave

Schlumberger Public

LowerSheave

LOGGING UNIT

8 Tons

Excellence
ExcellenceininExecution
Execution

Wirelinesetup

Schlumberger Public

Excellence
ExcellenceininExecution
Execution

Whatislogging?

Schlumberger Public

Excellence
ExcellenceininExecution
Execution

Whatislogging?

Schlumberger Public

WirelineLog
Excellence
ExcellenceininExecution
Execution

1927:PechelbronnELog
Resistivity

Schlumberger Public

Geological
layers

Excellence
ExcellenceininExecution
Execution

Whylog?
Getinformation,makedecisions,
understandwhatisthere&willitmove?

Excellence
ExcellenceininExecution
Execution

Schlumberger Public

Howdoesitrelatetotherestofthe
field?
WellA

WellB

2
B
3

Excellence
ExcellenceininExecution
Execution

Schlumberger Public

MotherNatureiscruel
?

WellA

2
B
3

Excellence
ExcellenceininExecution
Execution

Schlumberger Public

WellB

WhatGeologyisthere?
Imagingtools

Excellence
ExcellenceininExecution
Execution

Schlumberger Public

Caliperstheborehole
Determinesformationelectrical
resistance
Findswhichwaytheformations
dip(tilt)findsfaults/fractures

ImagingTools

FMItool(FullboreFormationMicroImager )
Excellence
ExcellenceininExecution
Execution

Schlumberger Public

Whatfluidisthere?
Formationpressure&samplingtools
Examinesifreservoirsare
connected
Examinesifreservoirsare
depleted
Examineswhatfluidispresent

Excellence
ExcellenceininExecution
Execution

Schlumberger Public

Whatfluidisthere?
Arethesandsconnected?
MDT
Schlumberger Public

Depth

Pressure
Excellence
ExcellenceininExecution
Execution

Whatfluidisthere?
Arethesandsdepleted?
MDT
Schlumberger Public

Depth

Pressure
Excellence
ExcellenceininExecution
Execution

Whatfluidisthere?
Willthefluidflow?
Samplethefluid

Excellence
ExcellenceininExecution
Execution

Schlumberger Public

VarietyofViscousOils
Canada
US
Venezuela/Colombia
China
India/Indonesia
US
Canada

1,000,000
100,000

Bitumen

10,000

Extra
heavy

1,000

Schlumberger Public

Viscosity (cP) at reservoir T

10,000,000

Heavy

100
10
1
0.1

10

15

Excellence
ExcellenceininExecution
Execution

20

25
30
API Gravity

35

40

45

50

PetrophysicsDefinition
Petrophysics

Excellence
ExcellenceininExecution
Execution

Schlumberger Public

(petro isLatinfor"rock"andphysics isthestudyof


nature)isthestudyofthephysicalandchemical
propertiesthatdescribetheoccurrenceand
behaviorofrocks,soilsandfluids

CommonLogsforPetrophysics
CommonLogstoacquire
GammaRay

Density
Howdensetherock+fluidis
Guidetotherockporosity

Neutron
Guidetotherockporosity

Resistivity
Whatfluidspresent

SpontaneousPotential
Sonic
Excellence
ExcellenceininExecution
Execution

Porosity
Wherethefluidscanreside

Saturation
Volumeofeachfluidpresent

FluidProperties
Whatisit?Howwillitflow?
Isitcorrosive?

Permeability
Howthefluidcanmove
throughtherocks

PlanHowtogetitouteffectively

Schlumberger Public

Howradioactivetherockis
Roughguidetothetypeof
rock

Propertiestodetermine

PetrophysicsExample
GammaRay
Caliper

NeutronPorosity
Density
Schlumberger Public

Excellence
ExcellenceininExecution
Execution

PetrophysicsExample
GammaRay
Caliper

Resistivity(deeper)
Resistivity(Shallower)
Schlumberger Public

Excellence
ExcellenceininExecution
Execution

PetrophysicsExample
GammaRay
Caliper

Resistivity(deeper)
Resistivity(Shallower)
Schlumberger Public

Excellence
ExcellenceininExecution
Execution

HowdoyouusePetrophysicsto
quantifyHydrocarbon?

a Rw
S = m
Rt
n
w

LoggingtoolsareusedtoprovidethevaluesforRw,Rt,and,and
guideona,mandn.
Hydrocarbonisthencalculatedallthefluidslessthevolumeof
water
Excellence
ExcellenceininExecution
Execution

Schlumberger Public

ArchieEquation(orvariations)thatlinkporosityandResistivity
(Rw andRt)tothewaterthatispresentintherock

Effectsofparameters
ExampleofvariationsintheArchieparameters:

Thefollowingaremeasurements:
=25%,Rt =5ohmm,Rw =.02ohmm
Assumingasimpleformationwith:
a=1,m=2,n=2 Sw =25%
Changingnto2.5,changesSw to33%
Changingmto3,changesSw to50%

Hencethechoiceoftheseconstantsisimportant.
Excellence
ExcellenceininExecution
Execution

Schlumberger Public

a Rw
S = m
Rt
n
w

Porosity
Excellence
ExcellenceininExecution
Execution

Schlumberger Public

Thisisatypical
crossplot ofdensity
vsporosity
Therearemany
others!
Thelinesarethe
sandstone,
limestoneand
dolomitelithology
lines.
Watchoutforgas
effect

Density

OtherTechniques Crossplots

SpontaneousPotential(SP)?

1)
2)
3)

Membranepotential
largest.
Liquidjunction
potential.
Streamingpotential
smallest.

Excellence
ExcellenceininExecution
Execution

Schlumberger Public

SPresultsfromelectric
currentsflowinginthe
drillingmud.
Therearethreesources
ofthecurrents

Whylog?Getinformation,makedecisions,
understandwhatisthere&willitmove?

Schlumberger Public

Depth

Pressure
Excellence
ExcellenceininExecution
Execution

Schlumberger Public

CASEDHOLE

Excellence
ExcellenceininExecution
Execution

Whatisisolatedbycement?
Adjustyourcompletionplan?

Excellence
ExcellenceininExecution
Execution

Schlumberger Public

CementEvaluationtools
ImagingTools
Ultrasonic

Excellence
ExcellenceininExecution
Execution

Qualitativecement
examination

Schlumberger Public

Examinescasing&
cement

CementBondLogs
SonicCementBondLog

USIT UltraSonicImagingTool

Excellence
ExcellenceininExecution
Execution

Schlumberger Public

CasingIntegrity
Internaldiameter
Thickness
Pin/bulletholes

USIT UltraSonicImagingTool

Schlumberger Public

Excellence
ExcellenceininExecution
Execution

USIT UltraSonicImagingTool

Schlumberger Public

Excellence
ExcellenceininExecution
Execution

CementIntegrity

Schlumberger Public

Excellence
ExcellenceininExecution
Execution

CBL CementBondLow
VDL VariableSonicDensityLog
CBL

VDL

50
Feet
GOOD

Excellence
ExcellenceininExecution
Execution

Schlumberger Public

Poor

SummaryWhywireline&Petrophysics?
IsthereHydrocarbonthere?
Williteconomicallyproduce?

Where
next?

Whattocomplete?
Adjustmentstoplan?

Excellence
ExcellenceininExecution
Execution

Schlumberger Public

www.slb.com
www.glossary.oilfield.slb.com

Excellence
ExcellenceininExecution
Execution

Schlumberger Public

THANKYOU