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AP-T44/06

AUSTROADS TECHNICAL REPORT

Proceedings: Austroads National


Sprayed Sealing Workshops

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Proceedings: Austroads National


Sprayed Sealing Workshops

Proceedings: Austroads National Sprayed Sealing Workshops


First Published 2006

Austroads Inc. 2006


This work is copyright. Apart from any use as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968,
no part may be reproduced by any process without the prior written permission of Austroads.

National Library of Australia


Cataloguing-in-Publication data:

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Proceedings: Austroads National Sprayed Sealing Workshops


ISBN 1 921139 21 8

Austroads Project No. TT1132


Austroads Publication No. APT44/06

Project Manager
Gary Liddle, VicRoads
Prepared by
John Oliver, ARRB Group
Ron Gordon, Consultant
John Rebbechi, RoadCor

Published by Austroads Incorporated


Level 9, Robell House
287 Elizabeth Street
Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Phone: +61 2 9264 7088
Fax: +61 2 9264 1657
Email: austroads@austroads.com.au
www.austroads.com.au

Austroads believes this publication to be correct at the time of printing and does not accept
responsibility for any consequences arising from the use of information herein. Readers should
rely on their own skill and judgement to apply information to particular issues.

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Proceedings: Austroads National


Sprayed Sealing Workshops

Sydney 2006

Austroads profile
Austroads is the association of Australian and New Zealand road transport and traffic authorities
whose purpose is to contribute to the achievement of improved Australian and New Zealand road
transport outcomes by:

undertaking nationally strategic research on behalf of Australasian road agencies and


communicating outcomes
promoting improved practice by Australasian road agencies
facilitating collaboration between road agencies to avoid duplication
promoting harmonisation, consistency and uniformity in road and related operations
providing expert advice to the Australian Transport Council (ATC) and the Standing Committee
on Transport (SCOT).

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Austroads membership
Austroads membership comprises the six state and two territory road transport and traffic
authorities and the Australian Department of Transport and Regional Services in Australia, the
Australian Local Government Association and Transit New Zealand. It is governed by a council
consisting of the chief executive officer (or an alternative senior executive officer) of each of its
eleven member organisations:

Roads and Traffic Authority New South Wales


Roads Corporation Victoria
Department of Main Roads Queensland
Main Roads Western Australia
Department for Transport, Energy and Infrastructure South Australia
Department of Infrastructure, Energy and Resources Tasmania
Department of Planning and Infrastructure Northern Territory
Department of Urban Services Australian Capital Territory
Australian Department of Transport and Regional Services
Australian Local Government Association
Transit New Zealand

The success of Austroads is derived from the collaboration of member organisations and others in
the road industry. It aims to be the Australasian leader in providing high quality information, advice
and fostering research in the road sector.

Proceedings: Austroads National Sprayed Sealing Workshop

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
To assist with the development of a practically focussed Austroads research program in the
sprayed sealing area, a workshop was held at ARRB on 8 and 9 February 2005. Attendance at the
Workshop was by invitation to ensure a broad representation of interests from SRAs and industry.
Seventy-one delegates attended, coming from all regions of Australia and New Zealand, and
covering interest groups including CEOs, regional and network managers, operational staff and
technical experts. The Workshop was judged a success by delegates, and key elements in
achieving this were the extensive pre-planning by a Steering Committee and the appointment of a
facilitator, Dr Ron Gordon, to mediate the Workshop sessions.

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During the Workshop, topics were first introduced by way of a prepared presentation whereby a
selected speaker summarised basic information and highlighted issues. Each topic was then
followed by a general discussion. One of the most successful sessions was a series of seven,
short presentations by practitioners from State Road Authorities (SRAs) and industry on what they
considered to be the top five issues. Presenters in this segment were drawn from all over Australia
and New Zealand and from different areas of sprayed sealing technology.
At the end of each day, delegates were split into six breakout groups, each of which was given two
themes to consider. These themes had been developed from the days discussions. The breakout
groups were asked to consider what issues each theme raised, and then to select the most
important issues. These issues were presented to a plenary session, and delegates then
discussed and prioritised them.
The Steering Committee considered it was important that momentum generated at the Workshop
should not be lost, and that ways of assisting the implementation process should be identified.
Subsequent to the Workshop, actions to address each of the high priority issues were therefore
developed. A high proportion of the technical issues were already addressed in the Austroads /
ARRB research program. Some other issues could be easily fitted into existing three year
research projects. Most of the remaining issues will be considered by the Steering Committee and,
in consultation with Bitumen Surfacings Research Reference Group (BSRRG), recommendations
prepared for the Pavement Technology Review Panel.
The key issues are summarised below under twelve theme headings.

Safety and Traffic Management


Ongoing commitment from management and staff to safety is vital. The traditional areas of
concern - burns, lifting of heavy objects, avoiding power lines, etc. - remain. However, changes in
work practices and the introduction of new technology present new challenges which need to be
addressed. The use of mobile phones on site, and aggregate spreaders and new generation
sprayers were identified as particular areas of concern.
Traffic and road worker safety at roadworks sites were of paramount concern. While there have
been a number of campaigns to heighten public awareness of the need for care and speed control
at roadworks, the problem remains. It is important that this issue be kept high on the agenda of
clients and contractors alike.

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Proceedings: Austroads National Sprayed Sealing Workshop

National Uniformity
The need to enhance uniform practices across jurisdictions was strongly supported. While
Austroads and AAPA have made substantial commitments in the past, considerable scope remains
to encourage utilisation of consistent design methods, specifications and testing methods, and to
ensure that learnings are shared broadly across Australia and New Zealand.

Expertise and Capability


The sprayed seal surfacings industry (public and private sectors) in Australia and New Zealand has
an enviable record of producing relatively low cost surfacings capable of performing well in a range
of environmental and trafficking conditions. This level of performance can only be maintained
through sustaining relevant expertise in all sectors involved. While the situation has not reached a
critical stage yet, there are pointers that steps must be taken soon to increase expertise within the
industry and to make it more attractive for potential employees in the future.

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Seal / Pavement Interaction


Seals do not perform in isolation but are very much apart of the system linking pavement /
subgrade / surfacing / traffic / environment. Good performance can only be assured if all
components of the system are understood and considered together in decision making. In
particular, attention must be given to pavement base moisture conditions and stiffness, and
maintenance pre-treatments.

Seal Performance Data


Considerable variations in seal performance were reported for different locations and
organisations. Such variations were attributed to differences in designs, construction procedures,
accepted seal retirement criteria, and operating conditions. The end result is that some
organisations pay a great deal more than others in providing seals. It is important to gather some
factual data on actual performance and the different approaches of a range of organisations in
order to identify where savings can be effected.

Improving Business and Communication


Each of the sectors owner / supplier / research - contribute to the delivery of well performing
surfacings. Each is dependent on the others in fulfilling their roles. It was indicated at the
workshop that considerable gains could be made if relationships could be strengthened and the
sectors worked together better.
Access to a broader range of expertise, facilitation of business activities through access to relevant
information, more planned use of resources, and easier introduction of innovations were just some
of the areas where benefits could be achieved through cooperation and increasingly working in
partnerships.

Gains from Technology


There are many potential gains to be made through introducing new technology. However, this
can best be achieved systematically, with active involvement of all stakeholders. The need for
cooperation in developing business plans for major initiatives and implementation of a system for
evaluating innovations prior to widespread adoption in practice were two of the future directions
identified to increase gains from investment in technology.

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Proceedings: Austroads National Sprayed Sealing Workshop

Bituminous Materials
The recent past has seen a decline in the resources made available for the evaluation and study of
bituminous binders, the critical component of sprayed seal surfacings. However, changing sources
of crude oil, developments in proprietary products, increasing demands on seals due to heavier
traffic and emerging environmental constraints are but some of the factors which necessitate
ongoing monitoring of binder behaviour and performance. Primes, emulsions and polymer
modified binders were particular materials attracting great interest.

Quarry Products

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High quality aggregate is the other key component of sprayed seal surfacings. Road authorities
have generally had reasonably ready access to good surfacing aggregates capable of adhering to
bituminous binders, resisting the effects of heavy load and environment, and providing adequate
skid resistance. However, appropriate materials are becoming less accessible and more costly.
Consideration needs to be given by all sectors on ways to extend the availability of aggregates for
future use. While the primary motivation to do this clearly rests with quarry suppliers, users of
these materials may assist by adopting approaches which permit the optimum use of quarried
material (the use of a range of alternative aggregate sizes was suggested as one such possibility).
Similarly, creation of strategic reserves of quarry products is another option. Further work is also
required to better understand the performance and behaviour of pre-coatings for aggregate.

Skid Resistance
In recent years, several road agencies have increased standards to improve the skid resistance of
surfacings. This has had impacts in additional costs for more polish-resistant (and more scarce
and costly) aggregates, an increase in the frequency of resurfacing, and utilisation of specialised
maintenance treatment to remove flushed bitumen. There are questions as to whether such
additional expenditure is justified or if some more cost effective options are available. At the same
time, a need exists to provide better evidence of the reliability of forecasts of field skid resistance
based on laboratory testing protocols (PSV) for Australian and New Zealand circumstances.

Construction and Maintenance Practices


The performance of sprayed seals is highly dependent on the quality of construction, not just of the
seal itself but also on base materials, compaction and moisture for new construction, and also pretreatment maintenance patching in the case of existing seals. It is important that each of these
areas be given attention. Similarly, considerable benefits could be gained through more timely
sequencing of base preparation / maintenance prior to surfacing.

Design of Treatments
Some concerns have been raised about the applicability of the Austroads sprayed seal design
method, particularly in cases with very heavy (or very light) traffic loadings. There is a need to reexamine and update the method to ensure its applicability across this broader range of
circumstances. It is also apparent that there is a need to promulgate further the rationale of the
design approach to make it available to the occasional designer or new designers.

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Proceedings: Austroads National Sprayed Sealing Workshop

CONTENTS

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Page

BACKGROUND .................................................................................................................... 1

OBJECTIVES ........................................................................................................................ 2

WORKSHOP PLANNING ..................................................................................................... 3

ATTENDANCE ...................................................................................................................... 4

THE WORKSHOP PROCESS .............................................................................................. 5

SUMMARY OF PRESENTATIONS AND SUBSEQUENT DISCUSSION ............................ 6


6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6

Opening ........................................................................................................................ 6
Sprayed Sealing from the SRA and Industry Viewpoint................................................ 6
Selection of Treatments ................................................................................................ 8
Delivery Systems .......................................................................................................... 8
Operational Viewpoint................................................................................................... 9
Austroads Strategic Research Program and Importance of Spray Seal Expertise
and Knowledge ........................................................................................................... 13
6.7 Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Issues........................................... 14
6.8 Factors Affecting Seal Life .......................................................................................... 15
6.9 Are We Getting Value from Seals? ............................................................................. 16
6.10 Bitumen....................................................................................................................... 17
6.11 Modified Binders and Emulsion .................................................................................. 18
6.12 Sealing Aggregates..................................................................................................... 19

THEMES FOR ISSUES21

SUMMARY OF OUTCOMES .............................................................................................. 22


8.1
8.2
8.3

Introduction ................................................................................................................. 22
Overview of Issues Identified at the Workshop........................................................... 22
Development of an Austroads / ARRB Research Program......................................... 24

IMPLEMENTATION ............................................................................................................ 25
9.1
9.2

Overview ..................................................................................................................... 25
Action Statements....................................................................................................... 25

APPENDIX 1: STEERING COMMITTEE MEMBERSHIP............................................................ 34


APPENDIX 2: LIST OF DELEGATES ATTENDING ................................................................... 35
APPENDIX 3: WORKSHOP PROGRAM..................................................................................... 37
APPENDIX 4: SUMMARY OF ISSUES ....................................................................................... 39
APPENDIX 5: SUMMARY OF FEEDBACK FORM RESPONSES.............................................. 48

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Proceedings: Austroads National Sprayed Sealing Workshop

1. BACKGROUND
The Austroads Technology Program promotes best practice in technology through the
development and maintenance of the Austroads publications series. The surfacings research
program into bitumen, asphalt and sprayed seals underpins the development of the Pavement
Technology publications and is overseen by the Austroads Pavement Technology Review Panel,
which provides advice to the Program Manager.

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As part of the process of developing a well focused and relevant research program in this area,
ARRB was directed to organise and hold a national workshop on sprayed sealing. Sprayed seals
are recognised as a key component of the Australian and New Zealand road network. They are a
low cost surfacing solution and their continued use depends on developing materials and
procedures to meet new challenges, and on maintaining and improving the skills and expertise of
technical and construction personnel.
The Workshop was held at ARRB on 8 and 9 February 2005. It was considered by participants to
be very successful, and this has raised the possibility of further workshops being arranged in other
areas such as asphalt and binders. This report, therefore, summarises the processes involved in
planning and running the Workshop, as well as detailing the outcomes.

Austroads 2006
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Proceedings: Austroads National Sprayed Sealing Workshop

2. OBJECTIVES

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The aims of the Workshop were to:

develop a set of key issues to assist Austroads in formulating a sprayed seal research
program

identify critical vulnerabilities to the sustainability of sprayed seals

canvas new technologies and examine how they may be utilised in the sealing area.

Austroads 2006
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Proceedings: Austroads National Sprayed Sealing Workshop

3. WORKSHOP PLANNING
A crucial aspect in the planning of the Workshop was the establishment of a Steering Committee
which consisted of key practitioners in the area. A list of Steering Committee members is given in
Appendix 1. A second important decision was to use a facilitator to mediate the Workshop
sessions. Dr Ron Gordon was appointed and proved to be most successful in the role. He also
participated in the planning process.
It was decided that two sorts of information would be presented to delegates during the Workshop:

basic facts about the technologies, materials and processes involved in spray sealing

problems, concerns, issues, etc. identified by practitioners.

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The Workshop was modelled on the successful PMB Workshop held at ARRB in 1990. Based on
experience from that event, it was decided that two days was the minimum time necessary to
present information to delegates and to go through the process of identifying and prioritising key
issues.
One of the first tasks of the Steering Committee was to build up a topic list and then identify
individuals who might be suitable as presenters. To assist presenters, the Committee prepared a
list of key points to be covered for each topic, in addition to any the presenter might wish to add.
The Steering Committee held four formal meetings to address matters which included:

developing the two day program

identifying presenters and persuading them to participate

selecting delegates to be invited (see Section 4)

developing a process to identify and prioritise issues

ensuring that different types of issues raised at the Workshop were subsequently actioned.

Austroads 2006
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Proceedings: Austroads National Sprayed Sealing Workshop

4. ATTENDANCE
It was decided that attendance would be by invitation only. It was expected, as turned out to be
the case, that more people would wish to attend than could be accommodated in a Workshop
setting. A list of possible delegates was therefore prepared to ensure a good geographical spread
and that an appropriate range of expertise and representation across interest areas would be
obtained.
This objective was achieved and every State and New Zealand was represented at the Workshop.
Altogether 71 delegates attended, although a small number were only part time. The attendance
list is shown in Appendix 2 together with the affiliation of each delegate. In the interests of privacy,
no further information has been provided but delegates can be contacted through ARRB.

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A notable comment by delegates was that the Workshop brought together people from different
interest areas who would not normally have the opportunity to interact. Among the groupings
present were:

SRA and industry CEOs

SRA regional managers and asset managers

network contract managers

representatives of local government

SRA and industry technical experts

sealing contractors

contractors supplying term network maintenance services

materials suppliers

SRA and industry operational staff

researchers.

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Proceedings: Austroads National Sprayed Sealing Workshop

5. THE WORKSHOP PROCESS


The Workshop program is shown in Appendix 3. Day one of the Workshop addressed mainly
operational considerations, while day two covered materials, construction and performance. On
each day a similar arrangement was followed. Topics were first introduced by way of a prepared
presentation whereby a selected speaker summarised basic information and highlighted issues.
Each topic was then followed by a general discussion.

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One of the most successful sessions was a series of seven, short presentations by practitioners
from State Road Authorities (SRAs) and industry on what they considered to be the top five issues.
Presenters in this segment were drawn from all over Australia and New Zealand and from different
areas of sprayed sealing technology.
Towards the end of each day delegates were split into six (breakout) discussion groups which met
in separate rooms. The topics introduced during the day were split into a number of themes by the
facilitator, and each discussion group was given two themes to consider. Normally each theme
would be looked at by two groups and each group was permitted to introduce other material. The
discussion groups were asked to consider what issues each theme raised, and then to select the
most important issues. A leader from each group presented the findings to a plenary session and
described why each issue had been selected. There then followed a process by which all
delegates identified the most important issues from those raised by the discussion groups.
All presentations were made in PowerPoint and copies of the speaker slides were included in the
workshop handout notes. A summary of key points from each of the 21 presentations, as well as
the ensuing discussion is provided in Section 6 while Section 7 lists the outputs produced as a
result of the prioritisation process.

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Proceedings: Austroads National Sprayed Sealing Workshop

6. SUMMARY OF PRESENTATIONS AND SUBSEQUENT


DISCUSSION
6.1 Opening
Speaker:

Gerard Waldron, ARRB

Gerard Waldron welcomed participants to the workshop and gave a brief background to some
forthcoming organisational changes at ARRB. He described how ARRB had evolved from its
origins as the research grant driven Australian Road Research Board into the predominantly
commercially focussed ARRB Transport Research Limited.

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With a new level of research funding from Austroads, a new business model has been adopted
that will separate ARRB into two groups ARRB Research and a commercial arm including ARRB
Consulting, ARRB Technology and Financial and Corporate Services. Subject to completion of
registration formalities, the new name of the organisation will be the ARRB Group.
Gerard also referred to the importance of sprayed seals to the road systems in Australia and New
Zealand and the objective of ARRB to be a sustainable centre of expertise in sprayed sealing
technology.

6.2 Sprayed Sealing from the SRA and Industry Viewpoint


Speakers: Bob Sharpe, General Manager Road Infrastructure Maintenance, RTA NSW
Malcolm Frost, Chief Executive Officer, Emoleum
Bob Sharpe opened his presentation with an outline of road authority objectives for asset
management. These include:

minimise long term cost of the asset

maintain asset in a satisfactory condition

maximise the safety benefits of the asset

obtain the best value for money from the treatments

limit exposure to litigation

promote safe work practices

minimise environmental risk

minimise road user costs.

Bob then went on to discuss some of the challenges arising from limitations on funding, increased
traffic loadings, aging pavements and increased health, safety and environment requirements and
higher customer expectations.
Sprayed seals comprise some 68% of the network managed by the RTA and consume around
13% of the maintenance budget. They represent low cost per square metre and good value for
money. Qualities provided by sprayed seals include waterproofing, skid resistance, texture, crack
resistance and tolerance to pavement deflection.

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Proceedings: Austroads National Sprayed Sealing Workshop

Sprayed seal failures, if they occur, represent a safety hazard to road users, safety hazard to
crews undertaking repair work, high cost of repair and a potential for further pavement damage and
ongoing maintenance. They also reflect poorly on the image of the road authority and the
contractor, as well as leading to a potential for claims against the authority.
Avoiding failure, and obtaining quality from sprayed seals, involves optimal project selection,
treatment selection, timely intervention and good service delivery. It is important to get the basics
correct through training, accreditation and maintenance of expertise. Achieving quality in the
medium to long term also involves continued performance monitoring, research and development,
process development and a continued supply of quality materials
The presentation prepared by Malcolm Frost was delivered on his behalf by John Bethune,
Director Austroads Projects, Australian Asphalt Pavement Association.
The theme of Malcolm Frosts presentation was that of keeping sprayed seals affordable.

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This involves issues of:

the cost of resources and material inputs

the level of investment in equipment and expertise

the level of utilisation of the asset / people base

the degree of uniformity of standards across the country

the cost of compliance with safety, quality and environment standards

the minimisation of waste in design and implementation.

Malcolm emphasised the importance of adequate returns from sprayed sealing to justify private
sector investment in equipment, expertise and technology. Factors impacting on the ability to
achieve adequate returns include:

surety in the flow of work into the future

the ability to standardise assets to meet multiple customer needs over the long term

a level playing field for all participants, and how price based tendering favoured short-term
low cost operators who do not bear the costs of investment in the future of the industry

adherence to the principles of competitive neutrality by government owned trading entities

the ability to adequately recover costs and make appropriate profits.

Particular reference was made to the cost impact of waste generated through inappropriate choice
of materials and treatments, and the cost of compliance with different standards of accreditation,
equipment requirements, work procedures, materials specifications, etc. in different jurisdictions.

Discussion
Ray Gaughan (formerly RTA NSW and Convenor of the Austroads Bituminous Surfacing
Research Reference Group) spoke of the substantial achievements that had already been made in
preparation of national guidelines in areas such as sprayed seal design, sprayer calibration /
accreditation, safety, materials, work practices, etc.
In subsequent discussion there was some criticism of the extent of soft options in national guides.
Further discussion focussed on the need to communicate, to all levels of specifying and contracting
organisations, and the existence and application of relevant guides to good practice.

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Proceedings: Austroads National Sprayed Sealing Workshop

6.3 Selection of Treatments


Speaker:

Walter Holtrop, National Surfacings Engineer, AAPA

Walter Holtrop provided a general introduction to the factors influencing choice of sprayed seal
treatments and then went on to discuss particular issues relating to priming and primer-sealing
practices, seal selection, maintenance practices, and treatment of flushed seals, including high
pressure water blasting.
Walter expressed concern at the reduction in the use of priming on new granular (and concrete)
bases. This is often driven by expediency or cost saving. All new work should be primed where
possible.

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Primer-sealing is an alternative to priming in many situations. The absence of agreed guidelines


for design of primer-seals is a major factor in inappropriate choice of aggregate size, binder
materials and poor work practices. The standard of base preparation is an area of particular
concern, particularly excessive moisture and quality of base materials. Walter believes that much
greater use should be made of the ball embedment test as criterion for acceptance of base
preparation.
Important issues in the selection of seal treatments are an understanding of the limitations of
performance, choice of appropriate aggregate size, and a need for better understanding of design
procedures. Maintenance practices, time interval between maintenance and sealing, time interval
between priming / primersealing and sealing, monitoring of completed works are all important
issues. A field test for assessment of binder cohesion / adhesion would assist in determining when
new work can be safely opened to traffic.

Discussion
Some lively discussion took place on the merits of priming and the factors that inhibit its use. It is
not a suitable treatment on works constructed under traffic. Walter repeated his concern that
priming was being omitted on works constructed away from traffic where priming was a feasible
treatment.
Mention was made of a practice, sometimes used in NSW, of mixing bitumen emulsion into the
surface of the granular base during final preparation thereby providing a partially bitumen bound
surface layer for the subsequent seal.
Further discussion took place on the common problem of sealing over soft base materials. Walter
again repeated his suggestion for greater use of the ball embedment test in determining fitness for
sealing.

6.4 Delivery Systems


Speaker:

John Esnouf, Principal Engineer Road Surfacings, GeoPave / VicRoads.

John Esnouf provided an overview of the process of selection and design of treatments, selection
of materials, and the technology of equipment used in sprayed sealing works.
Of particular interest, was a description of a range of equipment developments seen on recent
overseas study tours. Although a relatively minor proportion of overall road networks, a surprising
amount of sprayed seal work is undertaken in places such as the USA and Europe leading to
significant investment in the equipment development.

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Proceedings: Austroads National Sprayed Sealing Workshop

Some of the interesting equipment developments include:

large (10 000 L plus) sophisticated bitumen sprayers with variable spray width and variable
binder application

self-propelled aggregate spreaders

synchronised spraying and spreading machines.

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Points raised by John Esnouf for further consideration included:

Transporting and storage of materials (especially binders) and ensuring the properties
remain as expected. Do we really know what we are using?

Field blending vs plant blending / processing (aggregates and binders). Are the materials
appropriately treated for the actual site conditions?

Sprayers. Are we getting the application rates we want everywhere including across the
road (wheel paths and edges) and along the road?

Spreaders. As for sprayers application rates?

Rolling. Is this happening at the right time, and is it effective?

Record keeping enough to investigate problems?

After care. Is this happening at all? (Early intervention and remedial work can be very cost
effective and ensure a quality seal).

Contract restrictions reducing contractor flexibility.

Discussion
Speakers emphasised the importance of aggregate spreading; including an appreciation of the
influence of aggregate spread rate on seal performance and the need for greater accuracy in
measuring and recording. Timing, particularly when using PMBs is also important. It was noted
that the RTA requires field verification of aggregate spread rate using a test tray on all projects, as
well as providing photographs to assist in visual assessment of correct spread rate.
Other observations made during discussion included:

synchronised spraying / spreading machines involve some very high axle loadings that are
permitted in Europe but not allowed in Australia.

increased outputs should not overlook the need for adequate rolling of completed work.

taper bars may not answer all problems and can lead to poor edge finish and uncertainty of
application rate.

6.5 Operational Viewpoint


A total of seven State Road Authority and industry speakers were invited to give short (ten minute)
presentations on the theme of what they considered were the five top sealing issues. Speakers
were:
Barry Mulholland, Technical Support Manager, Sprayline (Victoria)
Mick Bellis, Pioneer Road Services (Queensland)
John Harrison, Sprayed Sealing Manager RTA NSW
Lyndon White, RNR Contracting (Western Australia)

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Proceedings: Austroads National Sprayed Sealing Workshop

Phil Muir, Works Infrastructure, New Zealand


John Cornall, Southern Asphalters (NSW)
David Atkinson, Regional Advisor (Asset Management) Main Roads, Queensland

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Barry Mulholland put forward the five top issues as:

loss of technical expertise in sprayed sealing


poor selection of treatments, inadequate training / knowledge of contract surveillance
officers, loss of contractor skills

lack of expertise in preparation of crushed rock pavement prior to prime / prime-rseal

changes to traffic type and stresses on seals


increased use of power steering, heavier loads, etc.

minimal advancement in materials, plant and equipment


reduction in government (purchaser) involvement. R&D mostly left to contractors but
low margins leave little for spending on R&D.

suggested reseal rate too frequent in some cases


reseals being used to cover pavement distress or improve skid resistance are taking
funds away from treating aged seals.

Mick Bellis put forward the issues as:

skills drain

contractors

poor working conditions, seasonal work, make it difficult to attract and retain skilled workers,
particularly key personnel such as sprayer drivers

customers (SRAs, local government, etc.)

lack of practical knowledge leads to poor contract administration, on-site conflict, etc.

seasonal constraints

customer imposed contract timing increases the impact of seasonal work. Could improved
technology assist in extending season?

pre-treatments
poor surface preparation for reseals and initial treatments has an impact on contractor
performance and reputation
ball embedment specifications for basecourse preparation
timing of seals and primer seals
poor material and treatment selection.

bitumen supply
customer supply (in some states) increases handling and administration cost.
specification appropriate? Could higher viscosity grades be used?

Is

inconsistent approach
use of outdated specifications, national inconsistencies in specification requirements
(work procedures) and sprayer certification.

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Proceedings: Austroads National Sprayed Sealing Workshop

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John Harrison put forward the five top issues as:

client expectations
poor understanding of the capabilities of sprayed seal surfacings and treatment
selection.

client representatives knowledge


inexperience and lack of knowledge leads to poor contractual relationships.

use of cutter
inappropriate cutting practice can lead to bleeding in hot weather. Example shown
where use of an alternative cutter provided a good outcome.

rolling
selection of equipment, timing and extent of rolling are important.

binders
binders need to be matched to pavement, traffic and climate. Suggest the use of
modified binders, e.g. S35E, to provide increased softening point and improved early
cohesion at high summer pavement temperatures on high traffic roads.

Lyndon White put forward the top issues as:

diminishing knowledge and experience (client and contractor)


poor succession planning in both client and contractor organisations.

increase in traffic
increased bleeding of seals.

materials
too many binder grades, rationalisation required. Aggregate quality and pre-coating
practices are variable.

safety
manual aggregate spreading, overhead and width clearances are issues. Lack of road
user compliance with traffic control is also an issue.

Phil Muir put forward the top issues as:

skid resistance
more understanding is required on the interaction between all factors including
relationship between PSV and on-road performance, environmental factors and seal
type. Intervention levels must be appropriate and alternative corrective measures
considered.

bitumen specification and product supply


current specifications could inhibit imports. Specifications / test methods should be
relevant to on-road performance. A simple and fast test that accurately represents onroad performance is required.

expertise
issues of career development and future technical experts and skilled practitioners
requires consideration of industry profile, meaningful career paths, use of current
expertise and the use of contract structures that will develop and encourage the use of
combined industry expertise.

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Proceedings: Austroads National Sprayed Sealing Workshop

performance versus method specifications


performance specifications have been under development in New Zealand for some
years. It is important to specify what is achievable and measurable. Combining
knowledge and working together in partnership, as well as the use and development of
industry expertise are relevant issues.

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John Cornall put forward the five top issues for independent and smaller industry members as:

rise and fall in bitumen prices


with world instability in the price of crude oil it is inappropriate and unacceptable for the
contractor to maintain prices over 12 months or longer.

appropriate selection of surfacing treatments


the industry should take a greater role in educating and guiding clients as to the most
appropriate treatment. In many instances, Class 170 bitumen is no longer a suitable
choice.

poor patching and preparation practices


are a major reason for seal failure and poor performance.

education
loss of skills and knowledge in SRAs and Local Government requires additional
education in areas such as surface treatment selection, seal design, pavement
preparation, understanding of environmental issues. Education of the public on the
need for seals and their importance to the road network is also desirable.

design issues
more attention needs to be paid to assessment of traffic including seasonal effects, high
stress areas, and the influence of climate. Aggregate application rates may also require
variation for different binders and seal types.

David Atkinson spoke about surfacing strategy in North Queensland with particular reference to
addressing outcomes not products. Products are selected to achieve a specific outcome and
quality assessed through rigorous testing and performance monitoring. Specific outcomes from
surfacing include:

road safety
intervention levels are applied to rut depth (risk of aquaplaning), skid resistance,
cracking and crack sealing.

efficient and effective transportation


intervention levels are applied to roughness (NRM).

environmental sustainability
low impact products are desirable in terms of reduced kerosene levels, high binder
content emulsions, conservation of aggregate by use of surface enrichment and hot inplace recycling.

equitable access to remote and aboriginal communities.


high quality products on marginal materials in remote areas adds insurance to
construction works. Aggressive environments and high loading levels are the worst
case.

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Proceedings: Austroads National Sprayed Sealing Workshop

Discussion
Only a brief period of general discussion took place prior to the breakout discussion groups. Points
raised included issues of communication, attracting school leavers to the industry, time period
allowed before sealing over slurry surfacing (12 months suggested), design rates for aggregate
spreading, and an observation that some sprayed sealing programs include an element of
selection based on age rather than being totally needs driven.

6.6 Austroads Strategic Research Program and Importance of Spray


Seal Expertise and Knowledge
Speaker:

David Anderson, Chief Executive, VicRoads

David spoke about the strategic review undertaken by Austroads Council members in 2003 that
resulted in a new program structure that reflected the priorities in the Strategic Plan 20042007.

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The new Austroads Programs are:

Assets

Freight

Network

Registration and licensing

Safety

Technology.

Issues faced by Austroads include:

yearly usage by road authorities exceeds seven million tonnes of asphalt and 750,000
tonnes of bitumen

axle loads are increasing

pavements are aging

pavement materials are becoming harder to source

concerns about environmental emissions

importance of road surfacing and safety.

Strategic research projects have been established in each program area. Delivery of research
programs is to be provided through a restructured ARRB. Austroads has agreed to support the
following areas:

Pavement Technology

Bituminous Surfacing

Asset Management

Road Environment and Safety.

Specific bituminous surfacing research projects have been identified as:

Improving sprayed sealing operations procedures and guidelines

Maximising the benefits from PMBs

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Proceedings: Austroads National Sprayed Sealing Workshop

Using overseas bitumen

Horizontal impact of heavy vehicles on pavement.

Austroads members recognise the importance of sprayed sealing expertise and knowledge in
maintaining a low cost network. This requires expertise to be maintained in both the road
authorities and the industry.

6.7 Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Issues


Speaker:

Walter Holtrop, AAPA

Walter spoke to the presentation jointly prepared with Ray Farrelly, Chief Executive Officer, AAPA.

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Health, Safety and Environment is a key planning area of AAPA. The objectives of the HS&E
program are to:

identify and, where appropriate, assist the industry on issues related to health, safety and the
environment.

be proactive in assisting industry to deal with third party related HS&E issues.

Outputs from the program include HS&E Advisory Notes, Guides, safety videos, training courses,
and annual HS&E Conference, annual Health and Safety Awards and collation of safety statistics.
Walter then went on to outline AAPA concerns in areas of:
Continuous concerns:

trafficked work sites

clothing

including safety jackets and boots

handling hot and volatile products

heat and UV protection

manual handling

work site construction plant.

Future concerns:

long hours and fatigue

drugs and alcohol

overhead power lines.

Discussion
Issues raised during discussion, but without a consensus view, included choice of colour for safety
jackets and the relative merits of elastic sided versus lace-up boots. Lack of a national approach
to traffic control at work sites, including erection / compliance with speed restriction signs, is a
major industry concern.

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Proceedings: Austroads National Sprayed Sealing Workshop

6.8 Factors Affecting Seal Life


Speaker: John Oliver, ARRB Research
John Oliver said that surfaces need to be resealed due to:

premature retirement because of a problem or deficiency


flushing
stone loss
loss of skid resistance

normal age-related retirement


due to hardening of binder.

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If a seal does not fail prematurely due to design, construction or pavement problem then maximum
seal life is determined by binder hardening rate. Hardening to a high viscosity level results in
cracking from volume changes due to daily temperature cycle, or stone loss from the surface.
John outlined extensive ARRB research involving bitumen hardening road trials followed for up to
15 years, the development of the ARRB Durability Test, the development of a bitumen hardening
model and development of a distress viscosity model. A combination of these two models permits
prediction of seal life for a given combination of climate, bitumen durability and seal size.
The main issues involved in premature retirement were:

flushing and stone loss

lack of knowledge or experience in selection design or application of treatments.

early resealing to correct skid resistance which can make the problem worse and should be
taken into account in determining treatment needs.

The model can be used to quantify the effect of the main variables involved in retirement due to
age. These are:

summer temperatures (doubling of seal life from north to south of Australia)

bitumen durability (average of 33% life increase by using a normal durability bitumen
compared to a poor durability one)

seal size (15% increase in seal life by using a 14 mm seal instead of 10 mm)

acceptance of risk (minor roads have different requirements to main arterial roads).

Discussion
The ensuing discussion mainly focussed on those issues related to retirement due to age, and
clarification of issues raised during the presentation.

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Proceedings: Austroads National Sprayed Sealing Workshop

6.9 Are We Getting Value from Seals?


Speakers: Kym Neaylon, Manager Materials Group, Transport SA
Greg Arnold, Transit New Zealand
Kym Neaylon opened his presentation with a discussion on the performance requirements of
sprayed seals and issues involved in the measurement of performance such as surface texture,
aggregate / binder adhesion, stripping, cracking and effect of pavement performance on sprayed
seal performance.
He then showed a slide of purchasing practice in different SRAs covering responsibility for
treatment selection, nominal design for tender, detailed design and site supervision. It revealed
substantial variation in the split of responsibility between purchasers (SRAs) and contractors.

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This was followed by a discussion of the general requirements of specifications, assessment and
feedback of contractor performance and assessment of tenders, particularly the use of non-price
factors based on past history and performance.
The presentation concluded with some discussion of alternative contractual systems, the sharing of
risk between Principal and Contractor and the means of encouraging good work.
Greg Arnold opened his presentation with some statistics on the New Zealand road system, traffic
volumes and life of sprayed seals. The charts based on age of seal when resealed showed a
surprisingly large proportion of seals being retreated when less than two years old while a
significant number extended some 80% past the nominal design lives of 7 to 9 years. The average
life, however, has not changed over the last decade.
Changes in sealing practice include:

reduction in Grade 2 (19 mm) single coat seals

an increase in the proportion of two coat seals

changes in failure criteria


mean profile depth < 0.5 mm
SCRIM survey results.

The use of performance models where the contractor provides a 12 month warranty has increased.
The primary performance measure is surface texture. Performance models are expected to
provide advantages in:

distribution of risk to those best positioned to manage it

each party develops skills appropriate to their role

the use of quality assurance

better contract or consultant / client relationships

less restrictive specifications

surety of performance

encourage innovation.

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Proceedings: Austroads National Sprayed Sealing Workshop

Key issues for NZ are:

timely pre-seal repairs program 12 months prior

high proportion of seal failures in first two years

early seal failure results in shorter lives for future treatments

value for money in two coat seals

criteria for thin asphalt in place of spray seal

multiple sprayed seal layers

use of alternative binders multigrade, emulsions, PMBs.

Discussion

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John Oliver observed that the average life of seals quoted for NZ was shorter than expected from
models (and experience in areas of Australia with climate similar to NZ) although the NZ data could
be distorted by premature failures. He mentioned that an Australian / NZ survey had indicated that
the life of two coat seals was not necessarily any greater than single coat seals.
Ian Cossens sought additional input into determining the criteria for resealing, with an observation
that current assessment criteria were leading to intervention earlier than necessary.
Greg Arnold replied that NZ criteria were based only on need, although texture loss (50%) and
skid resistance (10%) were major factors. The remaining factors were cracking, binder hardening,
and scabbing.
Kym Neaylon observed that the resealing program was dictated by funding but that budget
limitations resulted in a significant backlog and a necessity for long seal life.

6.10 Bitumen
Speakers: Steve Brown, VicRoads
Geoff Hose, Mobil
Steve Brown spoke about the need for SRAs to be informed purchasers of bitumen.

need to understand what we want and able to specify it

need to know what we get

need to understand performance and the cause of any problems

need to access expertise either in-house or through ARRB.

Geoff Hose acknowledged the assistance of Mike Bresnahan, Shell Bitumen, in preparing the
paper on the current position and future plans for bitumen supply in Australia and New Zealand.
Refineries are provided primarily to manufacture fuels or lubricants but where heavy ends are
created these are normally sold as bitumen. Australian refineries are small by world standards and
low returns on investment have seen a number of refineries close in recent years. Bitumen
suppliers in Australia remain committed to supplying customers although the use of imported
bitumen is likely to increase.

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Proceedings: Austroads National Sprayed Sealing Workshop

All product is made to meet AS 2008 (or relevant TNZ specification) regardless of the location of
refining. If refined overseas then a special batch is made for shipment to the Australian market.
This may be finished hot bitumen or partly processed residue or re-blended feedstock for stripping
locations / refineries.
Storage of the number of required grades and distribution of bitumen across state boundaries is an
important issue. Development of specifications should be done on an industry-wide basis and not
just an individual specifier / purchaser.
The presentation concluded with some comments on R&D and the adoption of innovative products.

Discussion
A comment was made that funding for properly controlled field trials was an inhibiting factor in
assessing innovative products.

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A suggestion was made that we need more R&D in the area of bitumen. Geoff Hose replied that
current products were largely meeting needs and that performance problems tended to be in
attention to detail in the execution of work.
A question on the future supply of bitumen into South Australia was answered with advice that
Shell have announced a plan to import finished bitumen (C170 and C320) into Adelaide this year.
A question on low temperature performance of bitumen was answered by John Oliver to the effect
that some additional work is being done at ARRB but that penetration will likely remain in
specifications for the time being as the appropriate control.

6.11 Modified Binders and Emulsion


Speaker:

John Vercoe, Fulton Hogan

John Vercoe opened his presentation by drawing the distinction between emulsions as a short
term delivery system and modified binders, including multigrade bitumen as long term modifiers of
bitumen.
It is the interface between each component of a sprayed seal which is critical to performance the
bond between the road surface and the binder, the bond between binder and aggregate and the
cohesive strength of binder. Potential areas of research include aggregate / binder adhesion and
the cohesive strength of binders.
John put forward an outline of the benefits of bitumen emulsions as a binder delivery system and
referred to the successful use of bitumen emulsion sealing in urban areas of Auckland.
Principal benefits to the Contractor are in areas of safety, ability to spray pump and circulate, ability
to wet the aggregate and energy and solvent savings. Benefit to the road owner is reduced risk of
failure. Emulsions also reduce risk of heat degradation of binders, particularly PMBs.
Key issues relating to PMBs include adhesion between binder and aggregate, cohesive strength,
simulated aging and effect of aging on ductility / elongation properties. These issues all represent
potential areas of research.

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Proceedings: Austroads National Sprayed Sealing Workshop

Discussion
A number of practitioners spoke of practical problems that inhibited the use of emulsions,
particularly low productivity due to extended set-up times and consequent risk of stripping, as well
as safety concerns when changing product.
John Vercoe stated that many of the perceived problems could be overcome, partly through
improved emulsion technology / ormulation and partly through use of crews dedicated to use of
emulsion. He conceded that emulsions may not be suited to large volume rural works but more
suited to urban work where a small increase in material cost was a minor factor in the overall cost
of the work.
Ray Gaughan reminded the gathering that an Austroads group had undertaken a study of
emulsions, including environmental effects and the production of an emulsions guide.

6.12 Sealing Aggregates

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Speaker:

Craig James, Mawson Quarries Victoria

Craig provided an outline of the requirements for sealing aggregates including fundamental
aggregate properties, testing properties and supplier process.
Particular issues of importance to the quarrying industry include:

resource sustainability
utilisation of a range of aggregate sizes
identifying and securing aggregate reserves
extractive industries development approvals.

aggregate application guidelines


fitness for purpose
use of high PSV aggregates
conservation of high quality reserves.

interaction with the quarry industry


potential aggregate needs
impact of specification changes.

specifications

product testing requirements, over-specification

production scheduling requirements.

stacksites
safety and environment, availability and access.

pre-coating
absence of specified types and grades
quarry versus roadside application
effectiveness (laboratory tests and field performance)
potential use of bitumen emulsion pre-coats.

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Proceedings: Austroads National Sprayed Sealing Workshop

skid resistance
relationship between laboratory PSV test and field performance
liability / risk management.

Discussion
A question was raised on the effect of blending aggregates of different PSV. Ray Gaughan
referred to an RTA laboratory study which showed that introduction of highly polishing material (a
glassy slag) dominated the PSV result. Other speakers suggested that laboratory studies and field
trials had shown that the general outcome was an arithmetic mean of the PSV of the components.
High PSV materials could therefore be used to upgrade lesser polish resistant materials.

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An industry speaker suggested that the demand for quarry pre-coating was largely market driven.
Some contractors use field pre-coating as they consider they have more control over the outcomes
while some purchasers believed that quarry pre-coating was more reliable. A better understanding
of the effectiveness of different pre-coating processes is desirable.

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Proceedings: Austroads National Sprayed Sealing Workshop

7. THEMES FOR ISSUES

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For purposes of convenience in generating discussion, ten themes were proposed as the
framework for discussion groups to identify and explore issues. These themes were distributed to
the breakout (discussion) groups and are listed below.

Strategic management of sprayed seal surfacings

Industry capability, training and development

Partnership and cooperation between sectors

Gains from technology

Ensuring product quality and performance

Health safety and environment

Bituminous materials

Aggregates

Surfacing design

Construction and maintenance practices.

Appendix 4lists the issues which the groups felt were important. These issues have been further
categorised into two priority groupings (A and B) based on the level of support for issues
expressed in the plenary discussions.

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Proceedings: Austroads National Sprayed Sealing Workshop

8. SUMMARY OF OUTCOMES
8.1 Introduction
Section 8.2 gives a general overview of the issues which emerged from the Workshop process.
One of the aims of the Workshop was to identify those issues which should be addressed in a
research program and this is discussed in Section 8.3.
The Steering Committee considered it important that momentum generated at the Workshop
should not be lost, and that ways of assisting the implementation process should be identified.
This has been addressed in Section 9 which indicates proposed implementation actions for key
issues.

8.2 Overview of Issues Identified at the Workshop

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Safety and Traffic Management


Ongoing commitment from management and staff to safety is vital. The traditional areas of
concern - burns, lifting of heavy objects, avoiding power lines, etc. - remain. However, changes in
work practices and the introduction of new technology present new challenges which need to be
addressed. The use of mobile phones on site, and aggregate spreaders and new generation
sprayers were identified as particular areas of concern.
Traffic and road worker safety at roadworks sites were of paramount concern. While there have
been a number of campaigns to heighten public awareness of the need for care and speed control
at roadworks, the problem remains. It is important that this issue be kept high on the agenda of
clients and contractors alike.

National Uniformity
The need to enhance uniform practices across jurisdictions was strongly supported. While
Austroads and AAPA have made substantial commitments in the past, considerable scope remains
to encourage utilisation of consistent design methods, specifications and testing methods and to
ensure that learnings are shared broadly across Australia and New Zealand.

Expertise and Capability


The sprayed seal surfacings industry (public and private sectors) in Australia and New Zealand has
an enviable record of producing relatively low cost surfacings capable of performing well in a range
of environmental and trafficking conditions. This level of performance can only be maintained
through sustaining relevant expertise in all sectors involved. While the situation has not reached a
critical stage yet, there are pointers that steps must be taken soon to increase expertise within the
industry and to make it more attractive for potential employees in the future.

Seal / Pavement Interaction


Seals do not perform in isolation but are very much apart of the system linking pavement /
subgrade / surfacing / traffic / environment. Good performance can only be assured if all
components of the system are understood and considered together in decision making. In
particular, care must be given to pavement base moisture conditions and stiffness, and
maintenance pre-treatments.

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Proceedings: Austroads National Sprayed Sealing Workshop

Seal Performance Data


Considerable variations in seal performance were reported for different locations and
organisations. Such variations were attributed to differences in designs, construction procedures,
accepted seal retirement criteria, and operating conditions. The end result is that some
organisations pay a great deal more than others in providing seals. It is important to gather some
factual data on actual performance and the different approaches of a range of organisations in
order to identify where savings can be effected.

Improving Business and Communication

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Each of the sectors owner / supplier / research contribute to the delivery of well performing
surfacings. Each is dependent on the others in fulfilling their roles. It was indicated at the
workshop that considerable gains could be made if relationships could be strengthened and the
sectors worked together better.
Access to a broader range of expertise, facilitation of business activities through access to relevant
information, more planned use of resources, and easier introduction of innovations were just some
of the areas where benefits could be achieved through cooperation and increasingly working in
partnerships.

Gains from Technology


There are many potential gains to be made through introducing new technology. However, this
can best be achieved systematically, with active involvement of all stakeholders. The need for
cooperation in developing business plans for major initiatives and implementation of a system for
evaluating innovations prior to widespread adoption in practice were two of the future directions
identified to increase gains from investment in technology.

Bituminous Materials
The recent past has seen a decline in the resources made available for the evaluation and study of
bituminous binders, the critical component of sprayed seal surfacings. However, changing sources
of crude oil, developments in proprietary products, increasing demands on seals due to heavier
traffic and emerging environmental constraints are but some of the factors which necessitate
ongoing monitoring of binder behaviour and performance. Primes, emulsions and polymer
modified binders were particular materials attracting great interest.

Quarry Products
High quality aggregate is the other key component of sprayed seal surfacings. Road authorities
have generally had reasonably ready access to good surfacing aggregates capable of adhering to
bituminous binders, resisting the effects of heavy load and environment, and providing adequate
skid resistance. However, appropriate materials are becoming less accessible and more costly.
Consideration needs to be given by all sectors on ways to extend the availability of aggregates for
future use. While the primary responsibility to do this clearly rests with quarry suppliers, users of
these materials may assist by adopting approaches which permit the optimum use of quarried
material (the use of a range of alternative aggregate sizes was suggested as one such possibility).
Similarly creation of strategic reserves of quarry products is another option. Further work is also
required to better understand the performance and behaviour of pre-coatings for aggregate.

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Proceedings: Austroads National Sprayed Sealing Workshop

Skid Resistance
In recent years, several road agencies have increased standards to improve the skid resistance of
surfacings. This has had impacts in additional costs for more polish- resistant (and more scarce
and costly) aggregates, an increase in the frequency of resurfacing and utilisation of specialised
maintenance treatment to remove flushed bitumen. There are questions as to whether such
additional expenditure is justified or if some more cost effective options are available. At the same
time, a need exists to provide better evidence of the reliability of forecasts of field skid resistance
based on laboratory testing protocols (PSV) for Australian and New Zealand circumstances.

Construction and Maintenance Practices


The performance of sprayed seals is highly dependent on the quality of construction, not just of the
seal itself but also on base materials, compaction and moisture for new construction or pretreatment maintenance patching for existing seals. It is important that each of these areas be
given attention. Similarly, considerable benefits could be gained through more timely sequencing
of base preparation / maintenance prior to surfacing.

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Design of Treatments
Some concerns have been raised about the applicability of the Austroads sprayed seal design
method, particularly in cases with very heavy (or very light) traffic loadings. There is a need to reexamine and update the method to ensure its applicability across this broader range of
circumstances. It is also apparent that there is a need to promulgate further the rationale of the
design approach to make it available to the occasional designer or new designers.

8.3 Development of an Austroads / ARRB Research Program


Section 9 details proposed research tasks which flow from the Workshop outcomes. A
considerable proportion of these are already included in the existing, approved research program.
Some of the new tasks identified should be able to be fitted into the later years of already
approved, three year projects. Other tasks may require that new projects be established and it is
recommended that the Workshop Steering Committee continue in existence and, in consultation
with BSRRG, prepare proposals for such projects.
A number of issues may be addressed by the Bituminous Surfacings Research Reference Group
(BSRRG) which, in its earlier form (NBSRG), developed a large number of specifications,
guidelines and test methods. Other issues are strategic in nature or are related to areas outside
bituminous surfacings (e.g. safety at work sites). It is proposed that the Workshop Steering
Committee consider such issues and prepare recommendations for the Pavement Technology
Review Panel on how they should be handled.

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Proceedings: Austroads National Sprayed Sealing Workshop

9. IMPLEMENTATION
9.1 Overview
The Workshop was judged a success by delegates, and a summary of responses given in the
feedback forms is included as Appendix 5. Arrangements were made for the PowerPoint
presentations to be placed on the Austroads Web Site (www.austroads.com.au) so that they are
easily accessible to a wide audience.

9.2 Action Statements

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In order to ensure that the issues identified at the Workshop were actioned, the Steering
Committee considered the priority A issues (those considered by the delegates to be most
important) and prepared action statements as shown below.

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Proceedings: Austroads National Sprayed Sealing Workshop

Bituminous Materials
Priority A Issues

Proposed Action
Binder characterisation was one of the top three issues. It is being
addressed in Austroads / ARRB projects TT1133 and TT1134 (PMBs
and overseas bitumens).

Need for ongoing evaluation and understanding of the performance


and properties of binders currently being used in surfacings.
Need for guidelines on selection of binder types to ensure best use of
resources, achieve required performance and extend spraying
seasons.

Information from project TT106( Horizontal impact of heavy vehicles on


pavements) should assist.

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Need to evaluate new binders from non-traditional sources, especially


in regard to:

appropriateness of existing specifications and selection criteria

performance in Australian conditions.

Need for guidelines on the selection and use and performance of


polymer modified binders, especially giving regard to:
specification requirements

effects of transport

adhesion of aggregate

relativity of costs of alternative binders

limitations of use and risks.

relative costs

environmental benefits

limitations and risks of applications

benefits of use and most appropriate applications.

Already underway in project TT1134.

Already underway in project TT1133 (PMBs).

Adhesion component not currently included in TT1133 but the other


aspects are. Consider adding as future task, noting that the study of
adhesion at the binder / aggregate interface is a major undertaking.
Limitations of use and risk should be addressed in a document update.

Need for guidelines on the selection, performance and use of emulsion


binders, especially in regard to:

See last item below on emulsions.


Propose as a future task in project TT1133.

Need for advice on the availability and suitability of C170 bitumen for
future highway applications, especially under heavy traffic.

Selection guidelines being addressed in project TT1133.

Propose new ARRB research task to review practicality of emulsion


sealing in Australia, taking into account recent NZ experience.
Foundation work on Emulsion Guide and environmental aspects
already performed under previous project results may need wider
dissemination.
Information on the performance of hot PMBs vs emulsion PMBs should
be obtained. Emulsions are already used in Australia in routine
maintenance.

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Proceedings: Austroads National Sprayed Sealing Workshop

Aggregates
Priority A Issues

Proposed Action

Guidelines on the selection, use, performance and properties of


alternative aggregate pre-coating materials currently on the
market, especially with regard to their use with current and
emerging binders.

Refer to BSRRG to develop the scope of the task. BSRRG has


developed a number of guidelines and practice documents.

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Need for clients (e.g. SRAs to give consideration to impacts of their


decisions and emerging operational constraints on the viability of the
quarry industry which produces surfacing aggregates. Particular issues
raised were:
Propose that Craig James (presenter at Sealing Workshop), AAPA
representative and John Oliver be requested to prepare a position
paper for presentation at the ARRB conference and IPWEA
regional conferences.

need to include long term quarry product resources in regional


strategic planning

availability of stack locations near project sites

selection of surfacing aggregate sizes to include consideration of


quarry viability (i.e. attempt to utilise range of product sizes to
minimise waste).

Need increased understanding in road authorities about skid


resistance especially in regard to:

relation of PSV to skid resistance (e.g. sideways force coefficient


as measured by SCRIM) in the field for different applications
potential for enhancing surfacing skid resistance by using
blended aggregates with differing Polished Stone Values (PSVs).

Defer action at present since (i) implementation of the Austroads


skid resistance project is currently taking place and (ii) ARRB is
doing work for MRWA on developing a practical approach to
managing friction accident risk by measuring only macrotexture
for certain road classes
Work is also being done by the Asset Management Program
Available literature to be reviewed and a short technical note to be
prepared by ARRB.

Austroads 2006
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Proceedings: Austroads National Sprayed Sealing Workshop

Surfacing Design
Priority A Issues

Proposed Action

Need to assess the performance of seals to determine currently


achieved surfacing lives and prevalent deficiencies and distress
mechanisms.

Include as new task in Austroads / ARRB seal project TT1132.


Trial sections of seal sections in Victoria deliberately left past
intervention should provide good data. Wider geographic spread
of sites needed.

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Modification of sprayed seal design method to better


accommodate:

cases with predominantly very heavy vehicles (e.g. emerging


range of innovative vehicles)

very lightly trafficked and loaded roads

strong seasonal loading variation.

BSRRG has already identified these issues and is seeking data.


Intention is to modify seal design procedure when data available.
May require tasks to be added to Austroads / ARRB seal project
TT1132.

Design method needs to provide information on sensitivity of seal


performance to variation in application rate and construction
procedures.

Task covering sensitivity of seal performance to differences in


application rates (binder, cutter and aggregate), rolling and other
procedures to be added to Austroads / ARRB seal project.

Austroads 2006
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Proceedings: Austroads National Sprayed Sealing Workshop

Construction and Maintenance Practices


Priority A Issues

Proposed Action

Need to ensure pavement is in appropriate condition at time of


applying seal, for example in regard to:

drying out of compaction moisture

removal of excess fines from the base surface

Flushing was mentioned as an important concern by a number of


delegates. Existing procedures to indicate potential for
embedment have deficiencies which have prevented wide
implementation.
Propose to add modification of embedment test to Austroads /
ARRB seal project TT1132.
Other issues to be referred to BSRRG to determine whether
information already available and to suggest means of wider
dissemination.

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Need for timely scheduling of pavement construction or patching


prior to applying the surfacing, and

utilisation of good pre-treatment patching practices

attention to ensure quality of pre-treatment maintenance


patching.

BSRRG to consider how best to approach the issues of timing


and quality of patching and resealing pre-treatments.

Need to consider impacts of pavement strength and material


quality (e.g. use of low strength base materials) in selection of
treatment and seal design.

Refer to ARRB project on quality of pavement materials.

Better control of binder and aggregate application processes


required, particularly to address variable transverse surface
texture.

Review variable application rate spraying options and aggregate


spreaders as an additional task in Austroads / ARRB seal project
TT1132. This will permit quantification of the gains in life through
introducing process control in spraying, and other operations.

Austroads 2006
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Proceedings: Austroads National Sprayed Sealing Workshop

Strategic Management of Sprayed Seal Surfacings


Priority A Issues

Proposed Action

Utilisation of asset management systems to provide:


Make Selection tables (Chapters 8 & 9) from Austroads Selection
of Surfacing document easier to use and more quantitative.

systematic basis for selection of appropriate surfacing types

Consider providing tables as a stand alone document.

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Task is to be included in the Austroads/ARRB sprayed seal


project, with the work being mainly performed by a BSSRG/ARRG
working group (with NZ representative).

future programs of work (e.g. what is planned for next two to three
years) which are developed and communicated to stakeholders
(such as surfacings contractors)

Recommend that, if not already standard practice, each SRA


communicate with Industry (though AAPA State Branch) to
indicate future funding scenario and to provide regular updates.
This will allow Industry to plan resource requirements more
effectively.

assessment and monitoring to an agreed standard of the


performance of surfacings after placement

BSRRG to develop a framework monitoring strategy which


indicates performance. This will need to include a site selection
strategy. The task should eventually permit comparison of seal
performance in different States.

basis for including whole of life costs and considerations in


making decisions about surfacing options

Need to develop more data for sprayed seals and minor works
before this can issue can be addressed. Previous tasks should
assist.

Austroads 2006
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Proceedings: Austroads National Sprayed Sealing Workshop

Industry Capability, Training and Development


Priority A Issues

Proposed Action

Need to develop means to acquire, store and disseminate


knowledge in the surfacing industry (i.e. develop industry
knowledge management).

Main Roads Qld be requested to provide information to all SRAs


(through PTRP) on competency based national standards from the
civil construction qualifications.

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Need to ensure that the industry is supported through a training


program which:

includes on-site and hands-on training elements

is linked to national competency standards frameworks

incorporates gaining experience in various sectors (e.g. specialist,


purchaser and contracting areas)

provides appropriate scholarships, cadetships and postgraduate


programs to develop people

provides employer support to ongoing training and development


of staff

addresses the knowledge needs of people in various


organisational roles.

Refer to the Resource and Infrastructure Industry Standards


Council (RIISC) who are looking at national training standards for
the construction industry

Austroads 2006
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Proceedings: Austroads National Sprayed Sealing Workshop

Partnership and Cooperation between Sectors


Priority A Issues

Proposed Action

Enhancing the relationships between client and the private sector


parts of the industry through:

making relevant information readily available between sectors

making annual work programs available to interested


stakeholders (e.g. materials suppliers and surfacing contractors)
in a timely manner, allowing better forward planning by all (e.g.
three months in advance of tendering process).

This task has been covered under the second proposed action in
the Strategic Management of Sprayed Seal Surfacings table

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Introducing the development and adoption of forms of contract


which:

encouraging open communication between all levels in the


various sectors

encourage alliances between client and contractor

provide a means for assessment and performance monitoring of


contractors and include findings of this in the contractor prequalification accreditation process

clearly define and balance the risk / returns between contractor


and client ( including performance measures)

facilitate development of expertise and encourage innovation in


the industry.

Utilise contractor expertise by involving contractors in the preconstruction processes (e.g. evaluation of options, materials
selection, scheduling) for mutual benefit

Need for close cooperation between road authorities, contracting


industries and ARRB in articulating cases for new technologies
and equipment. Such cases to include future potential works
programs, potential opportunities and work guarantees for
proposed innovations.

Recommend that PTRP refer these issues to the Project Delivery


Review Panel. .

Managing innovation is the subject of an ARRB proposal to


Austroads.

While much has been achieved in promoting harmonisation,


consistency and uniformity in road and related operations (see
Austroads Strategic Plan 2004-07), there remains considerable
potential for future industry improvement particularly through:

uniform specifications in different jurisdictions (e.g. across


different-and particularly adjoining-states, local governments and
organisational regions).

Austroads proceeding with greater commitment to, and emphasis


on, introducing nationally consistent specifications and testing
procedures.

Industry be requested to identify benefits which could be realised


through harmonisation and present to PTRP.

Austroads 2006
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Proceedings: Austroads National Sprayed Sealing Workshop

Health, Safety and Environment Matters


Priority A Issues

Proposed Action

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Traffic management to ensure the safety of road workers and


public was identified as a major issue. Key points included:

need for strengthening commitment to traffic management and


control through roadworks

increased attempts to educating the public

adopting uniform standards

isolating roadwork sites from through traffic

clearer speed zoning

greater importance placed on traffic management in contracts


(e.g. inclusion of traffic management costs in contracts as a
below the line item, paid by the principal).

This was one of the top three issues. Recommend that the
Convenor of PTRP pursue proposed VicRoads actions in this area
and advise of outcome.

Reinforcement of safe working practices in surfacing works


especially in regard to:

This issue has been high priority for AAPA and there have been a
number of initiatives. BSRRG has also addressed some
elements, such as handling of hot bituminous materials.

safe operation of plant

use of binder and aggregate spreaders

Refer to AAPA H, S & E Committee to take the lead and involve


Austroads members in developing a coordinated national
approach, building on earlier work.

control of the use of mobile phones on construction sites

clearance of powerlines.

Rapid measurement of surface texture (i.e. simple non contact


device) identified as useful safety measure. Propose review of
existing devices be a new task in Austroads / ARRB seal project
TT1132.

Austroads 2006
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Proceedings: Austroads National Sprayed Sealing Workshop

APPENDIX 1: WORKSHOP STEERING COMMITTEE


MEMBERSHIP

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Membership of the Steering Committee varied from time to time depending on the availability of
staff to attend meetings. The list below includes those who attended a number of meetings.
John Oliver

ARRB (Convenor)

Allan Alderson

ARRB

John Bethune

AAPA

Steve Brown

GeoPave

John Esnouf

VicRoads

Ron Gordon

Consultant

Walter Holtrop

AAPA

Kym Neaylon

Transport SA

John Vercoe

Fulton Hogan

Austroads 2006
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Proceedings: Austroads National Sprayed Sealing Workshop

APPENDIX 2: LIST OF DELEGATES ATTENDING

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Australian Road Authority and ARRB Delegates


Bruce Hancock
Ross Keeley
Steve Halligan
Barry Walker
Brian Watson
Ian Woolridge
Bob Sharpe
David Bligh
John Harrison
Mick Buttenshaw
Peter Kelland
Sai Yin
David Atkinson
David Seefeld
Eric Melville
Giles Lewer
John Patane
Russell Spies
Darryl Matters
Kym Neaylon
Mark Moreland
Tony Carbone
Daniel Lobley
Andrew Papacostas
David Anderson
Gary Liddle
Ian Cossens
John Esnouf
Lance Midgley
Peter Gibbs
Steve Brown
Ray Gaughan
Allan Alderson
Elizabeth Woodall
Gerard Waldron
John Oliver
Mary Lydon
Paul van Damme
Ron Gordon

MR WA
MR WA
MR WA
DIER Tas
DIER Tas
DIER Tas
RTA NSW
RTA NSW
RTA NSW
RTA NSW
RTA NSW
RTA NSW
DMR Qld
DMR Qld
DMR Qld
DMR Qld
DMR Qld
DMR Qld
DTEI SA
DTEI SA
DTEI SA
DTEI SA
DIPE NT
VicRoads
VicRoads
VicRoads
VicRoads
VicRoads
VicRoads
VicRoads
VicRoads
Past Convenor, Austroads Sealing Project
ARRB
ARRB
ARRB
ARRB
ARRB
ARRB
Facilitator

Austroads 2006
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Proceedings: Austroads National Sprayed Sealing Workshop

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Industry, New Zealand and Local Government Delegates


Ralph Rallings
Andrew Bethune
Barry Mulholland
Craig James
Geoff Hose
Graham Jones
Greg Astill
Greg Miller
Ian Swanston
John Arvanitidis
John Bethune
John Cornall
John Rebbechi
Lyndon White
Mick Bellis
Mike Ioannou
Nigel Preston
Paul Donovan
Rick Britten
Ryan Janz
Bruce Woodward
Stuart Dack
Trevor New
Walter Holtrop
John Vercoe
Sean Bearsley
John Patrick
Greg Arnold
Ross McCoy
Phil Muir
Rob Jory
Kevin Gould
Ron Sneddon
Tony Grech

Pitt and Sherry


Sprayline
Sprayline
Mawsons
Mobil
Boral
Emoleum
Roadways Tasmania
SAMI
Caltex
AAPA
Southern Asphalters
RoadCor
RNR
Pioneer
Pioneer
Shell
Road Network Services
InRoads
Boral
BP
BP
Sprayline
AAPA
Fulton Hogan NZ
Higgins NZ
Opus NZ
Transit NZ
Transit NZ
Works NZ
Horsham City
Shepparton City
Shepparton City
Wyndham City

Austroads 2006
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Proceedings: Austroads National Sprayed Sealing Workshop

APPENDIX 3: WORKSHOP PROGRAM


DAY 1 Overview and Operational Considerations

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Time

Session

Presenter

9.00 9.10

Opening (10 min)

Gerard Waldron, ARRB

9.10 9.15

How the Workshop will operate (5 min)

Ron Gordon, Facilitator

9.15 9.55

Sprayed Sealing from the SRA and


Industry Viewpoint (40 min)

Bob Sharpe, RTA NSW


Malcolm Frost, Emoleum

9.55 10.15

Discussion on above 20 min

10.15 10.30

Morning Tea

10.30 11.00

Selection of Treatments (30 min)

11.00 11.15

Discussion on above 15 min

11.15 11.35

Delivery Systems (20 min)

11.35 11.50

Discussion on above (15 min)

11.50 12.30

Operational Viewpoint I (4 x 10 min)


What SRAs and industry consider the five
top issues

12.30 1.30

Lunch

1.30 2.00

Operational Viewpoint II (3 x 10 min)


What SRAs and industry consider the five
top issues

2.00 2.20

Discussion on above 20 min

2.20 3.00

Breakout Groups - Discussion on Day


1 Topics (40 min)

3.00 3.30

Afternoon Tea

3.30 4.30

Plenary Session (60 min)

In auditorium

4.30 4.40

Facilitator comments on Day 1 and


introduces David Anderson (10 min)

Ron Gordon

4.40 5.00

Austroads Strategic Research Program


and the Importance of Spray Sealing
Expertise and Knowledge (20 min)

David Anderson, VicRoads

5.00 5.15

Discussion 15 min

Walter Holtrop, AAPA

John Esnouf, VicRoads

5.15

Session Close

6.30

AAPA / Industry sponsored Dinner

Austroads 2006
37

Barry Mulholland, Sprayline


Mick Bellis, Pioneer
John Harrison, RTA NSW
Lyndon White, RNR Contracting

Phil Muir, Works Infrastructure NZ


John Cornall, Southern Asphalters
David Atkinson, MR QLD

In breakout rooms

Proceedings: Austroads National Sprayed Sealing Workshop

DAY 2 Materials, Construction and Performance

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Time

Session

Presenter

8.30 8.35

Review of Day 1 (5 min)

Ron Gordon

8.35 8.55

OH&S & Environmental Issues (20 min)

Ray Farrelly / Walter Holtrop, AAPA

8.55 9.15

Discussion 20 min

9.15 9.40

Factors Affecting Seal Life (25 min)

9.40 10.00

Discussion 20 min

10.00 10.20

Morning Tea (20 min)

10.20 10.55

Are we Getting Value from Seals? (35 min)

10.55 11.15

Discussion 20 min

11.15 11.40

Bitumen (25 min)

11.40 12.00

Discussion on above 20 min

12.00 12.30

Modified Binders & Emulsions (30 min)

12.30 12.50

Discussion 20 min

12.50 1.30

Lunch (40 mins)

1.30 1.50

Sealing Aggregates (20 min)

1.50 2.05

Discussion 15 min

2.05 2.35

Breakout Groups - Discussion on Day 2


topics (30 min)

In breakout rooms

2.35 3.20

Plenary Session on Day 2 topics (45 min)

In auditorium

3.20 3.50

Afternoon Tea (30 min)

3.50 4.30

Top Issues (40 min)

In auditorium

4.30 4.50

Where to? (20 min)

Ron Gordon, in auditorium

4.50 5.00

Workshop Close (10 min)

Gary Liddle, VicRoads

John Oliver, ARRB Research

Kym Neaylon, Transport SA


Greg Arnold, Transit NZ

Steve Brown, VicRoads


Geoff Hose, Mobil

John Vercoe, Fulton Hogan

Craig James, Mawsons Quarries

Austroads 2006
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Proceedings: Austroads National Sprayed Sealing Workshop

APPENDIX 4: SUMMARY OF ISSUES


Strategic Management of Sprayed Seal Surfacings
PRIORITY A ISSUES
(nominated as important by more than ten workshop attendees)

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Utilisation of asset management systems to provide:

systematic basis for selection of appropriate surfacing types

future programs of work (e.g. what is planned for next five or ten years) which are developed and communicated to
stakeholders (such as surfacings contractors)

assessment and monitoring the performance of surfacings after placement

basis for including whole of life costs and considerations in making decisions about surfacing options.

PRIORITY B ISSUES
(nominated as important by some, but less than ten workshop attendees)
Need to manage the surfacings network to address stakeholder interests especially with regard to:

ensuring safety for road users and workers.

providing value for money

minimising noise

minimising delays

enhancing public awareness of the benefits of investment in road surfacings.

Austroads 2006
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Proceedings: Austroads National Sprayed Sealing Workshop

Industry Capability, Training and Development


PRIORITY A ISSUES
Need to develop means to acquire, store and disseminate knowledge in the surfacing industry (i.e. develop industry
knowledge management).

Licensed to Mr Anastasios Karahalios on 10 Jun 2010. Personal use licence only. Storage, distribution or use on network prohibited.

Need to ensure that the industry is supported through a training program which:

includes on site and hands on training elements

is linked to national competency standards frameworks

incorporates gaining experience in various sectors (e.g. specialist, purchaser and contracting areas)

provides appropriate scholarships, cadetships and postgraduate programs to develop people

provides employer support to ongoing training and development of staff

addresses the knowledge needs of people in various organisational roles.

PRIORITY B ISSUES
Need to enhance the roads industry as an attractive career option especially in regard to:

raising the profile of the industry and its importance and relevance to the good of the community

developing and promulgating career path options.

Need to recognise, utilise and acknowledge the value of the different roles vital to the success of the industry (e.g.
specialists and generalists, purchasers, contractors and suppliers).

Austroads 2006
40

Proceedings: Austroads National Sprayed Sealing Workshop

Partnership and Cooperation between Sectors


PRIORITY A ISSUES
Enhancing the relationships between client and the private sector parts of the industry through:

encouraging open communication between all levels in the various sectors

making relevant information readily available between sectors

making annual work programs available to interested stakeholders (e.g. materials suppliers and surfacing contractors) in a
timely manner, allowing better forward planning by all ( e.g. three months in advance of tendering process).

Licensed to Mr Anastasios Karahalios on 10 Jun 2010. Personal use licence only. Storage, distribution or use on network prohibited.

Introducing the development and adoption of forms of contract which:

encourage alliances between client and contractor, and

provide a means for assessment and performance monitoring of contractors and including findings of this in the contractor
pre-qualification accreditation process

clearly define and balance the risk / returns between contractor and client ( including performance measures)

facilitate development of expertise and encourage innovation in the industry.

Utilising contractor expertise by involving contractors in the pre-construction processes(e.g. evaluation of options,
materials selection, scheduling) for mutual benefit.
Need for close cooperation between road authorities, contracting industries and ARRB in articulating cases for new
technologies and equipment. Such cases to include future potential works programs, potential opportunities and work
guarantees for proposed innovations.
While much has been achieved, there remains considerable potential for future industry improvement through enhancing
uniformity in the industry in many areas but particularly through:

uniform specifications in different jurisdictions (e.g. across different-and particularly adjoining-states, local governments and
organisational regions).

Need for Austroads to proceed with greater commitment to and emphasis on introducing nationally consistent
specifications and testing procedures.

PRIORITY B ISSUES
Recognition of the importance of a sustainable surfacings industry to the economic prosperity and social good of
Australia.
Developing and implementing appropriate KPIs for assessing performance and benefits of long term networks
maintenance contracts.
Develop a national approach to adopting and adapting significant new technology.
Need to apply findings of studies and investigations at local level to national codes of practice.

Austroads 2006
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Proceedings: Austroads National Sprayed Sealing Workshop

Gains from Technology


PRIORITY A ISSUES
No Priority A issues

PRIORITY B ISSUES
Need to improve practices in priming (selection of prime type, design and placement).

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Develop processes and materials which will lead to improved surfacing performance, reduced incidence of failures and
efficiencies in placement including:

means to extend the ability to seal in winter months

ability to permit early trafficking of seals after placement.

Need to establish a simple national system for evaluation of innovative materials as a means to permit their inclusion in
specifications. (e.g. a modified version of TIPES such as that developed in QLD).

Ensuring Product Quality and Performance


PRIORITY A ISSUES
No Priority A issues

PRIORITY B ISSUES
Guidelines for selection of surfacings for difficult locations (sharp turns, roundabouts, very heavy traffic etc.),
incorporating risk factors to assist decision making for specific applications.
Need for adopting fitness for purpose considerations (e.g. with regard to material property requirements) in specifications
in order to avoid over- specification of needs, leading to additional costs and avoidable depletion of valuable resources.
Need for more effective means to test and evaluate final seal quality after placement, including investigation of a field test
for binder viscosity (much greater end product testing effort is directed to asphalt than seals).
Important for SRAs to retain in house testing capability and be able to ensure quality of testing undertaken by agents.

Austroads 2006
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Proceedings: Austroads National Sprayed Sealing Workshop

Health Safety and Environment Matters


PRIORITY A ISSUES

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Traffic management to ensure the safety of road workers and public was identified as a major issue. Key points included:

need for strengthening commitment to traffic management and control through roadworks

increased attempts to educating the public

adopting uniform standards

isolating roadworks sites from through traffic

clearer speed zoning

greater importance placed on traffic management in contracts (e.g. inclusion of traffic management costs in contracts as a
below the line item, paid by the principal).

Reinforcement of safe working practices in surfacing works especially in regard to:

safe operation of plant

use of binder and aggregate spreaders

control of the use of mobile phones on construction sites

avoidance of powerlines.

PRIORITY B ISSUES
Need for ongoing management commitment to induction and safety training of all staff.
Specific areas of workplace safety requiring current attention include:

development of a nationally accepted approach to standardising colour and design of Personal Protection Equipment (currently
considerable variation in PPEs).

Austroads 2006
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Proceedings: Austroads National Sprayed Sealing Workshop

Bituminous Materials
PRIORITY A ISSUES
Need for ongoing evaluation and understanding of the performance and properties of binders currently being used in
surfacings.
Need for guidelines on selection of binder types to ensure best use of resources, achieve required performance and extend
spraying seasons.
Need for advice on the availability and suitability of C170 bitumen for future highway applications, especially under heavy
traffic.

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Need to evaluate new binders from non-traditional sources, especially in regard to:

appropriateness of existing specifications and selection criteria

performance in Australian conditions.

Need for guidelines on the selection and use and performance of polymer modified binders, especially giving regard to:

specification requirements

effects of transport

adhesion of aggregate

relativity of costs of alternative binders

limitations of use and risks.

Need for guidelines on the selection, performance and use of emulsion binders, especially in regard to:

relative costs

environmental benefits

limitations and risks of applications

benefits of use and most appropriate applications.

PRIORITY B ISSUES
Need for ongoing evaluation and understanding of the performance and properties of binders currently being used in
surfacings.
Need for advice on the selection, use, behaviour and properties of the range of additives in use to alter the properties of
binders (e.g. cutters, fluxes , rejuvenators, enrichments etc.).

Austroads 2006
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Proceedings: Austroads National Sprayed Sealing Workshop

Aggregates
PRIORITY A ISSUES
Guidelines on the selection, use, performance and properties of alternative aggregate pre-coating materials currently on
the market, especially with regard to their use with current and emerging binders.
Need for clients (e.g. SRAs to give consideration to impacts of their decisions and emerging operational constraints on the
viability of the quarry industry which produces surfacing aggregates. Particular issues raised were:

need to include long term quarry product resources in regional strategic planning

availability of stack locations near project sites

selection of surfacing aggregate sizes to include consideration of quarry viability ( ie attempt to utilise range of product sizes to
minimise waste).

Licensed to Mr Anastasios Karahalios on 10 Jun 2010. Personal use licence only. Storage, distribution or use on network prohibited.

Need increased understanding in road authorities about skid resistance especially in regard to;

relation of PSV to skid resistance (e.g. sideways force coefficient as measured by SCRIM) in the field for different applications

potential for enhancing surfacing skid resistance by using blended aggregates with differing Polished Stone Values (PSVs).

PRIORITY B ISSUES
No Priority B issues

Austroads 2006
45

Proceedings: Austroads National Sprayed Sealing Workshop

Surfacing Design
PRIORITY A ISSUES
Need to assess the performance of seals to determine currently achieved surfacing lives and prevalent deficiencies and
distress mechanisms.
Modification of sprayed seal design method to better accommodate:

cases with predominantly very heavy vehicles(e.g. emerging range of innovative vehicles)

very lightly trafficked and loaded roads

strong seasonal loading variation.

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Practitioners require information on sensitivity of seal performance to variation in application rate and construction
procedures.

PRIORITY B ISSUES
Design procedure for double bar sprayers.
Need for guidelines on the selection, use and performance of primer seals and primes, especially giving consideration to
impacts of base conditions and period of elapsed time occurring between priming and sealing.
Need exists to communicate rationale and background of the sprayed seal design method.

Austroads 2006
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Proceedings: Austroads National Sprayed Sealing Workshop

Construction and Maintenance Practices


PRIORITY A ISSUES
Need to ensure pavement is in appropriate condition at time of applying seal, for example in regard to:

drying out of compaction moisture

removal of excess fines from the base surface

utilisation of good pre-treatment patching practices.

Need for timely scheduling of pavement construction or patching prior to applying the surfacing.
Attention to ensure quality of pre-treatment maintenance patching.

Licensed to Mr Anastasios Karahalios on 10 Jun 2010. Personal use licence only. Storage, distribution or use on network prohibited.

Need to consider impacts of pavement strength and material quality (e.g. use of low strength base materials) in seal
design.
Better control of binder and aggregate application processes required, particularly to address variable transverse surface
texture.

PRIORITY B ISSUES
Importance of ensuring good construction practices in seal construction (achievement of design aggregate spread rates).

Austroads 2006
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Proceedings: Austroads National Sprayed Sealing Workshop

APPENDIX 5: SUMMARY OF FEEDBACK FORM RESPONSES


What delegates found most useful?

Opportunity to network with others facing similar challenges

Good balance of presentations, discussions, group discussions

Seeing that issues were common amongst other delegates

Being able to influence future directions by highlighting priority issues

Question times were useful in teasing out issues

Workshop useful in information transfer and being updated on technology matters as well as
directly addressing Austroads primary needs from workshop

Appreciated receiving both contractor and client views on key issues in presentations.

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What were particularly good features of the workshop?

Discussion of the issues in small groups and in plenary sessions

Structure and format

Facilitation

Keeping on time

Willingness of all to participate, leading to open sharing of ideas

Open debates on key topics (e.g. emulsions)

Turnaround of prioritised issues

Opportunity to see ARRB

Venue, lunches and afternoon teas, and AAPA sponsored dinner.

What might be learned for future, similar workshops?

Group discussions thought to be too rushed to cover issues adequately

More quantified date relating to performance etc (help to focus more on facts than opinions)

List of attendees / contact details to be distributed at workshop

More leg stretches

More time for discussion

Later start to Day One (to assist Victorian country delegates who have to travel to the
workshop in the morning)

Extension to three days?

Avoid constraints on discussion as imposed by pre-determined themes

Avoid motherhood presentations and include those which are concise and well focussed

Need for more administrative advice on access to ARRB, accommodation, transport options
for regional Victorian delegates.

Austroads 2006
48

INFORMATION RETRIEVAL

Austroads (2006), Proceedings: Austroads National Sprayed Sealing


Workshops, Austroads, Sydney, A4, 58pp, AP-T44/06.
Keywords:
sprayed seal, chip seal, sealing, workshop, binder, bitumen, seal design,
construction practice.

Licensed to Mr Anastasios Karahalios on 10 Jun 2010. Personal use licence only. Storage, distribution or use on network prohibited.

Abstract:
An Austroads national workshop on sprayed sealing was held to assist
development of a research program and identify challenges to the future use of
seals. Delegates identified key issues under the themes of: safety and traffic
management; national uniformity; expertise and capability; seal / pavement
interaction; seal performance data; improving business and communication;
gains from technology; bituminous materials; quarry products; skid resistance;
construction and maintenance practices; design of treatments. The key issues
were prioritised and action statements subsequently developed for each.

Licensed to Mr Anastasios Karahalios on 10 Jun 2010. Personal use licence only. Storage, distribution or use on network prohibited.

NOTES

Licensed to Mr Anastasios Karahalios on 10 Jun 2010. Personal use licence only. Storage, distribution or use on network prohibited.

NOTES

Licensed to Mr Anastasios Karahalios on 10 Jun 2010. Personal use licence only. Storage, distribution or use on network prohibited.

NOTES