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PAVEMENT DESIGN MANUAL

Supplement to Part 2: Pavement Structural Design


of the Austroads Guide to Pavement Technology

Issued by
Queensland Department of Main Roads
Pavements & Materials Branch

For document content enquiries:

Principal Engineer (Pavement Design)


Phone:
(07) 3115 3079
Facsimile:
(07) 3115 3055

IMPORTANT INFORMATION
The requirements of this document represent Technical Policy of Main Roads and contain
Technical Standards. Compliance with Main Roads Technical Standards is mandatory for all
applications for the design, construction, maintenance and operation of road transport
infrastructure in Queensland by or on behalf of the State of Queensland.
This document will be reviewed from time to time as the need arises and in response to
improvement suggestions by users. Please send your comments and suggestions to the feedback
email given below.

FEEDBACK
Your feedback is welcomed. Please send to mr.techdocs@mainroads.qld.gov.au.

COPYRIGHT
State of Queensland (Department of Main Roads) 2009
Copyright protects this publication. Except for the purposes permitted by and subject to the
conditions prescribed under the Copyright Act, reproduction by any means (including electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, microcopying or otherwise) is prohibited without the prior written
permission of the Queensland Department of Main Roads. Enquiries regarding such permission
should be directed to the Road & Delivery Performance Division, Queensland Department of Main
Roads.

DISCLAIMER
This publication has been created for use in the design, construction, maintenance and operation
of road transport infrastructure in Queensland by or on behalf of the State of Queensland.
The State of Queensland and the Department of Main Roads give no warranties as to the
completeness, accuracy or adequacy of the publication or any parts of it and accepts no
responsibility or liability upon any basis whatever for anything contained in or omitted from the
publication or for the consequences of the use or misuse of the publication or any parts of it.
If the publication or any part of it forms part of a written contract between the State of Queensland
and a contractor, this disclaimer applies subject to the express terms of that contract.
January 2009

Queensland Department of Main Roads

Pavement Design Manual

Table of Contents
1

INTRODUCTION...............................................................................................................................1
1.1
1.2
1.3

1.4
2

PAVEMENT DESIGN........................................................................................................................8
2.1

2.2
2.3

2.4

General ..................................................................................................................................20
Unbound granular ..................................................................................................................20
Stabilised materials ................................................................................................................20
Temporary connections for HILI pavements ..........................................................................21
Asphalt pavements.................................................................................................................21
Working platform ....................................................................................................................21
Settlement ..............................................................................................................................22
Moisture ingress and maintenance ........................................................................................22
Trafficking of incomplete pavement .......................................................................................22
Thickness of bituminous seals ...............................................................................................22

ENVIRONMENT..............................................................................................................................23
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4

4.5
4.6
5

Overview of MR Pavement Design System .............................................................................8


2.1.1
Design models and mechanical properties................................................................8
2.1.2
Designers...................................................................................................................8
2.1.3
Unbound granular design charts ...............................................................................8
2.1.4
Mechanistic design ....................................................................................................8
2.1.5
Estimate of life ...........................................................................................................8
Reliability..................................................................................................................................8
Selecting a trial pavement configuration and minimum standards ..........................................9
2.3.1
General ......................................................................................................................9
2.3.2
Project-specific factors.............................................................................................10
2.3.3
Specifications...........................................................................................................10
2.3.4
Minimum pavement standards ................................................................................10
Shoulders ...............................................................................................................................17
2.4.1
General ....................................................................................................................17
2.4.2
Shoulders with a lower structural standard..............................................................17
2.4.3
Unsealed shoulders .................................................................................................18

CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE CONSIDERATIONS......................................................20


3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10

Foreword ..................................................................................................................................1
MR Pavement Design System .................................................................................................1
Scope and applicability ............................................................................................................2
1.3.1
General ......................................................................................................................2
1.3.2
Applying the MR Pavement Design System..............................................................2
1.3.3
MR Pavement Design System policy parameters .....................................................3
Definitions ................................................................................................................................4

General ..................................................................................................................................23
Climatic zones........................................................................................................................23
Water environment.................................................................................................................24
Minimising exposure to and influence of water......................................................................27
4.4.1
General ....................................................................................................................27
4.4.2
Design requirements................................................................................................27
4.4.3
During construction..................................................................................................28
Situations where pavement or subgrades cannot be protected ............................................28
Temperature environment......................................................................................................29

SUBGRADE ....................................................................................................................................30
5.1

General ..................................................................................................................................30

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Pavement Design Manual

5.2

5.3

5.4
5.5

5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
6

Subgrade assessment........................................................................................................... 30
5.2.1
General ................................................................................................................... 30
5.2.2
Laboratory CBR test conditions .............................................................................. 31
5.2.3
Statistical analysis of CBR data .............................................................................. 31
5.2.4
Adoption of presumptive CBR values ..................................................................... 31
5.2.5
Variation in subgrade support with moisture changes ............................................ 32
Subgrade water-induced volume change.............................................................................. 32
5.3.1
General ................................................................................................................... 32
5.3.2
Minimising volume change...................................................................................... 33
5.3.3
Cover over reactive subgrade................................................................................. 33
Select fill and treated material ............................................................................................... 34
Working platform ................................................................................................................... 34
5.5.1
In-service requirements .......................................................................................... 34
5.5.2
Contractors design requirements........................................................................... 35
Capping ................................................................................................................................. 35
Drainage layer ....................................................................................................................... 36
Combined subgrade treatments ............................................................................................ 36
Elastic characterisation of subgrade materials...................................................................... 39

PAVEMENT MATERIALS .............................................................................................................. 40


6.1

6.2
6.3

6.4
6.5

6.6
7

Queensland Department of Main Roads

Unbound granular.................................................................................................................. 40
6.1.1
General ................................................................................................................... 40
6.1.2
Determining modulus of unbound granular materials ............................................. 40
Modified granular materials ................................................................................................... 41
Stabilised granular material................................................................................................... 41
6.3.1
General ................................................................................................................... 41
6.3.2
Determining design modulus and Poissons ratio................................................... 42
6.3.3
Cracking .................................................................................................................. 42
6.3.4
Minimising cracks.................................................................................................... 43
Lean mix concrete ................................................................................................................. 43
Asphalt................................................................................................................................... 44
6.5.1
Asphalt types........................................................................................................... 44
6.5.2
Determining asphalt modulus and Poissons ratio.................................................. 44
6.5.3
Recycled asphalt..................................................................................................... 46
6.5.4
Minimising water infiltration..................................................................................... 46
Concrete ................................................................................................................................ 46
6.6.1
Base concrete ......................................................................................................... 46

DESIGN TRAFFIC.......................................................................................................................... 47
7.1 Average daily ESA in design lane in year of opening ........................................................... 47
7.2 Selecting design period and assessment period................................................................... 47
7.3 Identifying design lane........................................................................................................... 47
7.4 Initial daily heavy vehicles in the design lane........................................................................ 47
7.5 Growth rate and cumulative traffic volumes .......................................................................... 48
7.6 Project specific traffic load distribution .................................................................................. 48
7.7 Reduced design standard for sealed unbound granular pavements with average daily ESA < 100
in design lane in year of opening.................................................................................................... 48

DESIGN OF NEW FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS ................................................................................. 50


8.1
8.2

8.3
8.4
8.5
ii

General.................................................................................................................................. 50
Mechanistic procedure .......................................................................................................... 50
8.2.1
Selecting a trial pavement....................................................................................... 50
8.2.2
Consideration of post-cracking phase in cemented materials ................................ 50
Empirical design of unbound granular pavements with thin bituminous surfacing ............... 50
Modified granular pavements ................................................................................................ 51
Example design charts for mechanistic design ..................................................................... 51
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Queensland Department of Main Roads

Pavement Design Manual

DESIGN OF NEW RIGID PAVEMENTS.........................................................................................52


9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4

General ..................................................................................................................................52
Pavement types .....................................................................................................................52
Concrete channels .................................................................................................................52
Example design charts for rigid pavements ...........................................................................53

10 COMPARISON OF DESIGNS ........................................................................................................54


10.1 General ..................................................................................................................................54
10.1.1 Assessment period ..................................................................................................54
10.1.2 Design inclusions.....................................................................................................55
10.1.3 Determining the optimal solution .............................................................................55
10.1.4 Selection constraints................................................................................................56
11 TYPICAL CROSS SECTIONS ........................................................................................................57
11.1 Typical cross sections ............................................................................................................57
11.2 Pavement structures ..............................................................................................................58
11.3 Pavement edge details...........................................................................................................60
12 REFERENCES................................................................................................................................61
APPENDIX 1 .............................................................................................................................................I
APPENDIX 2 ............................................................................................................................................II

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iii

Queensland Department of Main Roads

Pavement Design Manual

INTRODUCTION

1.1

Foreword

The Queensland Department of Main Roads (MR) Pavement Design Manual (this manual) is
written as a supplement to Part 2: Pavement Structural Design of the Austroads Guide to
Pavement Technology (Austroads, 2008), hereafter referred to as Part 2 of the Austroads guide.
The MR Pavement Design Manual, used in conjunction with Part 2 of the Austroads guide and the
other components of the MR Pavement Design System, provides requirements for the design of
new pavements for MR.
Designers are also referred to the following MR documents:

Pavement Surfacings Manual

Pavement Rehabilitation Manual

Road Planning and Design Manual

1.2

MR Pavement Design System

The MR Pavement Design System, which includes this manual, sets out MR specific pavement
design requirements. For most fundamental design principles Part 2 of the Austroads guide is
used. For Main Roads purposes, the MR components of the Pavement Design System take
precedence over Part 2 of the Austroads guide, if and where they differ.
The MR Pavement Design System includes all the following documents, systems and design
properties:
a)

MR documents and systems


i)

Pavement Design Manual

ii)

standard specifications

iii)

supplementary specifications

iv)

technical standards

v)

standard drawings

vi)

standard test methods

vii)

technical notes

viii)

engineering policies

ix)

engineering notes

x)

quality requirements

b)

Part 2: Pavement Structural Design of the Austroads Guide to Pavement Technology

c)

design properties
i)

Material design properties must be those stipulated in the MR Pavement Design


System described above. In particular, properties such as moduli, fatigue constants
and Poissons ratios must be those stipulated in this manual, or if not stated, those
given in Part 2 of the Austroads guide.

ii)

The design properties used in the MR Pavement Design System are based on the
products, components and materials of the pavement conforming to the requirements
of the documents listed in 1.2 a) above.

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Pavement Design Manual

1.3

Queensland Department of Main Roads

Scope and applicability

1.3.1

General

The MR Pavement Design Manual is intended as a guide for professional, trained, experienced
and knowledgeable pavement designers who are required to:
a)

work within the confines of Main Roads organisational policies, guidelines and road network
requirements

b)

be aware of, assess and apply risk management and budgetary constraints to the road
system as a whole and its various components

c)

take into account local area or project specific issues

d)

optimise initial designs and in-service treatments to suit budget and whole-of-life cost issues.

1.3.2

Applying the MR Pavement Design System

The MR Pavement Design System must:


a)

be applied as a complete and integrated system. No part can be used in isolation from the
others, nor shall other models, methodologies, specifications, properties and/or materials be
substituted for those required by the MR Pavement Design System.

b)

not be used on its own to form part of any contract including, but not limited to, those for the
following delivery mechanisms
i)

design

ii)

design and construct

iii)

design-construct-maintain

iv)

alliance

v)

partnering

vi)

build-own-operate-transfer

In such cases, a separate, comprehensive and robust set of project-specific requirements


must be developed.
c)

not be used for performance based contracts and/or with performance based
specifications. Performance contracts and standards must be based on functional
requirements guaranteed for the service life of the project.

d)

not be used in isolation where functional requirements are specified. Where used by Main
Roads as part of an infrastructure delivery model that includes functional requirements,
achievement of the functional requirements must be based on requirements for initial
construction and interventions that involve periodic treatments including overlays, reseals,
rejuvenation, re-texturing and so on.

e)

not be used for any purpose other than within the context described above. In particular, it
must not be used for

i)

designing facilities other than those to be designed directly for Main Roads. It must not
be used for facilities including, but not limited to container and freight yards, mining
roads and airports.

ii)

designing facilities for any Legal Entity other than the State of Queensland

iii)

designing projects with parameters other than those set out in Section 1.2 for the
Queensland road network

iv)

unsealed pavements; segmental block or flag pavements; roller compacted concrete


pavements; or any pavement not covered by an MR standard.

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Queensland Department of Main Roads

Pavement Design Manual

Because of differences between design inputs and whole-of-life realities (e.g. traffic growth,
enforcement of and legislative changes to legal axle loads and tyre pressures, variability in
construction control and ongoing maintenance and rehabilitation) the analytical processes and
tools contained herein can provide only an indication of future pavement performance.
If a contract interface involves a planning and/or design component, requirements separate to the
MR Pavement Design System must be developed to address the means of supplying an
acceptable design process and design to the owner/client/principal.
1.3.3

MR Pavement Design System policy parameters

The MR Pavement Design System has evolved and been developed to provide solutions that best
serve the needs of the MR controlled road network as a whole and applies only in this context. The
policy parameters that provided guidance and the context of developments to date have included:
a)

b)

a historic priority for


i)

all-weather connections with the consequence of lower initial standards in order to


favour maximum length constructed

ii)

an adequate level of service over the whole network within the context of budgetary
constraints and the comparatively large geographical area with relatively low population
density

a project delivery system requiring a defined contract between the owner and the contractor,
for construction only, based on detailed drawings, specifications and test methods.

Imperatives that have had to be considered in recent times include:


a)

high cost of maintenance interventions and associated user disruptions on highly trafficked
urban roads, leading to the lowest whole-of-life cost solution for such pavements being high
load intensity low intervention (HILI) pavements

b)

increasing load intensities caused by increases in vertical loading and major increases in
horizontal shear loading caused by increased truck gross masses. This has required stiffer
and stronger pavement bases and surface layers.

c)

increased expectations about safety requirements, leading to increases in surface property


requirements such as macrotexture and microtexture but also requiring stiffer and stronger
pavement base layers to support these requirements

d)

a greater emphasis on whole-of-life cost rather than initial cost.

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Pavement Design Manual

1.4

Queensland Department of Main Roads

Definitions
Table 1.4-1 Definitions
Term

Description

assessment period

The time span over which total costs for the pavement are determined so that wholeof-life cost comparisons can be made between alternative pavement design options.
Refer to Table 7.2-1 for determination of the assessment period.
The assessment period may be the same as the design period, or there may be
several design periods within the assessment period due to decisions to reconstruct
or rehabilitate the pavement at intermediate intervals.

Part 2 of the
Austroads guide

Part 2: Pavement
(Austroads 2008)

base layer

The main structural layer nearest to the surface in a pavement.

binder layer

An asphalt layer that is placed between an asphalt base layer and an asphalt surface
layer. The binder layer is included for its better workability to reduce permeability and
improve roughness levels.

capping layer

A layer that provides cover over an in situ material that has a design CBR of less than
3.0% but not less than 1.0%.

CBR

California bearing ratio

cover over reactive


subgrade

A thickness of material beneath the lowest pavement layer intended to reduce waterinduced volume change effects on the pavement where there are in situ materials
with the potential for water-induced volume change.
Cover thickness may include any working platform, select fill, capping layer and/or
drainage layer.

curling

Differential movement, usually vertical, in a concrete pavement caused by


temperature differences through the cross-section of the pavement.

constituents

Materials and/or components within a product.

deep strength
asphalt pavement

A pavement structure consisting of a minimum total thickness of 175 mm of dense


graded asphalt over a cementitiously stabilised subbase (subbase thickness range
150200 mm).

design period

Main Roads definition (this applies to Main Roads works)


The time span considered appropriate for the major structural elements of the road
pavement to function without rehabilitation and/or reconstruction. Treatments, such as
replacement of surfacing layers and stage construction treatments, that maintain the
integrity of the other components of the pavement are included within the design
period.
Austroads definition
The time span considered appropriate for the road pavement to function without
major rehabilitation and/or reconstruction.

drainage layer

A layer located between the pavement and the untreated subgrade that intercepts
water and/or breaks capillary rise.

Structural

Design

Guide

to

Pavement

Technology

January 2009

Queensland Department of Main Roads

Term

Pavement Design Manual

Description

flexible composite
pavement

A pavement structure consisting of a minimum total thickness of 175 mm of dense


graded asphalt over a lean mix concrete subbase (subbase thickness range 170
240 mm).

flexible pavement

Unbound granular, modified granular or asphalt pavements.

full depth asphalt


pavement

A pavement structure consisting of full depth asphalt usually over a working platform.

functional
characteristics

Characteristics provided by the particular pavement that address the necessities for
traffic and are expressed in terms of lane availability, rideability, grade, cross-fall,
water film thickness, flood immunity, skid resistance, etc.

functional
requirements

Requirements related to a standard of service for the pavement user, such as


roughness, grade, cross-fall, rutting, surface defects, texture depth, skid resistance,
delineation, visibility, etc.

HILI pavement

High load intensity, low intervention pavement as defined in Table 2.3-2.

load intensity

Traffic loading applied to the pavement over a specified time period, comprising the
accumulation of applications of a variety of pavement contact stresses and repetitions
derived from the traffic spectrum, vehicle frequency and growth rate.

lower subbase

The layer beneath the subbase layer

low pavement water


content environment

A low pavement water content environment is where the pavement:


a) has an adequate and well maintained seal;
b) is not subject to flooding;
c) has adequate surface and subsurface drains;
d) has no standing and / or ponded water within 5 m laterally of the trafficked lane(s);
e) has no water within 2 m vertically from the bottom of the lowest pavement layer
unless there is a minimum 150 mm thick capillary break layer; and
f) is located where the average rainfall is less than 500 mm / year and the
Thornthwaite Index is less than 0.

Main Roads (MR)

The State of Queensland operating through the Queensland Department of Main


Roads

mechanical
properties

Properties that can be used as direct inputs into a mathematical equation and/or
model, such as layered linear elastic theory or finite element. At this time only the
layered linear elastic model CIRCLY is calibrated for use.

MR Pavement
Design System

Main Roads Pavement Design System as defined in Section 1.2 and applied as
described in Section 1.3.

MR Pavement
Design Manual

This manual.

MR Specifications
and Standards

Main Roads standard specifications, technical standards and supplementary


specifications current at the time of use.

pavement
rehabilitation

The restoration of an unplanned distressed/failed pavement or the extension of the


life of a pavement that has exceeded its design life, so that it may be expected to
function at a satisfactory level of service for a further Design Period.

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Pavement Design Manual

Term

Queensland Department of Main Roads

Description

pavement

A pavement that will be used by traffic and designed and constructed in accordance
with the Main Roads Pavement Design System, including this manual.

permanent
pavement

Any pavement that is not a temporary pavement.

property

Result of a test method that is used to provide useful information about a material or
product.

reactive subgrade

A subgrade material with CBR swell greater than or equal to 0.5%.

rigid pavement

A pavement of Portland cement concrete or having a Portland cement concrete base


course.

safety

Qualities of the pavement and associated facilities that directly affect vehicle safety
related to but not limited to: surface type, surface texture, skid resistance, surface
drainage, cross-fall, delineation, sight distance, guide posts, lighting and guardrail.

settlement

A lowering of the height of the pavement and subgrade as a result of loading imposed
by traffic, the pavement and/or the embankment, and caused by creep, shear or
reduction in volume.

stabilised subgrade

A subgrade that has been stabilised with chemical binders and site investigation
and laboratory testing has verified that the intended long-term properties of the
stabilised material will be achieved. The structural contribution of the layer may be
considered in the same manner as an un-stabilised select fill with a material CBR
determined by a CBR test, but not greater than 20% and subject to the maximum
modulus that can be developed when sub-layered as an unbound material.

staged construction

Treatments to the pavement during its design period by programmed strengthening


that occur in a way that maintains the structural capacity of the original pavement
layers for the design period (eg. overlays).

subbase layer

The layer beneath the base layer

subgrade level

The level of the interface between the bottom of the pavement and the top of the
Subgrade.

subgrade material

Subgrade material includes working platform, select fill, treated material, drainage
layer, capping, general fill and Untreated Subgrade to a minimum depth of 1.5 m
below the bottom of the pavement.

surface layer

The layer in immediate contact with traffic.

temporary pavement

Any pavement constructed for the purpose of carrying traffic for short periods
(maximum 2 years) while the pavement for the road is under construction,
reconstruction and/or rehabilitation, designed in accordance with the Main Roads
Pavement Design System and the requirements for temporary pavements in this
manual. The design, material and construction requirements for temporary
pavements are the same as for permanent pavements, unless specifically stated
otherwise.

test method

Unless otherwise noted a test method as specified in the relevant Main Roads
specification, technical standard, or supplementary specification.

January 2009

Queensland Department of Main Roads

Term

Pavement Design Manual

Description

treated material

Material treated with lime and/or cement in accordance with the relevant Main Roads
specification, technical standard, or supplementary specification.

UCS

Unconfined compressive strength.

unbound granular
pavement material

A material complying with the relevant Main Roads specification, technical standard, or
supplementary specification that consists of graded aggregates and may include clay.

unbound granular acceptable


environment

An unbound granular acceptable environment generally includes, in addition to the


specification requirements:
a) Full width seal (an alternative for low traffic volumes is a low permeability select fill
unsealed shoulder where whole-oflife costing confirms it is economical for the
particular situation);
b) Adequately designed, constructed and maintained surface and subsurface
drainage;
c) Open table drains in cuttings;
d) No standing and / or ponded water within 5 m laterally of the trafficked lane(s);
e) No water within 2 m vertically unless there is a full width drainage / capillary break
layer;
f) Degree of saturation limits achieved and maintained for all layers;
h) All layers are tested with a 4 day soaked CBR (except that an unsoaked CBR can
be used for subbase in low pavement water content environements);
i) Pavement is not subject to water inundation or flooding that lasts for more than 1
day (protection such as fully enclosed low permeability verges, drainage / capillary
break layer, full width seal and pavement drains may be required).

untreated subgrade

Natural unprocessed material, other than that moved from another location and/or
compacted at the location, where the characteristics of the subgrade are to be
determined to assess:
a) the need for one or more of the following elements: capping layer; cover over
reactive subgrade; drainage layer and/or combined capping/drainage layer
b) subgrade design CBR and swell.

warping

Differential movement, usually vertical, in a concrete pavement caused by water


content differences through the cross-section of the pavement.

water-induced
volume change

Change in the volume of the subgrade material resulting from a change in water
content usually on a reactive subgrade material.

weighted plasticity
index (WPI)

The product of the plasticity index and percentage passing the AS 0.425 mm sieve

working platform

A layer that is part of the subgrade and which provides:

January 2009

access for construction traffic

a platform on which to construct the pavement layers

protection to the underlying materials.

Pavement Design Manual

2
2.1
2.1.1

Queensland Department of Main Roads

PAVEMENT DESIGN
Overview of MR Pavement Design System
Design models and mechanical properties

Pavement design comprises empirical and mechanistic components.


The MR Pavement Design System utilises mathematical models to provide a logical framework
within which to apply existing knowledge to the structural design of pavements. The models utilise
mechanical properties such as modulus and Poissons Ratio. However, the direct measurement of
these mechanical properties and the mechanistic model are not as robust as in other disciplines.
Direct measurements must:
a)

be statistically analysed to account for the considerable variation in pavement materials

b)

have a 95% confidence level applied, unless stated otherwise

c)

be considered as information additional to and integrated with values interpolated and/or


extrapolated from the total calibration of the model

d)

be used only in the context of the overall design system.

Where provided, the values given in the MR Pavement Design Manual must be used.
2.1.2

Designers

Adequate design is possible only when carried out by professional, trained, experienced, and
knowledgeable personnel. It requires consideration and integration of all inputs including local
conditions, material characteristics, cross-sections, loading, design models, road user safety and
constructability.
2.1.3

Unbound granular design charts

The unbound granular design chart considers only rutting and shape loss.
2.1.4

Mechanistic design

Mechanistic pavement design, utilising layered linear elastic theory, considers only three distress types:
rutting and shape loss, fatigue of asphalt, and fatigue of cement stabilised materials.
For concrete pavements designed utilising this Manual, the design method for base thickness
considers two distress types: fatigue of the base and erosion of the subbase/subgrade.
Other types of distress, such as those caused by horizontal stresses on grades, at intersections
and on curves, or by environmental influences such as temperature and water, are not directly
assessed by these design methods. These forms of distress have to be constrained by other
means such as specification of appropriate materials or provision of relevant cross-sections,
pavement types and drainage. Consequently, this Manual cannot be used in isolation and must be
used in conjunction with all other components of the MR Pavement Design System.
2.1.5

Estimate of life

The MR Pavement Design System will provide an estimate of the life of various pavement
elements. To maintain the functionality of the pavement, including for the initial design period,
interventions are required to replace, overlay and/or rejuvenate elements of the pavement. Regular
pavement monitoring, with input from designs in accordance with this Manual, is essential to
determine when these interventions are to occur.

2.2

Reliability

The Austroads reliability guidelines (Part 2 of the Austroads guide, Section 2.2.1.2) consider only
the following structural distress modes:

January 2009

Queensland Department of Main Roads

a)

Pavement Design Manual

for pavements designed with layered linear elastic theory

b)

i)

fatigue of asphalt

ii)

fatigue of cemented materials

iii)

rutting and shape loss of unbound granular materials and subgrade

for concrete pavements designed with Westergaard and finite element theory
i)

fatigue of concrete base

ii)

erosion of subbase/subgrade.

These reliability guidelines were based on general assessments of network performance. As the
underlying causes of performance vary widely over the network, these probabilities can not be
used for determining the reliability of a specific project or in the contract interface for a specific
project.
The reliability guidelines are not appropriate for assessing reliability for other distress modes
including, but not limited to, stripping or rutting of asphalt, roughness, skid resistance, and distress
caused by environmental factors.
The choice of reliability is influenced by the classification/function of the road, its location and
intended usage both prior to and after the completion of the design period. It is to be defined in
accordance with Main Roads policy. Judgement of the appropriateness of the reliability level has to
be based on the overall network performance of similar designs under similar conditions.
The minimum reliability levels to be used in the design of MR projects are given in Table 2.2-1.
These reliability levels are to be used for the design of both temporary and permanent pavements.
Table 2.2-1 Minimum reliability levels
Road category

Reliability (%)

All roads, or sections of road, where intervention costs are very high or traffic
management is very difficult1

97.5

Motorways, highways and main roads with lane AADT > 2000

97.5

Highways and main roads with lane AADT > 500 and 2000

95

Minor roads with lane AADT 500

90

Note:
1) Examples include high traffic volume metropolitan highways and arterials roads, mountainous sections, flood-ways,
intersections and approaches to structures such as bridges.

2.3
2.3.1

Selecting a trial pavement configuration and minimum standards


General

Appropriate pavement configurations vary markedly with the function of the road, traffic loading,
availability of materials and environment.
Pavement types and standards given in Table 2.3-1 to Table 2.3-5 are based on straight
alignments with flat grades. The minimum layer thicknesses given are absolute minimums and the
actual adopted layer thicknesses must be designed for fatigue and deformation requirements.
Temporary pavement types are for temporary use while the permanent pavement is constructed,
maintained, overlaid or re-constructed.
Where a permanent pavement is temporarily trafficked during construction, the damage resulting
from the temporary trafficking must be included in the design calculations for the permanent
pavement.

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2.3.2

Queensland Department of Main Roads

Project-specific factors

There are a number of project-specific factors that could not be taken into account in the
development of the pavement type selection tables. Consequently, there will be occasions when
the pavement type and/or pavement details will need to be changed from those given in the tables.
Project-specific factors that may influence pavement selection include, but are not limited to:
a)

horizontal shear stresses on grades, curves and intersections

b)

pavement contact stresses higher than those used in the development of the current
pavement design models and specifications

c)

availability of materials

d)

availability and adequacy of construction equipment, materials and expertise

e)

construction constraints (e.g. construction under traffic)

f)

changes to the function/classification of the road during the design period

g)

changes to the road network during the design period

h)

specific functional requirements (e.g. safety, noise)

i)

current and future traffic characteristics

j)

settlement and/or water-induced volume change. Where settlement and/or water-induced


volume change is likely and cannot be reduced to an acceptable level, stiff pavements, such
as concrete, stabilised or modified, must not be used.

k)

whole-of-life costs. Whole-of-life costs must include direct and indirect costs of interventions
such as raising drainage structures, increasing clearances, raising safety barriers, providing
temporary access, maintaining alternative routes, delays and disruptions to road users, etc.

l)

current and future budget considerations.

m)

local environmental conditions, including


i)

unbound granular pavements

ii)

concrete pavements
Concrete pavements must have their complete cross-section (thickness and width)
completed within a month to minimise differential and potentially detrimental
movement.

iii)

asphalt pavements
Asphalt pavements must be kept as dry as possible as water is a contributor to
stripping.

2.3.3

Specifications

Main Roads specifications or technical standards shall be used.


2.3.4

Minimum pavement standards

Minimum pavement standards are given in Table 2.3-1 to Table 2.3-5, with primary selection based
on traffic loading in terms of the average daily ESA in the design lane in the year of opening.
When selecting a pavement standard from these tables for a particular traffic level, a standard for a
higher traffic category may be used. A standard for a lower traffic category may not be used.
There may be other factors that affect the choice of the pavement structure. Examples include
those described below:
1)

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asphalt over granular pavements

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For asphalt over granular pavements, the lowest whole-of-life cost usually occurs when the
asphalt thickness is sufficient to enable the asphalt to achieve a fatigue life at least the same
as a reasonable pavement design life and the subgrade rutting life provided by the cover
over subgrade.
While relatively thin1 asphalt surfaced granular pavements usually do not provide the lowest
long-term whole-of-life solution, other factors may have a significant effect on selection of the
pavement type, such as
a)

budget constraints for initial construction

b)

the cost-effectiveness of constructing relatively short sections

c)

the high cost of appropriate granular base materials

d)

noise.

In addition, in areas with surfaces subject to significant horizontal shear (such as grades, curves
and intersections), the minimum thickness and type of asphalt should be determined so that it
also accommodates this horizontal shear. In such cases the minimum thickness should be 100
mm. Thicker and/or polymer modified asphalt should be used for more severe applications.
Models for determining the required thicknesses to resist shear forces are not currently available
and local performance history is to be applied.
2)

modified granular pavements


Modified granular pavements are not listed in Table 2.3-1 to Table 2.3-5. Where their
performance has been established locally, they are to be specified and constructed in
accordance with local District requirements, but within the following requirements:
a)

The pavement must comprise a full depth modified material.

b)

The design modulus for the base must be determined from repeat load triaxial testing
and in situ deflection analysis of a similar existing pavement. When in situ analysis is
not available, the maximum design modulus for the base shall be 350 MPa. The
absolute maximum design modulus of the base shall be 600 MPa.

c)

In all cases there must be a working platform and, where there is a reactive subgrade,
cover over reactive subgrade.

d)

The pavement must have at least a two-coat bitumen seal.

e)

The potential for and risk associated with cracking must be recognized and accepted
and appropriate interventions allowed for in the whole-of-life costing and maintenance
during service;

f)

Modified granular pavements cannot be used where the average daily ESA in the
design lane in the year of opening is > 1000 or only a HILI pavement type is given in
Table 2.3-1.

Typical pavement cross-sections for various pavement categories are given in Chapter 11.

Relatively thin asphalt surfaced granular pavements are those where the fatigue life of the asphalt cannot
achieve a reasonable design life for the pavement. In these cases, the asphalt has to be regularly replaced,
rejuvenated and/or overlaid.
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Average daily ESA in design lane in year of opening1

Location

Temporary
pavement

Permanent
pavement

Type

Table 2.3-1 Pavement type: application

< 10

10 to < 100

100 to < 1000

1000 to < 3000

3000

SG(C) 2,3
AG(C) 2,3

SG(B) 2,3
AG(A-C)3
ASt(A)

HILI
SG(A) 2,3

HILI

Rural

SG(D) 2,3
AG(C)3

SG(C) 2,3
AG(C) 2,3

SG(B) 2,3
AG(A-C)3
ASt(A)

HILI

HILI

Urban

SG(D) 2,3
AG(C)3
SG(D) 2,3
AG(C)3

SG(C) 2,3
AG(C)3

SG(B) 2,3
AG(A-C)3

ASt(B)
AG(A)

ASt(B)
AG(A)

Rural
and
urban

Abbreviations
HILI

High Load Intensity, Low Intervention pavement as defined in Table 2.3-2.

AG(A)
AG(B)
AG(C)
AG(A-C)

Asphalt over granular pavement as defined in Table 2.3-3.


AG(A-C) can be any standard that suits the circumstances, including budget and wholeof-life costing.

SG(A)
SG(B)
SG(C)
SG(D)

Spray sealed granular pavement as defined in Table 2.3-4.

ASt(A)
ASt(B)

Asphalt over cement stabilised (Cat 1 or Cat 2) pavement as defined in Table 2.3-5.

Notes:
1) The average daily ESA in the design lane in the year of opening used in this table and elsewhere in this manual are based
on a heavy vehicle growth rate not exceeding 10.0% per annum. If the heavy vehicle growth rate exceeds 10.0% per
annum in any of the first five years after opening, then the average daily ESA in the design lane for the first five years after
opening shall be used instead.
2) Asphalt over granular pavement or HILI pavement instead of spray sealed granular pavement is required in areas with high
horizontal shear stresses such as intersections, grades and curves.
3) Pavements incorporating unbound granular material must not be used where there is an in-service exposure of the
unbound material to water to the extent that the water content of the granular material is likely to rise above the specified
maximum degree of saturation.

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Table 2.3-2 Pavement type details: high load intensity low intervention (HILI)
Surface1,2

Binder

Base

Jointed plain
(unreinforced)
concrete

(asphalt surface not


recommended)

Jointed plain
(unreinforced)
concrete

Jointed
reinforced
concrete
pavement

(asphalt surface not


recommended)

Jointed
reinforced
concrete

Continuously
reinforced
concrete
pavement

OG10 (min 30 mm);


or
OG14 (min 40 mm)
(if required)

DG14HS3
(if required)

DG14HS3
(if required)

Full depth
asphalt

Subbase

Lean mix
concrete
(150 mm)

Continuously
reinforced
concrete

OG10 (min 30 mm):


or
OG14 (min 40 mm)

DG14HS3
Deep strength
asphalt

OG10 (min 30 mm);


or
OG14 (min 40 mm)
DG14HS3

Flexible
composite

OG10 (min 30 mm);


or
OG14 (min 40 mm)
DG14HS3

DG14HS3

DG20HM4,5

Subgrade

Cat 16 or
Cat 2
stabilised
granular7
(150 to
200 mm)

Refer Section 3.6 and Chapter 5

Type

Lean mix
concrete8
(175 to
250 mm)

Notes:
1) Surface must comply with the Main Roads pavement surface property standards given in the MR Pavement Surfacings
Manual. Asphalt over jointed plain concrete or jointed reinforced concrete not recommended because of reflective
cracking. Asphalt over continuously reinforced concrete used if required (usually to reduce noise). Special prime over
concrete required for any asphalt surface.
2) All surface asphalt must have an underlying S4.5S polymer modified seal (refer Section 3.5).
3) The minimum thickness of DG14HS for both surface and binder layers is 50 mm, except where the base layer is concrete
in which case the minimum thickness is 45 mm (surface layer) and 40 mm (binder layer).
4) The DG20HM base layer may be replaced with a different mix (DG14HS, DG14(320), DG20(320) or DG20(600)), subject
to the total thickness of binder layer plus surface layer being at least 100 mm where the base layer is not DG20HM or
DG14HS. DG28 cannot be used in HILI pavements.
5) The minimum thickness of the base layer in deep strength asphalt and flexible composite pavements must be such that
the total thickness of dense graded asphalt (base plus binder plus surface) is a minimum of 175 mm.
6) At this time, these material types are only available for project specific work with the MR project specific supplementary
specification for unbound granular materials. Contact Pavements & Materials branch for advice on their use.
7) A prime plus a SAMI (incorporating S4.5S polymer modified binder) must be included above the stabilised granular
subbase.
8) A 10 mm Class 170 bitumen seal protection layer must be included above the lean mix concrete.

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Table 2.3-3 Pavement type details: asphalt over granular


Surface2,3

Binder

Base
4

OG10 (min 30 mm)


DG14
or
(min 50 mm)
OG14 (min 40 mm)

AG(A)

DG14
(min 50 mm)

SB1 (min 125 mm)

DG204
(min 50 mm)

SB18 (min 125 mm)

DG284
(min 70 mm)

SB18 (min 125 mm)

DG144
(min 50 mm)
DG14 (min 50 mm)

DG204
(min 50 mm)
DG284
(min 70 mm)

AG(B)6

OG10 (min 30 mm)


DG14
or
(min 40 mm)
OG14 (min 40 mm)
DG14 (min 45 mm)

AG(C)

DG14 (min 45 mm)

SB29 (min 125 mm)


SB29 (min 125 mm)
SB29 (min 125 mm)
SB18 (min 125 mm)
SB29 (min 125 mm)
SB18 (min 125 mm)
SB29 (min 125 mm)
SB18 (min 125 mm)
SB29 (min 125 mm)

B18 (min 150 mm)


B29 (min 150 mm)

Subgrade

SB29 (min 125 mm)

B18 (min 150 mm)


B29 (min 150 mm)
B28 (min 125 mm)

DG10 (min 35 mm)


7

Subbase
8

Refer Section 3.6 and Chapter 5

Standard1

B39 (min 125 mm)


8

B2 (min 125 mm)

SB49 (min 100 mm)

B39 (min 125 mm)

Notes:
1) Thin asphalt-surfaced granular options may have a low asphalt fatigue life, which decreases significantly with increasing load
intensities. Frequently, where an asphalt surface is required for the whole project, a HILI pavement or a sealed granular
pavement, as relevant, provides the lowest whole-of-life cost. However, an asphalt over granular pavement may be the
appropriate choice where other factors dominate, such as when there is a restricted initial budget, short sections are to be
constructed (e.g. for high stress areas) or there is an absence of suitable materials for the HILI or sealed granular options. All
asphalt over granular pavements must only be constructed in an Unbound Granular Acceptable Environment.
2) Surface must comply with the Main Roads pavement surface property standards in the MR Pavement Surfacings Manual.
3) All surface asphalt must have an underlying seal (refer Section 3.5). Where the layer below the asphalt surface is also asphalt,
the seal must comprise S4.5S polymer modified binder. Where the layer below the asphalt surface is unbound granular
material, the unbound material must first be primed and the seal must comprise Class 170 bitumen and minimum 10 mm size
cover aggregate.
4) DG14, DG20 or DG28 mix shall be selected to suit the situation.
5) The unbound subbase must be primed and sealed with a minimum 10 mm nominal size Class 170 bitumen seal. For asphalt
over granular temporary pavements, where the average daily ESA in the design lane in the year of opening exceeds 1000,
A5S binder shall be used in the surface and binder asphalt layers. The unbound subbase can be replaced with a working
platform, in which case the pavement is called a full depth asphalt pavement. An unbound subbase shall not be used over a
working platform.
6) The unbound base must be primed and sealed with a minimum 10 mm nominal size Class 170 bitumen seal.
7) The unbound base must be primed and sealed with a minimum 10 mm nominal size Class 170 bitumen seal.
8) At this time, these material types are only available for project specific work with the MR project specific supplementary
specification for unbound granular materials. Contact Pavements & Materials branch for advice on their use.
9) A new MR specification for unbound granular pavement types is being developed. Until the new specification is issued, the
current standard specification types that can be used are given in Table 2.3-6.

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Table 2.3-4 Pavement type details: sprayed seal granular


Minimum material quality4
Standard

Project
location1, 2

Surface3

Base

Upper
subbase

Lower
subbase

SG(A)

AE

sprayed seal

B15

SB15

LSB15

SG(B)

AE

sprayed seal

B2

SB2

LSB2

SG(C)

AE

sprayed seal

B3

SB3

LSB3

AE

sprayed seal

B4

SB4

LSB4

Low pavement
water-content

sprayed seal

B5

SB5

LSB5

SG(D)

Subgrade

Refer
Section
3.6 and
Chapter 5

Notes:
1) AE: Unbound Granular Acceptable Environment (refer definitions).
2) In low pavement water-content environments the subbase layers can be assessed with an unsoaked CBR.
3) Surface must comply with the Main Roads pavement surface property standards given in the MR Pavement Surfacings
Manual.
4) A new MR specification for unbound granular pavement types is being developed. Until the new specification is issued, the
current standard specification types that can be used are given in Table 2.3-6.
5) At this time, these material types are only available for project specific work with the MR project specific supplementary
specification for unbound granular materials. Contact Pavements & Materials branch for advice on their use.

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Table 2.3-5 Pavement type details: asphalt over stabilised granular


Surface1,2

OG10
(min 30 mm)
or
OG14
(min 40 mm)

Binder

DG14
(min 45 mm)

Base

Subbase

DG145

Cat 16 or Cat 2
stabilised granular7
(150 to 200 mm)

DG20

Cat 16 or Cat 2
stabilised granular7
(150 to 200 mm)

DG28

Cat 16 or Cat 2
stabilised granular7
(150 to 200 mm)

DG14

Cat 16 or Cat 2
stabilised granular7
(150 to 200 mm)

DG20

Cat 16 or Cat 2
stabilised granular7
(150 to 200 mm)

DG28

Cat 16 or Cat 2
stabilised granular7
(150 to 200 mm)

ASt(A)3

DG14
(min 45 mm)

ASt(B)4

OG10
(min 30 mm)
or
OG14
(min 40 mm)
DG14
(min 50 mm)

DG14
(min 50 mm)

Subgrade

Refer Section 3.6 and Chapter 5

Standard

Cat 16 or Cat 2
stabilised granular8
(min 150 mm)

Cat 15 or Cat 2
stabilised granular8
(min 150 mm)

Notes:
1) Surface must comply with the Main Roads pavement surface property standards given in the MR Pavement Surfacings
Manual.
2) All surface asphalt must have an underlying S4.5S polymer modified seal (refer Section 3.5)
3) The minimum thickness of the base layer in ASt(A) pavements must be such that the total thickness of dense graded
asphalt (base plus binder plus surface) is a minimum of 175 mm.
4) Standard ASt(B) is only suitable for use as temporary pavement and not permanent pavement. Where the average daily
ESA in the design lane in the year of opening exceeds 1000, A5S binder shall be used in the surface and binder asphalt
layers.
5) DG14, DG20 or DG28 mix shall be selected to suit the situation.
6) At this time, these material types are only available for project specific work with the MR project specific supplementary
specification for unbound granular materials. Contact Pavements & Materials branch for advice on their use.
7) A prime plus a SAMI (incorporating S4.5S polymer modified binder) must be included above the stabilised granular
subbase.
8) A prime and seal (minimum 14 mm nominal size with C170 bitumen) must be included above the stabilised granular base.

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Table 2.3-6 Current Main Roads standard granular types to be used


New unbound
granular types

Current MRS11.05 materials to be used2


Any environment
(unrestricted)

Low pavement water-content


environment only (low moisture)

Base materials
B1

Note 1

B2

1.1, 2.1

B3

1.1, 2.1

B4

1.1, 2.1

3.1

B5

2.2

3.2, 4.2

Subbase materials
SB1

Note 1

SB2

1.2, 2.3

SB3

2.3

SB4

2.3

3.3

SB5

2.4

3.4, 4.4

Lower subbase materials


LSB1

Note 1

LSB2

2.5

LSB3

2.5

LSB4

2.5

3.5

LSB5

2.5

3.5, 4.5

Notes:
1) At this time, material types B1, SB1 and LSB1 are only available for project specific work with the MR project specific
supplementary specification for unbound granular materials. Contact Pavements & Materials branch for advice on
their use.
2) A new MR specification for unbound granular pavement types is being developed. Until the new specification is
issued, the current standard specification types that can be used are given in this table.

2.4

Shoulders

2.4.1

General

There are two broad design alternatives for shoulders. The preferred design alternative is to
continue all layers of the structural pavement for the full width of all trafficked lanes and shoulders.
This alternative is generally more practical to construct with a lower risk of construction variability
and/or moisture ingress.
The second, less preferred alternative is to design and construct the shoulder to a lower structural
standard than the trafficked lanes. Further details on this option are given in Section 2.4.2.
In both cases, the structural section of the pavement (the section beneath the trafficked lanes)
must extend at least 200 mm beyond the delineated edge of the trafficked lanes for HILI
pavements, and at least 100 mm for other pavements.
2.4.2

Shoulders with a lower structural standard

Where a shoulder of a structural standard lower than that of the trafficked lanes of the pavement is
provided, the following must be adopted:

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a)

Total pavement thickness of the shoulder shall be the same as the adjacent through lane.

b)

Where the adjacent structural section of the pavement is full depth asphalt, deep strength
asphalt or flexible composite, thick asphalt over granular or thick asphalt over stabilised
pavement, the shoulder shall have the same asphalt surface, seal and binder courses as the
structural section. Beneath this, the required thickness of asphalt base, or alternatively, a
Type B1 or B2 unbound granular base with a polymer-modified seal, shall be designed to
ensure that the asphalt does not fatigue. The balance of material down to the top of the
working platform shall be at least a Type SB2 material. A pavement drain shall be provided
at the interface of the two pavements.

c)

Where the adjacent structural section of the pavement is asphalt surfaced granular or sealed
granular pavement, the shoulder shall have the same asphalt surface course(s) and/or seal
as the structural section. The shoulder shall also have the same granular base layer(s) and
materials as the structural section. Other layers required to make up the design thickness for
the shoulder are to be the same thickness and material type as used in the adjacent layers in
the structural pavement. The balance of the thickness of the shoulder to the level of the
lowest pavement layer is to be a select fill material. It must not be a general fill material.

d)

Where the adjacent structural section of the pavement is concrete, the shoulder shall have
the same asphalt surface, seal and binder courses (where they exist) as the structural
section. The minimum total thickness of DG14HS shall be 100 mm. Beneath this, the
required thickness of asphalt base, or alternatively, a Type B1 or B2 unbound granular base
with a polymer-modified seal, shall be designed to ensure that the asphalt does not fatigue.
The balance of material down to the top of the working platform shall be at least a Type SB2
material. A concrete edge drain shall be provided at the interface of the two pavements.

e)

In all cases sealing is to continue to the outside edge of any verge or outside edge of the
shoulder if a verge does not exist.

f)

A lower standard shoulder is not permitted on the high side of one-way crossfalls as this
could result in moisture entering the pavement.

Where a lower structural standard shoulder is constructed as a widening to an existing pavement,


the effect of disturbing in situ subgrade materials should be considered in determining the
thickness of the shoulder.
There are some limitations to the use of lower structural standard shoulders that need to be
addressed when they are being considered for a particular project. These include the following:

Construction may be more difficult because of increased complexity and narrow working
widths.

Future widening may be more difficult.

With concrete pavements, a thicker base layer is required.

Temporary trafficking of the shoulder during construction and future maintenance of the
through lanes may be restricted by the lower structural capacity of the shoulder.

Some shoulders may experience regular trafficking because of the nature of the road
alignment (e.g. curves, end of tapers, narrow through lanes, access points, intersections
and/or no edge lines).

2.4.3

Unsealed shoulders

Where an unsealed shoulder is to be considered, the following requirements apply:


a)

It cannot be used on any pavement with average daily ESA > 1000 in the design lane in the
year of opening.

b)

The seal must extend at least 200 mm beyond the delineated edge of the trafficked lane.

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Queensland Department of Main Roads

c)

Pavement Design Manual

The material in the shoulder must provide low permeability (max. 5 x 10-9 m/sec), low swell
(max 1.5% at maximum dry density (MDD) and optimum moisture content (OMC) after ten
days soaking) as well as sufficient strength to support traffic (minimum soaked CBR 40).

Because of the additional cost of the above shoulder material and the additional risk of loss of
service life or failure caused by the infiltration of water, whole-of-life costing must be carefully
assessed when unsealed shoulders are being considered.

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3
3.1

Queensland Department of Main Roads

CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE CONSIDERATIONS


General

The design procedures in this manual assume that construction and maintenance are carried out
to the appropriate Main Roads standards. Unless such standards are met, the moduli, thicknesses
and/or other critical properties assumed in the design model may not be achieved and reduced
pavement performance could be expected.

3.2

Unbound granular

Unbound granular pavements are particularly susceptible to damage caused by the infiltration of
water resulting from: rain, water ponding and/or flooding during construction; water ponding and/or
flooding during service; and lack of an adequate seal and/or drainage maintenance in service.
Therefore:

Projects including unbound granular material should be programmed such that construction
of the pavement occurs at the time of year with the lowest likelihood of rain.

Weather forecasts must be regularly reviewed and pavements not constructed when rain is
likely and existing construction protected from the infiltration of water.

Contract provisions must allow for delays to construction caused by wet weather.

Unbound granular pavements must not be used where:

the pavement layer(s) cannot be constructed and maintained at less than their degree-ofsaturation limits

the subgrade cannot be constructed and maintained at the design modulus.

Contracts including the construction of unbound granular pavements must:


a)

have allowances for work ceasing during periods of wet weather

b)

establish clear responsibility and liability for infiltration of water during construction from
sources including rain, surface and ground water flow, inundation/flooding, and transfer from
new material with a high water content.

Unbound granular pavements in cuttings must have open table drains (see Figure 11.3-3).
During construction, rain gauges must be installed at least every 500 m along the job site. Rain
events must be recorded daily to help determine the possible exposure of the pavement to water
infiltration.
Where water does infiltrate granular material, destructive testing is required to assess the extent
and change to water content and degree of saturation, and hence determine what action is
required. Expensive re-work may be necessary to ensure the materials are brought within the
specified limits before overlying materials are placed.

3.3

Stabilised materials

Achieving the specified compaction standard in stabilised materials is essential for the
development of the stiffness and fatigue characteristics assumed in design, particularly for the
lower layers where maximum tensile stresses occur. To achieve the compaction standard, the
maximum compacted thickness of a single layer is to be 200 mm.
Multi-layer construction should be avoided wherever possible as layers will eventually delaminate.
Multi-layer construction requires the provision of shear resistance (i.e. bonding) between layers to
contribute to them acting together structurally.
Methods used to establish this for materials with a cementitious additive include:
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Pavement Design Manual

a)

application of a cement slurry (water/cement ratio 0.6 to 0.7), at a rate equivalent to 2 kg of


cement per square metre immediately before laying subsequent layers

b)

placement of a prime and a seal with a large cover aggregate (> 14 mm) on top of the lower
layer.

Where multi-layer construction is used:


a)

The second and subsequent layers must not be stabilised with in situ stabilisation methods,
even if the first layer is stabilised in situ.

b)

The first layer should be constructed to be as thick as possible (compacted thickness of at


least 150 mm but not greater than 200 mm) to avoid damage to the lower layer when placing
subsequent layers. Where it is not possible to place a thick first layer, consideration should
be given to retarding the first layer and placing the second layer before the first layer has set.

Multi-layer construction shall not be used for HILI pavements (the full thickness, between 150 mm
and 200 mm, must be placed in one layer).
Reflection of shrinkage cracks must be expected where material with cementitious additive is used.
In such situations, crack sealing maintenance work will be required.

3.4

Temporary connections for HILI pavements

In order to reduce the risk of requiring frequent repairs in difficult to access locations (e.g. under
heavy traffic), temporary connections for HILI pavements must be, as a minimum, asphalt over
cement stabilised (ASt(B)) pavement or asphalt over granular (AG(A)) pavement.

3.5

Asphalt pavements

Water contributes to stripping of the binder from the aggregate in asphalt pavements. To minimise
this, a polymer modified binder seal must be provided beneath all asphalt surface layers in
pavements where the layer beneath the surface layer is also asphalt. For effective waterproofing,
the seal must have a minimum spray rate of 1.2 litres per square metre and cover aggregate with
minimum nominal size of 10 mm. At locations subject to heavy braking and/or tight cornering, such
as intersections, roundabouts and approaches, excluding the seal can reduce the risk of shearing,
but increase the risk of stripping of lower layers. Provision of a seal in these locations is not
mandated. If a seal is provided the spray rate should be reduced to 1.0 to 1.2 litres per square
metre to reduce the risk of shearing.
The binder for the waterproofing seal shall be an S4.5S polymer modified binder.
Use of SBS polymer modified binder in the asphalt can also help minimise stripping.
Moisture ingress during construction can lead to stripping. Dense graded asphalt mixes of 20 mm
nominal size or larger are particularly prone to moisture ingress. To reduce the risk of moisture
ingress, construction sequencing should not leave DG20 layers exposed for more than ten
calendar days and DG28 layers must not be left exposed for more than two calendar days. If this is
unavoidable, a seal or minimum 50 mm DG14 layer should be placed to provide protection from
moisture ingress.

3.6

Working platform

A working platform must be used for all HILI and ASt(A) pavements and is recommended for all
other pavements with average daily ESA 1000 in the design lane in the year of opening.
A working platform must be used for all temporary pavements where the design subgrade CBR is
less than 5%.
The working platform is located below the lowest pavement layer. Its function is to provide:
a)

access for construction traffic

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b)

a sound platform on which to construct the pavement layers

c)

protection to the subgrade for the life of the pavement.

Queensland Department of Main Roads

The design, construction and maintenance of the working platform are the responsibility of the
Contractor, but must include the specified in-service requirements given in Section 5.5. The inservice requirements are for the sole purpose of providing a satisfactory substrate layer for the full
service life of the pavement.

3.7

Settlement

Neither this manual nor Part 2 of the Austroads guide include provisions to deal with settlement
below the pavement layers. Where required, additional geotechnical investigations and
assessments shall be carried out to determine if and how much settlement may occur. If settlement
is likely, pre-treatment (e.g. drainage and/or surcharge of the formation) is required to reduce the
extent of settlement after the pavement is constructed.

3.8

Moisture ingress and maintenance

Pavement surface courses, seals and all drainage must be adequately maintained. Failure to
maintain seals and drainage will cause, at least, loss of service life in most pavements and at
worst, failure. Unbound granular pavements are particularly susceptible to loss of service life and
failure caused by the infiltration of water.
Rain following a long period of dry weather is particularly hazardous because:
a)

During long periods of dry weather there may be no stimulus to adequately maintain seals
and drainage in a budget constrained environment, which could result in pavements that are
not protected upon the onset of wet weather.

b)

Shrinkage of materials may generate cracks that will allow rapid entry of water.

3.9

Trafficking of incomplete pavement

Pavement damage resulting from temporarily trafficking pavement layers below the final surface
must be included in the pavement design calculations.

3.10

Thickness of bituminous seals

For the purpose of determining survey levels, the thickness of seals and primerseals shall be taken
as the average least dimension (ALD) of the cover aggregate. If the ALD is not known at the time
of design, the ALD can be estimated as 6 mm for 10 mm nominal size cover aggregate and 9 mm
for 14 mm nominal size cover aggregate.

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4
4.1

Pavement Design Manual

ENVIRONMENT
General

Water and temperature have a major effect on pavement performance. Temperature directly
affects the performance of seals, asphalt and concrete, and water directly affects the performance
of unbound granular pavements and subgrades. Water can also affect asphalt. Knowledge of
environmental conditions is essential for the design, construction and maintenance of pavements.

4.2

Climatic zones

Figure 4.2-1 illustrates Australian climatic zones on the basis of temperature and humidity. Most of
coastal Queensland is classified as having hot humid summers. Western areas have hot dry
summers with either mild or cold winters. Further information on climate zones and climate
averages is available from the Commonwealth Bureau of Meteorology at www.bom.gov.au.

Figure 4.2-1 Australian climatic zones (www.bom.gov.au)


Figure 4.2-2 illustrates Australian seasonal rainfall zones.

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Figure 4.2-2 Australian seasonal rainfall zones (www.bom.gov.au)

4.3

Water environment

Average annual rainfall and evaporation rates for Queensland are shown in Figure 4.3-1 and
Figure 4.3-2.

Figure 4.3-1 Average annual rainfall for Queensland (www.bom.gov.au)

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Figure 4.3-2 Average annual evaporation for Australia (www.bom.gov.au)


In the 1950s, C. W. Thornthwaite, Professor of Climatology at John Hopkins University, introduced
a method to study the climate synthetically, which combined rainfall and Potential
Evapotranspiration (PET).
PET represents the water quantity that soil would lose because of surface evaporation and plant
transpiration in an environment where continuous soil water storage exists. When PET is exactly
balanced by rainfall over the year and water is available, there is neither a deficit (d) nor surplus (s)
of water.
Thornthwaite defined a total moisture index (MI) as shown in Equation 4-1.
Equation 4-1

MI =

100 ( s d )
PET

It follows that when rainfalls are lower than PET, MI is negative and the climate is dry. When
rainfalls are higher than PET, the MI is positive and climate is wet. The climate classification based
on MI is given in Table 4.3-1.
Figure 4.3-3 shows the MI values for Queensland. A comparison between Figure 4.3-1 and
Figure 4.3-2 shows that regions with a rainfall below 600 mm have a negative MI and hence are
dry as the evapotranspiration exceeds the rainfall. Areas with an annual rainfall less than 500 mm
are semi-arid.

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Table 4.3-1 Climatic types according to the total moisture index (MI)
Symbol

Climatic type

MI

Very humid

Over 100

B4

Humid

80 to100

B3

Humid

60 to 80

B2

Humid

40 to 60

B1

Humid

20 to 40

C2

Sub-humid

0 to 20

C1

Sub-dry

-33 to -0

Semi-arid

-66 to -33

Dry

-110 to -66

Figure 4.3-3 Thornthwaite moisture index for Queensland


(contours at intervals of 5 units)

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4.4

Pavement Design Manual

Minimising exposure to and influence of water

4.4.1

General

It is not possible to completely prevent the influence of water on pavements and subgrades.
Increased water content in the pavement, including temporary pavements, and/or subgrade can
occur for reasons such as:
a)

rain, particularly on unprotected and/or poorly maintained pavements

b)

inundation

c)

positive water head

d)

ponded water

e)

construction water

f)

inadequate subsurface drainage

g)

soil suction from areas such as adjacent ponded water and/or water tables. In high capillary
rise soils, water as deep as 10 m can influence the pavement and subgrade.

Selection of pavement type and overall design (cross-section, embankment height, surface and
sub-surface drainage, etc.) depends not only on load intensity, material availability and industry
capacity, but also on exposure to water during construction and service life.
4.4.2

Design requirements

The following are required to reduce exposure to and influence of water:


a)

seal over the full width of the formation

b)

verge with low permeability and low swell on the high side of one-way cross-falls including at
least an additional 100 m at either end from where the transition to a crowned pavement
commences

c)

adequate surface drainage including

d)

i)

table drains (when used) located well away from the formation (min. 5 m) in flat or
lightly undulating country or excluding them altogether. Water should always be
directed away from the formation or, if this is not possible, drains should be located at
least 5 m away from the edge of the formation.

ii)

edge drains on embankments and directing the concentrated outflows away from the
formation via drains with impermeable lining

iii)

full-width sealed formation and concrete channel in cuttings or, preferably for unbound
granular pavements, providing table drains in cuttings.

cuttings
Subsoil drains must be provided at all times. There may also be the need for a drainage layer
to intercept water under positive head, break capillary rise and/or provide additional
subsurface drainage to intercept ground water. In cuttings with rock floors a stabilised infill
layer with surface cross-fall must be provided so that water ponding does not occur.

e)

adequate embankment height above the water table or standing water


Water will travel long distances and rise to considerable heights because of capillary action.
Embankments must be at least the required height above the water table or standing water
for the particular embankment material (untreated or treated) used, or a drainage/capillary
break layer must be provided on top of the subgrade and above the level of the water table
or standing water.

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The minimum embankment height where there is no inundation and/or standing water or
water table, measured to the bottom of the lowest pavement layer at the outside edge, above
the natural surface should be

f)

i)

in regions with Thornthwaite Index 0 and rainfall > 500 mm/year, above the influence
of any water, but not less than 200 mm from the natural ground to the underside of the
lowest pavement layer

ii)

In regions with Thornthwaite Index < 0, in particular for reactive subgrades where there
is no cover to reactive subgrade provided, the thickness should be determined as a
balance between keeping the pavement above water and minimising the potential for
change in subgrade water content that could cause volume change. In such areas, the
minimum height should be 100 mm, unless some unusual condition, such as a perched
water table, irrigation, etc. is likely to exist. The slope of the edge of the pavement
should be 25%.

inundation
Where inundation of any part of a pavement is possible, an assessment of the amount of
water infiltration, either caused by positive head or capillary action, has to be carried out and
the effect on the pavement and subgrade determined. Where it is determined that a loss of
service life and/or pavement damage is likely, alternative designs have to be considered.
These could include re-alignment, higher embankments and/or use of a pavement type that
is less sensitive to water, such as a concrete pavement.

g)

Asphalt surface layers are not impermeable and must have a polymer modified seal
immediately beneath them (refer Section 3.5).

h)

Pavement must be properly compacted right to its edge, and any excess, poorly compacted
paving material beyond the seal edges is to be removed.

i)

kerbed pavements
Subsoil drains must be provided at all times.

j)

changes in pavement structure


Pavement drains, for the purpose of draining the pavement layers and working platform,
must be provided at all transverse and longitudinal interfaces between pavements with
different structures (i.e. layer types and/or layer thicknesses). For example, a longitudinal
pavement drain is typically required when widening an existing pavement.
The invert of a pavement drain must be lower than the underside of the lowest pavement
layer, and where there is a working platform, the invert must also be lower than the
underside of the working platform.

4.4.3

During construction

Good surface and subsurface drainage must be provided and maintained at all times. Surfaces
must be left free-draining and compacted following completion of work and before any rain.
A working platform provides protection to the subgrade. Where neither a working platform nor
some other form of positive protection is provided to the subgrade, reworking and/or delay must be
factored into the construction program to overcome the effects of rain and/or inundation during
construction.
Asphalt and unbound granular materials are extremely susceptible to damage resulting from
increased water content during construction.

4.5

Situations where pavement or subgrades cannot be protected

Where it is decided to provide a road that is not adequately protected from the infiltration of water,
such as very low volume roads, particularly in arid regions, a high water content management plan
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Pavement Design Manual

solution may be adopted with the approval of the General Manager (Engineering & Technology).
This involves monitoring the pavement after rain and/or inundation and/or when water has been
standing and, if necessary, restricting the movement of traffic. Restrictions could include traffic
limitations on the outside edge of the pavement, restricted loads and so on, until the pavement and
subgrade have dried. This relaxation in design must not be applied to roads with average daily
ESA > 100 in the design lane in the year of opening.
For all other cases, a concrete or asphalt surfaced concrete pavement must be provided with a
design subgrade strength that reflects the measures to control volume change as per Clause 5.3.

4.6

Temperature environment

The effect of temperature on asphalt is incorporated into the design method through the use of the
Weighted Mean Annual Pavement Temperature (WMAPT) for the project location. The WMAPTs
for various sites in Queensland are listed in Appendix 2 of this manual.
Unbound granular pavements, except for seals, are normally not influenced by temperature.
The influence of temperature has been accommodated in the specifications for concrete
pavements. However, during construction the whole concrete pavement cross-section must be
completed within a month to minimise problems generated by differential movement.
In Flexible Composite pavements, the asphalt must be placed within a month of placement of the
lean mix concrete subbase. If this is not possible, a SAMI must be provided above the lean mix
concrete subbase, prior to placing any asphalt, as wide shrinkage cracks may occur.

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5
5.1

Queensland Department of Main Roads

SUBGRADE
General

The subgrade can comprise alternatives including one or a combination of the following:
a)

working platform

b)

capping layer

c)

drainage layer

d)

select fill

e)

general fill

f)

treated in situ material

g)

natural unprocessed in situ material, other than that moved from another location and/or
compacted.

In pavement thickness design calculations, fill and/or in situ untreated subgrade materials to a
minimum depth of 1.5 metres below the underside of the lowest pavement layer must be included.
This manual describes soils according to the Unified Soil Classification System, which uses a twoletter code to indicate soils classification (refer Appendix 1).

5.2
5.2.1

Subgrade assessment
General

The untreated subgrade has to be assessed for the following:


a)

suitability of embankment material for the design and conformance to specifications

b)

suitability of in situ material for any necessary treatments and the subgrade design modulus
to permit the design of the pavement.

Testing of subgrade materials to determine design inputs shall be undertaken in the planning and
design phase.
Subgrade assessment can be made difficult by highly variable natural materials and changes to
the subgrade material during construction. Accordingly, the subgrade materials must be
reassessed immediately prior to pavement construction, in addition to any prior assessments. The
pavement design as a whole must also be subsequently reassessed and amended to reflect any
change. Where prior assessment has been adequate, few changes should be required.
Allowances must be made in the construction contract for changes to the pavement design and
changes to subgrade treatments during the construction phase.
The requirements for subgrade testing prior to pavement construction also apply to temporary
pavements.
Subgrade samples shall be selected and tested for:
a)

plastic limit

b)

liquid limit

c)

in situ moisture content

d)

percent passing the AS 0.425 mm sieve

e)

weighted plasticity index (WPI), which is the plastic limit multiplied by the percent passing the
AS 0.425 mm sieve

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f)

Pavement Design Manual

california bearing ratio (CBR) and swell determined at the density and moisture content as
provided in Section 5.2.2.

The in situ untreated subgrade shall also be tested with a dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP).
Where there is to be any subgrade stabilisation, the subgrade shall be tested in accordance with
AS1289.4.2.1 Soil Chemical Tests Determination of the sulphate content of a natural soil and the
sulphate content of the groundwater-Normal method. The soluble sulphate content shall not
exceed 0.2%.
Many extremely weathered and highly weathered rocks in Queensland (especially sedimentary
rocks such as siltstone, mudstone and shale) tend to break down during construction to form
moisture-sensitive silts and clays. For such subgrade materials, the effects of construction should
be simulated by either repeated cycles of compacting the material or other forms of pre-treatment,
prior to compacting the specimens for testing.
A typical pre-treatment is crushing to the size specified for selected material, then artificial
weathering by 10 cycles of soaking for 1820 hours followed by drying on a hot plate but without
baking, and finally 3 cycles of standard proctor compaction at just under optimum moisture content.
5.2.2

Laboratory CBR test conditions

CBR testing of in situ untreated subgrade and fill material to determine the design CBR and swell
shall comprise single point CBR tests in accordance with Q113C. Testing shall target at most
95.0% maximum dry density (MDD) and 100% optimum moisture content (OMC) using standard
compactive effort. The target MDD for testing can be increased to 97.0% for Class A and Class B
fill materials.
Soaking periods for determining both CBR and swell shall be as follows:
a)

testing under ten-day soaked CBR conditions must be undertaken in the following
circumstances
i)

floodways, causeways and other pavements likely to be inundated

ii)

cuttings at or below the water table level that existed prior to the cutting or where
seepage is likely

iii)

locations where the water table is sufficiently close to the top of the subgrade to
influence the water content of the subgrade and/or pavement materials

iv)

urban areas where infiltration from kerb and channel or unsealed medians is likely

v)

areas with a Thornthwaite Index 0

vi)

situations where factors such as high rainfall and high traffic volume and/or previous
experience indicate that soaked conditions should apply.

b)

un-soaked for low pavement water-content environments

c)

four-day soaked for locations with circumstances not described under points a) or b) above.

5.2.3

Statistical analysis of CBR data

When a statistical analysis of CBR data is used to determine the design CBR, this is to be
undertaken by calculating the lower 10th percentile of the laboratory CBR test results and the lower
10th percentile of the DCP test results. The design CBR is then the minimum of these two values.
Use of an average CBR value for design is not appropriate.
5.2.4

Adoption of presumptive CBR values

Several MR Regions have considerable experience and performance data on specific soil types in
local climatic and topographic conditions. Use of this information reduces the cost of subgrade
evaluation and also helps ensure a consistent approach to the determination of subgrade CBR
within the local area.
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Use of this approach involves the assessment of subgrades on the basis of geological, topographic
and drainage information, together with regular routine soil classification tests. Once these factors
are assessed, a presumptive design CBR is assigned on the basis of previous test data and
performance for similar soils in similar conditions.
5.2.5

Variation in subgrade support with moisture changes

There are numerous factors affecting the moisture content of the subgrade throughout the life of
the pavement. It is therefore often difficult to predict with certainty what the actual operating
moisture content will be. For example seepage from higher ground, either along the pavement or
within cuts, can cause fluctuations in subgrade moisture conditions. Thus, in determining the likely
in-service moisture content, some error is quite possible.
In order to determine the possible consequences of any error, the sensitivity of the subgrade
strength/stiffness to changes in moisture content should be considered. In general, the following
comments apply:
a)

sandy (SW, SP) soils


Small fluctuations in water content produce little change in volume or strength/stiffness.

b)

silty (SM, SC, ML) soils


Small fluctuations in water content produce little change in volume, but may produce large
changes in strength/stiffness. Typically these soils attract and retain water through capillary
action, and do not drain well.

c)

CL or CH clay
Small fluctuations in water content may produce large variations in volume, and there may be
large changes in strength/stiffness, particularly if the moisture content is near or above
optimum. Typically these soils attract and retain water through matrix suction.

Moisture from seepage, infiltration through the surface, and water table fluctuations can be
controlled by installing properly designed pavement and subsoil drains. However, subsoil drains
are effective only when subgrade moisture is subject to hydrostatic head (positive pore pressures).
It is not uncommon in wet regions for fine grained subgrade materials (silts and clays) to have
equilibrium moisture content above optimum moisture content (standard compactive effort).
However, because pore pressures are not positive, they cannot be drained. While subsurface
drainage does play an important role in moisture control, care must be taken not to make
unrealistic assumptions about the effect of subsurface drains on subgrade moisture condition.

5.3
5.3.1

Subgrade water-induced volume change


General

As a consequence of changes in water content, subgrades with reactive clays (including


embankments where reactive clays have not been excluded), can experience considerable volume
change that can disrupt the pavement in a number of ways, including:
a)

surface deformation, causing increased roughness and potential ponding of water

b)

pavement deformation, that can cause loss of density and loss of strength

c)

cracking that can allow the infiltration of contaminants (such as water and incompressible
material) and also loss of strength, particularly fatigue capacity.

A whole-of-life assessment (refer Section 10) should be carried out to determine the most
appropriate action to address potential volume change. Options can include one or a combination
of the following:
a)

reducing entry of water

b)

reducing volume change

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c)

Pavement Design Manual

programming future repairs and/or overlays.

It is generally accepted that minimising volume change is the best solution in cases of:
a)

high capital cost pavements

b)

minimum whole-of-life costs

c)

pavements that include stiff layers (e.g. cement stabilised materials and/or concrete)

d)

pavements where intervention is expensive or difficult (e.g. motorways, tunnels).

The magnitude of volume change depends on the following:


a)

potential swell of the subgrade and/or embankment material

b)

extent (width and depth) of expansive materials

c)

magnitude of change in moisture content.

5.3.2

Minimising volume change

As well as reducing the entry of water into the subgrade, the following measures can be instituted
as appropriate to aid in minimising volume changes:
a)

embankment containment (zonal embankments)

b)

providing an adequate thickness of cover over reactive subgrade, as detailed in Section 5.3.3

c)

in arid and semi-arid regions, providing flat embankment batters (4:1) and low formation
height (underside of lowest pavement layer a minimum of 100 mm above the natural surface
at all points), whenever possible;

d)

using lime stabilisation to improve the volume stability of the upper layer of expansive clay
subgrade

e)

compacting the untreated subgrade and embankment material at as close to equilibrium


moisture content as possible

f)

using supplementary specifications to control the moisture content of the top 300 mm of the
untreated subgrade prior to and during the placement of overlying layers, so that the
moisture content after placement of the pavement is as near as possible to the equilibrium

g)

making provision for drying back and re-compacting water-affected subgrades

h)

avoiding the planting of trees or shrubs near the pavement.

5.3.3

Cover over reactive subgrade

A sufficient cover thickness of non-reactive material over a reactive subgrade can assist in limiting
the amount of shape loss evident at the pavement surface. The required thickness of non-reactive
material is defined as cover over reactive subgrade, and may include select fill, working platform,
drainage layer, treated material and/or capping layer (refer Section 5.6 of this manual).
Cover over reactive subgrade is recommended for all pavements where the untreated subgrade
material has a swell greater than or equal to 0.5%, as follows:
a)

potential swell of the untreated subgrade material 7.0%


A geotechnical assessment must be carried out and the specified requirements of the
geotechnical assessment applied

b)

potential swell of the untreated subgrade material 0.5% and < 7.0%
A geotechnical assessment should be carried out and the specified requirements of the
geotechnical assessment applied. If a geotechnical assessment is not carried out, the
minimum thickness shall be as per Table 5.3-1.

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Provision of minimum cover over reactive subgrade is mandatory for HILI pavements. For all other
pavements the minimum cover is recommended but may be reduced where this decision is
justifiable based on acceptance of reduced performance and whole-of-life cost considerations.
Table 5.3-1 Cover over reactive subgrade
Untreated subgrade swell (%)

Minimum cover over reactive subgrade (mm)

7.0

Geotechnical assessment required

5.0 to < 7.0

1000

2.5 to < 5.0

600

0.5 to < 2.5

150

A geotechnical assessment means assessment and advice from a geotechnical engineer. Their
assessment is likely to include shallow boreholes, with continuous undisturbed sampling, to allow
the extents of expansive material, shrink swell index testing, moisture content variations, suction
testing and x-ray diffraction testing to be determined. A review of the maintenance history and
condition of existing pavements and structures should also be undertaken.

5.4

Select fill and treated material

When used as cover over reactive subgrade, the required material properties for select fill and
treated materials (in addition to the requirements in the Standard Specifications) are given in
Table 5.4-1.
Table 5.4-1 Material properties for select fill and treated material
Depth below the working platform1

Property

150 mm

> 150 mm

10

10

Maximum aggregate size (mm)

75

75

Weighted plasticity index (WPI)

Laboratory CBR (%)

< 1200

< 2200

0.5

2.5

% passing 0.075 mm

430 inclusive

430 inclusive

>4

>4

Swell (%)

Plasticity index (PI)


Notes:

1) Where there is no working platform, this is the depth below the bottom of the lowest pavement layer.
2) Tested in accordance with Q113C (97.0% MDD, OMC, standard compactive effort) and soaked for a period of ten days.
Material may be chosen with a minimum CBR greater than specified above, up to 15%, if this is considered to provide a
better overall design solution.

5.5

Working platform

Refer to Section 3.6 of this manual to determine where a working platform is required.
5.5.1

In-service requirements

The working platform is required to meet the following minimum standards necessary for it to
function when it becomes part of the subgrade for the operating service life of the pavement
structure:
a)

be comprised of plant mixed stabilised granular material of a standard no less than Type
SB2, with a minimum 2.0% of either cement, blended cement or cementitious blend

b)

a UCS of 1.5 0.5 MPa at seven days

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c)

at least 150 mm (compacted) thickness

d)

primed (AMC0) and sealed (10 mm aggregate, Class 170 bitumen) so that its surface is
waterproof, safe and adequate for the Contractors operations

e)

have a surface maintained with a geometric tolerance of 10 mm of the specified height and
a maximum deviation from a 3 m straight edge of 8 mm at all points on the surface.

The above requirements are a minimum only for the purpose of providing a layer beneath the final
pavement, and are not necessarily sufficient for a working platform subject to construction traffic or
a construction platform for the pavement layers. In addition to the above requirements, the
Contractor shall determine what, if any, other standards are needed to meet the Contractors
design requirements listed in Section 5.5.2.
5.5.2

Contractors design requirements

As a minimum, the working platform must satisfy the requirements of Section 5.5.1. In addition, the
working platform shall be designed by the Contractor to meet the particular requirements of the
project including, but not limited to, the following considerations:
a)

the characteristics of the underlying subgrade materials

b)

the environment including, but not limited to, rainfall, temperature, surface and sub-surface
water conditions including location of the water table and standing water, surface sources of
water and drainage, and sub-surface sources of water and drainage

c)

the Contractors construction traffic and equipment the Contractor intends to use to construct
the pavement and other works

d)

the full operating life of the working platform including, but not limited to
i)

actual period during which the working platform will be required to provide access for
construction traffic

ii)

actual periods during which the working platform will be required to provide a platform
for construction traffic and equipment, including for construction of the pavement layers

iii)

actual periods during which it is not in use prior to the construction of the overlying
pavement

e)

provide protection to the underlying layers, including protection from water and stress

f)

provide a platform for the construction of the overlying pavement

g)

suitability for the Contractors construction program

h)

meet in-service requirements as specified in Section 5.5.1 for the overlying pavement
structure

i)

be sufficiently stiff to enable the placement and compaction of the overlying pavement layers
in accordance with their specified requirements.

As part of the design of the pavement and earthworks, the height of the top and bottom of the
working platform shall be specified based on a working platform thickness of 150 mm. If the
Contractor requires a working platform thicker than 150 mm, this can be achieved by either or both
of the following:
a)

reducing the thickness of the select fill material, if present

b)

excavating the subgrade.

5.6

Capping

Capping shall be provided where the in situ untreated subgrade has a design CBR < 3.0%. The
required capping thickness is given in Table 5.6-1. For subgrade design CBR 1.0%, a specific
assessment is required.
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Materials that can be used to make up the required capping thickness include standard
specification unbound granular materials, select fill, treated material and drainage layer material.
Table 5.6-1 Capping thickness

5.7

In situ subgrade design CBR

Minimum capping layer thickness (mm)

2.5 % to < 3.0 %;

150

2.0 % to < 2.5 %;

200

1.5 % to < 2.0 %;

300

1.0 % to < 1.5 %;

400

Drainage layer

A drainage layer shall be provided where water exposure occurs, or is likely to occur, from beneath
the pavement (because of capillary rise and/or positive head).
Where the material on which the drainage layer is placed has a CBR 1.0% at the time of
construction, determined by in situ dynamic cone penetrometer testing, the drainage layer shall
consist of a geotextile-wrapped 300 mm thick rock fill.
Where the material on which the drainage layer is placed has a CBR of < 1.0% at the time of
construction, a specific assessment to determine the required rock fill properties and thickness is
necessary.

5.8

Combined subgrade treatments

One or more subgrade treatments (i.e. cover over reactive subgrade, working platform, capping
and/or drainage layer) may be required and, in some cases, one treatment can perform the
function of another.
A summary of applicability, to be read in conjunction with the definition of the treatment and the
application instructions, is given in Table 5.8-1.

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Pavement Design Manual

Table 5.8-1 Subgrade treatment guide


In situ
subgrade
conditions

CBR (%)
Swell (%)
Water exposure

< 3.0 1

3.0
< 0.5
2

0.5

< 0.5

0.5

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

CT1

CT2

CT3

CT4

CT5

CT6

CT7

CT8

Working platform
Treatments
required
(Required
if shaded)

Cover over reactive


subgrade
Capping
Drainage layer

Combined treatment category


Notes:
1)

For CBR 1.0%, the composition and thickness of the capping is subject to a specific assessment.

2)

Water exposure is determined by assessing whether water flow from an internal and/or external source and/or soil
suction effects from a high water table can adversely affect the properties of the pavement and/or the working platform,
capping, select fill and/or treated material.

3)

A working platform is to be included if required. Refer to Section 3.6 of this manual.

Applications of the combined treatment categories are described below.


Category CT1 Working platform (if required)
Refer to Section 3.6 of this manual to determine if a working platform is required.
Category CT2 Working platform (if required) plus drainage layer
In this case, neither treatment can perform the function of the other. Hence, both working platform
(if required) and drainage layer are necessary. If a working platform exists, it is placed on top of the
drainage layer.
Category CT3 Working platform (if required) plus cover over reactive subgrade
The thickness of the working platform (if it exists) contributes to satisfying the required cover over
reactive subgrade thickness.
If the working platform thickness is greater than or equal to the required cover over reactive
subgrade thickness, no additional thickness of material is necessary to satisfy the cover over
reactive subgrade requirement. Therefore, the only treatment required is a working platform.
If the working platform thickness is less than the required cover over reactive subgrade thickness,
then additional thickness of material is necessary to satisfy the cover over reactive subgrade
requirement. The additional material can be additional working platform, select fill and/or treated
material.
Category CT4 Working platform (if required) plus cover over reactive subgrade plus
drainage layer
The thicknesses of the working platform (if it exists) and drainage layer contribute to satisfying the
required cover over reactive subgrade thickness.
If the total thickness of the working platform plus drainage layer is greater than or equal to the
required cover over reactive subgrade thickness, no additional thickness of material is necessary
to satisfy the cover over reactive subgrade requirement. Therefore, the treatment required is a
working platform placed on top of a drainage layer.
If the total thickness of the working platform plus drainage layer is less than the required cover over
reactive subgrade thickness, then additional thickness of material is necessary to satisfy the cover
over reactive subgrade requirement. The additional material can be additional working platform,
drainage layer, select fill and/or treated material.
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Category CT5 Working platform (if required) plus capping


In this case, neither treatment can perform the function of the other. Hence, both working platform
(if required) and capping are necessary. If a working platform exists, it is placed on top of the
capping.
Category CT6 Working platform (if required) plus capping plus drainage layer
The thickness of the drainage layer contributes to satisfying the required capping thickness.
If the thickness of the drainage layer is greater than or equal to the required capping thickness, no
additional thickness of material is necessary to satisfy the capping requirement. Therefore, the
treatment required is a working platform placed on top of a drainage layer.
If the thickness of the drainage layer is less than the required capping thickness, then additional
thickness of material is necessary to satisfy the capping requirement. The additional material can
be additional drainage layer, or other suitable capping material (refer Section 5.6) placed on top of
the drainage layer.
Category CT7 Working platform (if required) plus capping plus cover over reactive
subgrade
The thicknesses of the working platform (if it exists) and capping contribute to satisfying the
required cover over reactive subgrade thickness.
If the total thickness of the working platform plus capping is greater than or equal to the required
cover over reactive subgrade thickness, no additional thickness of material is necessary to satisfy
the cover over reactive subgrade requirement. Therefore, the treatment required is a working
platform placed on top of the capping.
If the total thickness of the working platform plus capping is less than the required cover over
reactive subgrade thickness, then additional thickness of material is necessary to satisfy the cover
over reactive subgrade requirement. The additional material can be additional working platform,
select fill and/or treated material.
Category CT8 Working platform (if required) plus capping plus cover over reactive
subgrade plus drainage layer
The thicknesses of the working platform, capping and drainage layer contribute to satisfying the
required cover over reactive subgrade thickness. In addition, the thickness of the drainage layer
contributes to satisfying the required capping thickness.
If the thickness of the drainage layer is greater than or equal to the required capping thickness, no
additional thickness of material is necessary to satisfy the capping requirement. Therefore:
a)

If the total thickness of the working platform plus drainage layer is greater than or equal to
the required cover over reactive subgrade thickness, no additional thickness of material is
necessary to satisfy the cover over reactive subgrade requirement. Therefore, the treatment
required is a working platform placed on top of a drainage layer.

b)

If the total thickness of the working platform plus drainage layer is less than the required
cover over reactive subgrade thickness, then additional thickness of material is necessary to
satisfy the cover over reactive subgrade requirement. The additional material can be
additional working platform, drainage layer, select fill and/or treated material.

If the thickness of the drainage layer is less than the required capping thickness, then additional
thickness of material is necessary to satisfy the capping requirement. The additional material can
be additional drainage layer, or other suitable capping material (refer Section 5.6) placed on top of
the drainage layer. Following this consideration:
a)

If the total thickness of the working platform plus drainage layer plus other capping material
is greater than or equal to the required cover over reactive subgrade thickness, no additional
thickness of material is necessary to satisfy the cover over reactive subgrade requirement.

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Queensland Department of Main Roads

b)

5.9

Pavement Design Manual

If the total thickness of the working platform plus drainage layer plus other capping material
is less than the required cover over reactive subgrade thickness, then additional thickness of
material is necessary to satisfy the cover over reactive subgrade requirement. The additional
material can be additional working platform, drainage layer, select fill and/or treated material.

Elastic characterisation of subgrade materials

The procedures presented in Part 2 of the Austroads guide are used to assign subgrade design
moduli, including sublayering. In addition to the Austroads procedures, the adopted design moduli
are limited by the maximum values given in Table 5.9-1.
For working platform, the maximum vertical design moduli must also be limited by the values given
in Table 6.4 of Part 2 of the Austroads guide. Austroads Table 6.5 cannot be used for working
platform.
In assigning Poissons Ratio, subgrade materials with CBR less than or equal to 10% are assumed
to be cohesive, and materials with CBR greater than 10% are assumed to be non-cohesive.
Table 5.9-1 Maximum subgrade design moduli
Subgrade material

Maximum vertical
design moduli (MPa)

Capping

30

Select fill CBR 10%

100

Select fill CBR 15%

150

In situ untreated subgrade

150

Drainage layer

150

Stabilised subgrade

200

Sound rock floor

200

Where capping is required (refer Section 5.6), any materials (e.g. drainage layer, select fill and/or
treated material where they form part of the capping) used to satisfy the required capping thickness
are not individually modelled in the pavement design. Instead, the pavement thickness design is
based on a design subgrade CBR of 3.0% at the top of the capping.

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Pavement Design Manual

6
6.1
6.1.1

Queensland Department of Main Roads

PAVEMENT MATERIALS
Unbound granular
General

In unbound granular base layers covered by seals or thin asphalt, the pavement material is subject
to dynamic loading and stress reversals, and has less containment. Under these conditions some
tensile capacity is essential and this is supplied by appropriate grading, type and quantity of clay
and some water content. However, when the water content is too high, unbound granular base
materials will fail rapidly under dynamic loading. Consequently, it is essential that the base layer be
dried back to, and maintained at, less than the specified degree-of-saturation limits.
Lower unbound granular layers are subject to less dynamic loading and stress reversals and have
significant containment. Consequently, a larger range of grading and clay contents can be
accommodated. The following should be considered when choosing a material with the
specification requirements:
a)

Coarse graded materials, particularly those with low clay contents, are permeable and prone
to segregation.

b)

Gap graded materials are more permeable and prone to segregation than coarse graded
materials but can be used with additional care.

c)

Well graded material with appropriate clay content provides the best overall service but may
be more expensive.

d)

Fine graded materials and/or materials with excess fines have less permeability and are less
prone to segregation but may require additional attention to achieve their specified CBR
requirement.

As materials generally used for these layers have high fines and clay, and are more sensitive to
water, adherence to degree-of-saturation limits is necessary.
Where design, construction and maintenance factors such as sealing, embankment height,
drainage/capillary break layers and pavement and/or subsoil drains, and other drainage are
insufficient to maintain the pavement at less than the specified degree of saturation in service,
unbound granular pavements must not be used.
Construction of unbound granular layers is particularly difficult if rain occurs prior to sealing2.
Destructive testing will usually be required to determine if degree-of-saturation limits have been
exceeded, particularly in the lower covered layers. It is essential that adequate drainage, including
surface, side and subsurface drainage be established and maintained and an appropriate
construction program be adopted to minimise exposure to water and prevent inundation. In
particular:
a)

The responsibility and liability for the testing and rework caused by water infiltration must be
clearly established in the contract.

b)

The contract arrangement must be established to recognise the potential need for delay and
protection during rain and construction in the period where it is less likely to rain.

6.1.2

Determining modulus of unbound granular materials

The design moduli for unbound granular materials are determined using the procedures given in
the Austroads Guide. In addition to the requirements of Part 2 of the Austroads guide, the adopted

This may not only increase the water content potentially beyond the degree-of-saturation limits but may
also prevent the pavement drying back to the degree-of-saturation limits from the compaction moisture
content.
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design moduli for materials conforming to Main Roads standards must not exceed the presumptive
maximum values given in Table 6.1-1.
Tables 6.4 and 6.5 in Part 2 of the Austroads guide list maximum vertical moduli for the top
sublayer of unbound granular material under various thicknesses and stiffnesses of overlying
materials. Table 6.5 may be used for Main Roads base Type B1. The values in Table 6.4 may be
used for all other unbound granular materials complying with Main Roads standard specifications.
Table 6.1-1 Maximum vertical design moduli for unbound granular materials

6.2

Material type

Maximum vertical
design modulus (MPa)

B1

500

B2, B3, B4

350

B5, SB1

300

SB2, SB3, SB4

250

SB5, LSB1

200

LSB2, LSB3, LSB4, LSB5

150

Modified granular materials

For the purpose of thickness design, modified granular materials are characterised in the same
manner as for unbound granular materials, including sublayering. The vertical design modulus
shall be assessed through repeat load triaxial testing and deflection assessment of a similar
pavement, but shall not not exceed 600 MPa. Where deflection assessment is not undertaken, the
maximum design modulus shall be 350 MPa.
Where cementitiously modified granular materials are used, they must be part of a full depth
modified pavement or covered by either:
a)

minimum 175 mm of dense graded asphalt

b)

a thickness of unbound granular material or a combination of granular material and asphalt


such that 0.75 x (thickness of granular material cover in mm) + (thickness of asphalt cover in
mm) 175 mm.

The seven-day UCS of modified materials is to be 1.5 0.5 MPa.

6.3
6.3.1

Stabilised granular material


General

Stabilisation can be used to:


a)

provide tensile strength

b)

reduce a materials sensitivity to water

c)

increase stiffness.

However, cracking is a major issue when cementitious additive is used.


One of the significant problems associated with cement-treated pavements is the erosion or
leaching of material from around shrinkage cracks, construction joints and layer interfaces. This
problem can be alleviated by minimising cracking as described in Section 6.3.4 and also by using a
durable cemented material.
Where cementitious, stabilised granular materials are used, they must be either a deep strength
asphalt HILI pavement type, or a temporary pavement, or they must be covered by at least either:
a)

175 mm of dense graded asphalt

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Pavement Design Manual

b)

Queensland Department of Main Roads

a thickness of unbound granular material or a combination of granular material and asphalt


such that 0.75 x (thickness of granular material cover in mm) + (thickness of asphalt cover in
mm) 175 mm.

Increasing cement content normally improves the durability of cement materials, but a quantitative
measure of durability and a test to assess it are under development. Where cemented materials
are proposed, a specific assessment of the required additive content is to be carried out.
6.3.2

Determining design modulus and Poissons ratio

Cementitiously stabilised materials are assumed to be isotropic with a Poissons ratio of 0.20.
The moduli of cemented materials are dependent on a number of factors, including:
a)

source, material quality, grading, etc.

b)

binder type and quantity

c)

compaction and moisture

d)

curing regime.

The maximum design moduli of stabilised materials, the unbound materials to be used and the
minimum UCS strengths are given in Table 6.3-1.
Table 6.3-1 Design modulus, material and UCS for stabilised materials
Category

Maximum design
modulus1 (MPa)

Material to be used

UCS (seven day)


(MPa)2

Cat 1

3500

Granular B1

3.0 to 4.0

Cat 2

2000

Granular B1 or B2

2.0 to 3.0

Notes:
1) These maximum design moduli assume seven days initial curing with negligible traffic.
2) The minimum and maximum seven day UCS values shown are based on a cementitious blend of 75% cement and 25% flyash.
Where another combination of stabilising agent is to be used, the minimum and maximum seven day UCS values are to be
determined through laboratory testing to ensure 1 year UCS values equivalent to the 75/25 cement/flyash blend.

In a post cracked phase, Cat 1 and Cat 2 stabilised materials are considered to be crossanisotropic (degree of anisotropy of 2) with a presumptive vertical modulus of 500 MPa, Poissons
ratio of 0.35 and no sublayering.
6.3.3

Cracking

Shrinkage cracking in materials with a cementitious additive is inevitable. Cracks that reflect to the
pavement surface allow the entry of water, which frequently accelerates distress through
weakening of pavement and subgrade layers, erosion of cemented material and/or pumping of
fines from below the cemented layers.
The width of shrinkage cracks is minimised by using low plasticity materials and low treatment
strengths.
Section 6.4.4.4 of Part 2 of the Austroads guide and Section 6.3.4 of this manual discuss cracking
reduction measures.
Pavements and/or pavement layers that have been treated with a cementitious agent crack at
intervals, dependent on the volume change, tensile strength, subgrade and loading. The rate of
crack propagation can be explained via fracture mechanics.
Cracking can occur:
a)

where environmentally induced stress exceeds the tensile strength of the bound material.
This is most common where the binding agent is cementitious and can occur early in the life
of the pavement.

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Queensland Department of Main Roads

b)

Pavement Design Manual

at the end of the fatigue life as a result of applied load applications exceeding the fatigue
limit.

Environmentally induced stress can result from circumstances such as:


a)

volume change in pavement layers resulting from moisture and/or temperature changes,
where constraint(s) exist (which is normally the case but can be partly reduced, such as
between the base and subbase in concrete pavements)

b)

curling and warping caused by temperature and/or water content differentials

c)

substrate movement (settlement and/or volume change).

If cracking occurs on, propagates to, and/or reflects through to the surface of the pavement
(described as surface cracking in the balance of this document), results may include:
a)

detrimental materials such as water and incompressible material entering the pavement and
subgrade, causing damage and failure

b)

abrasion or erosion of underlying pavement layers, leading to the formation of depressions

c)

wearing or widening of cracks, leading to further loss of pavement functionality, protection


and surface characteristics.

6.3.4

Minimising cracks

Where surface cracking is likely to occur in the design period, the design process must provide a
means of minimising the cracking. There is no known mechanism that will guarantee that reflective
cracking will not occur. Examples of treatments that aim to minimise cracking include:
a)

use of overlying layers of other materials in the original structure to minimise the extent
and/or size of cracks. For example, over a cementitiously stabilised layer, placing a polymer
modified seal and either a minimum thickness of 175 mm of dense graded asphalt, or a
combination of granular material and asphalt such that 0.75 x (thickness of granular material
cover in mm) + (thickness of asphalt cover in mm) 175 mm.

b)

use of a slow-setting stabilising agent that results in low early strength to generate closer
spaced cracks, with consequent smaller crack widths. It is generally believed that an
increased number of narrower cracks will lead to less reflective cracking.

c)

specifying within the maintenance requirements crack filling and/or crack sealing and/or
placing a polymer modified seal or geotextile seal and/or overlaying any cracks immediately.

In situations where surface cracking is likely to occur, design options involving cemented materials
should be avoided if:
a)

cracks cannot be filled and/or covered immediately, to prevent damage to the pavement

b)

maintenance is difficult because of constrained access (e.g. high traffic volumes, multi-lane
carriageways, lane closure constraints), or excessive travel time for maintenance resources

c)

the structure is intended to have low risk and/or minimum intervention

d)

exposure to contaminants is high (such as during high rainfall).

6.4

Lean mix concrete

Lean mix concrete is used as a subbase layer for concrete pavements and flexible composite
pavements.
A presumptive modulus of 10,000 MPa is adopted for design purposes. This modulus value is low
when compared with laboratory values as it accounts for the effects of shrinkage cracking and
construction variability. In a post cracked phase, lean mix concrete is considered to be
isotropic with a presumptive modulus of 700 MPa, Poissons ratio of 0.2 and no sublayering.

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6.5
6.5.1

Queensland Department of Main Roads

Asphalt
Asphalt types

Asphalt types are to be selected in accordance with the minimum standards in Clause 2.3 and the
requirements to suit the situation, such as degree of horizontal shear.
6.5.2

Determining asphalt modulus and Poissons ratio

Section 6.5.3.3 of Part 2 of the Austroads guide provides guidance for estimating design moduli
based on the resilient modulus measured using the standard indirect tensile test (ITT) adjusted to
the in-service temperature (WMAPT), in-service air voids and the rate of traffic loading in the roadbed. Applying this method to Main Roads ITT data resulted in the asphalt design moduli for a
WMAPT of 32C (given in Table 6.5-1), which are to be adopted for Main Roads projects.
Adoption of moduli and/or binder volumes based on test results for specific individual mixes is not
permitted unless all of the following requirements are met:
a)

specific arrangements are agreed at least 3 months prior to commencement of construction

b)

adequate tests, including modulus and fatigue, are available to assess variability and select a
design modulus with 95% confidence

c)

sufficient additional controls are established to ensure the properties are consistently
achieved.

The Poissons ratio used for design shall be 0.4.


Except for open graded asphalt, design moduli for locations with a WMAPT other than 32C shall
be calculated using Equation 6-1 rounded to the nearest multiple of 50 MPa.

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Equation 6-1

EWMAPT = max 1000, E320 C e( 0.08[WMAPT 32])

where,
EWMAPT

asphalt modulus at the WMAPT (MPa)

E320C

asphalt modulus at 32C (MPa)

WMAPT

WMAPT in 0C

A modulus of 800 MPa shall be used for open graded asphalt for all WMAPTs and design speeds.
WMAPTs for Queensland are given in Appendix 2.
In the absence of more reliable information about the heavy vehicle operating speed, presumptive
operating speed values for various designated speed limits are given in Table 6.5-2.
Table 6.5-1 Asphalt design moduli at WMAPT of 32oC

January 2009

Asphalt mix
type

Binder
type

Volume of
binder (%)

OG10

A5S

OG14

Asphalt modulus at heavy vehicle


operating speed (MPa)
10km/h

30km/h

50km/h

80km/h

11

800

800

800

800

A5S

11

800

800

800

800

DG10(320)

C320

11

1000

1250

1500

1800

DG10(A5S)

A5S

11

1000

1000

1150

1350

DG14(320)

C320

10

1000

1550

1850

2200

DG14(600)

C600

10

1250

1900

2250

2700

DG14(A5S)

A5S

10

1000

1150

1400

1650

DG14HM

C600

10

1250

1900

2250

2700

DG14HS

A5S

10

1000

1150

1400

1650

DG20(320)

C320

10

1100

1700

2000

2400

DG20(600)

C600

10

1350

2050

2450

2900

DG20(A5S)

A5S

10

1000

1250

1500

1800

DG20HM

C600

10

1350

2050

2450

2900

DG28(320)

C320

1200

1800

2200

2600

DG28(600)

C600

1450

2150

2600

3100

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Table 6.5-2 Presumptive heavy vehicle operating speeds


Project location
Speed limit > 80 km/h

Presumptive heavy vehicle operating speed (km/h)


Flat and up to 5% grade
Over 5% grade
80
50

Speed limit 5080 km/h

50

30

Roundabouts and approaches

30

10

Signalised intersections and approaches

10

10

Asphalt is made from materials with highly variable properties. The economics of pavement
materials require the use of local aggregates, hence unique mix designs must be carried out to
achieve desirable characteristics for mixes from a variety of sources.
6.5.3

Recycled asphalt

Recycled asphalt shall not be used for the purposes of this manual.
6.5.4

Minimising water infiltration

Virtually all asphalt is permeable to some extent, particularly when first laid. Permeability of the
surfacing, if not tightly controlled, can lead to:
a)

weakening of granular paving materials and subgrade, and subsequent rutting or shear
failure

b)

saturation of paving material, build-up of positive pore pressure and rapid failure

c)

erosion in cemented layers

d)

pumping of cemented materials and subgrade fines

e)

stripping of binder in asphalt.

Each of these usually leads to dramatically reduced pavement performance. Therefore, the
pavement design and construction should ensure that a surfacing with the lowest possible
permeability is provided.
A polymer modified sprayed seal must be placed under all asphalt surface layers.
The construction process must be such that no intermediate asphalt layer is left exposed where
rain is likely, or for longer than five working days where rain is not expected.

6.6
6.6.1

Concrete
Base concrete

The 28-day design flexural strength of the concrete shall be 4.5 MPa. This is the value for design
and is less than the specified value, as detailed in Austroads (2004). For steel fibre reinforced
concrete, the 28-day design flexural strength shall be 5.5 MPa.

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Pavement Design Manual

DESIGN TRAFFIC

7.1

Average daily ESA in design lane in year of opening

The average daily ESA in the design lane in the year of opening (ESA/day) is calculated using
Equation 7-2, where the parameters are as defined in Part 2 of the Austroads guide.
Equation 7-1

ESA / day = ( AADT * DF ) % HV /100 LDF ESA / HV


7.2

Selecting design period and assessment period

The design periods and assessment periods given in Table 7.2-1 shall be used to determine the
design traffic and carry out whole-of-life costing.
Table 7.2-1 Minimum design period and assessment period
Average daily ESA in design
lane in year of opening

Minimum design period


(years) 1

Minimum assessment
period (years) 1,2

1000

40

40

100 to < 1000

20

40

< 100

10

103

Notes
1)

The design and/or assessment periods can be reduced to equal the life of the alignment where the life of
the alignment is less than the minimum requirements.

2)

The assessment period shall be at least as long as the design period.

3)

If required for the project.

For temporary pavements, the design period shall be selected based on the intended period of
use, with a maximum design period of 2 years. In addition, for temporary pavements where the
average daily ESA in the design lane in the year of opening is 1000 or more, the minimum design
period shall be 6 months.

7.3

Identifying design lane

Pavement designs are based on the cumulative number of heavy vehicles in the design lane. In
most cases, the design lane is the most heavily trafficked lane (e.g. the left/slow lane on a typical
multi-lane rural road). In some cases the design lane may not be the most heavily trafficked lane,
such as when designing inside widening of a multi-lane carriageway.

7.4

Initial daily heavy vehicles in the design lane

The heavy vehicle traffic volume in the year of opening may be determined by multiplying traffic
volumes from a previous year by a growth factor (g) as shown Equation 7-2.
Equation 7-2

g = (1 + 0.01 r ) x
where,
g

January 2009

growth factor

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Queensland Department of Main Roads

heavy vehicle growth rate per annum (%)

time period (years) between previous year traffic volumes and year of opening

7.5

Growth rate and cumulative traffic volumes

In accordance with recent growth and the predicted doubling of the road freight task from 2000 to
2020 (DOTARS, 2002), all motorways (including ramps), highways and arterial roads shall be
designed with a minimum heavy vehicle growth rate of 4% per annum, unless detailed traffic
modelling is undertaken which specifically considers the future freight task for the pavement being
designed.

7.6

Project specific traffic load distribution

Whenever possible, designers should use project-specific weigh-in-motion data rather than
presumptive values to determine relevant design traffic parameters.

7.7

Reduced design standard for sealed unbound granular pavements with


average daily ESA < 100 in design lane in year of opening

This section is only to be used for sealed unbound granular pavements that satisfy the following
conditions:
a)

average daily ESA in design lane in year of opening is < 100

b)

where there are justifiable reasons for allowing a higher level of performance risk

c)

where allowance is made in the whole-of-life costing for additional maintenance treatments.

This procedure uses only roughness as an indicator of the effect of the reduced standard. It does
not include other elements such as rut depth, volume change, or durability, for example. These
must be independently addressed and assessed.
The empirical design procedure for granular pavements with thin bituminous surfacings (Section
8.3) is based on the premise that pavement roughness at the end of the design period (the terminal
roughness) will be approximately 150 NAASRA counts/km, assuming that the initial roughness is
approximately 50 NAASRA counts/km.
Where a reduced standard is adopted, the design traffic (DESA) can be modified so that the
pavement design allows for alternative variations in the initial pavement condition and choice of
terminal pavement condition. This is done by using the ratio of terminal roughness to initial
roughness. A suitable initial roughness value can be estimated from measurements of recently
constructed pavements under similar conditions.
The modified design traffic is determined from Figure 7.7-1 using the unmodified design traffic and
the desired ratio of terminal to initial roughness. For example, if the unmodified design traffic is 1 x
106 ESA and the designer seeks a pavement design that will result in terminal roughness being
four times the initial roughness, the value of the modified design traffic is 4 x 105 ESA.

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Pavement Design Manual

Ratio Terminal/Initial Roughness


3.0

1.0E+08

3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0

Modified Design Traffic (ESA)

log10 NM = [2/(R2/R1-1)]0.25 log10N + [1 - [2/(R2/R1-1)]0.25] * log10120


1.0E+07

6.0

1.0E+06

1.0E+05

1.0E+04
1.0E+04

1.0E+05

1.0E+06

1.0E+07

1.0E+08

Design Traffic (ESA)

Figure 7.7-1 Modified design traffic based on the ratio of terminal to initial roughness

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Pavement Design Manual

8
8.1

Queensland Department of Main Roads

DESIGN OF NEW FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS


General

The calculated layer thicknesses shall be rounded up to the nearest 5 mm.


To allow for variations in the constructed layer thicknesses within the construction tolerances, a
construction tolerance shall be added to the pavement design thickness.
For unbound granular, modified granular and thin asphalt surfaced granular pavements, a
thickness of 20 mm shall be added to the total unbound granular thickness determined as
appropriate from Figure 8.4 of Part 2 of the Austroads guide or from mechanistic design.
For full depth asphalt, deep strength asphalt, flexible composite and AG(A) and ASt(A) pavements,
10 mm shall be added to the pavement layer that governs the overall allowable loading to account
for layer thickness variations.
For ASt(B) temporary pavements, 20 mm shall be added to the design thickness of the stabilised
base layer.

8.2

Mechanistic procedure

Mechanistic design must be undertaken using the latest version of CIRCLY.


It is assumed that thin interlayer and surface treatments such as sprayed seals and geosynthetics
are non-structural.
Generally mechanistic modelling is undertaken assuming full bonding between layers,
characterised as a rough interface in the CIRCLY program. However, when modelling pavements
with more than two stabilised layers, only one of the interfaces between stabilised layers shall be
modelled as fully bonded, and any other interfaces between stabilised layers shall be modelled as
smooth interfaces.
Because of the risk of poor performance as a result of inadequate bonding between layers, the
assumption of full bonding between layers in design of permanent pavements shall not be used
where the average daily ESA in the design lane in the year of opening is 1000.
8.2.1

Selecting a trial pavement

Refer to pavement types and standards discussed in Section 2.3 of this manual and Section 2.2.2
of Part 2 of the Austroads guide.
8.2.2

Consideration of post-cracking phase in cemented materials

The post-cracking phase may be included for deep strength asphalt, flexible composite and ASt(A)
pavements where the average daily ESA in the design lane in the year of opening is < 1000. For
higher traffic levels the post-cracking phase is not to be included.

8.3

Empirical design of unbound granular pavements with thin bituminous


surfacing

The total thickness of a granular pavement is made up of a base and may include any number of
subbase courses.
The required minimum base thickness is obtained from Figure 8.4 in Part 2 of the Austroads guide,
except for the SG(A) pavement type (refer to Table 2.3-4) for which the base shall comprise two
100 mm thick granular B1 layers.
If a thin (< 40 mm thick) dense graded asphalt surfacing is provided, the thickness of the surfacing
may be deducted from the required total granular thickness. However, the minimum base thickness
requirements still apply.

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Pavement Design Manual

The thickness of any base, sub-base or lower sub-base layer shall not be less than 100 mm as
construction quality may be adversely affected for lesser thicknesses.

8.4

Modified granular pavements

Thickness design of modified granular pavements is to be based on either Figure 8.4 in Part 2 of
the Austroads guide, or mechanistic design using the same modelling procedures as for unbound
granular pavements.

8.5

Example design charts for mechanistic design

The example design charts in Part 2 of the Austroads guide may be used to establish a trial
thickness for a given subgrade design CBR and design traffic for commencement of the normal
iterative mechanistic design procedure. These are based on a number of design assumptions so
their relevance to a particular project may be limited.

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Pavement Design Manual

9
9.1

Queensland Department of Main Roads

DESIGN OF NEW RIGID PAVEMENTS


General

The calculated layer thicknesses shall be rounded up to the nearest 5 mm.


To allow for variations in the constructed layer thicknesses within the construction tolerances, a
construction tolerance of 10 mm shall be added to the design base thickness.
The thicknesses given in Table 9.7 of Part 2 of the Austroads guide are minimum design
thicknesses, and therefore a construction tolerance of 10 mm must also be added to those
thicknesses.
For detailed design of slab layouts and joints, the designer should refer to the following
publications, and also seek advice from Pavements and Materials Branch to ascertain the latest
requirements:
a)

RTA 1992, Concrete Pavement Manual: Design and Construction, 2nd edn, Roads and
Traffic Authority, Sydney.

b)

RTA 2004, TP-GDL-012: Concrete Roundabout Pavements: A Guide to their Design and
Construction, Roads and Traffic Authority, Sydney.

c)

RTA, Rigid Pavements: Standard Details for Design, Roads and Traffic Authority, Sydney.

9.2

Pavement types

Permitted rigid pavement types are shown in Table 2.3-2.


The subbase shall be lean mix concrete with a minimum thickness of 150 mm.
To reduce excavation requirements in tunnels, a minimum 150 mm of no-fines concrete plus a
minimum 25 mm of dense graded asphalt can be used instead of a lean mix concrete subbase and
a separate drainage layer. The thickness of no-fines concrete must be sufficient to allow complete
drainage of any moisture present. Use of no-fines concrete for drainage is not suitable in some
ground conditions where blockage of drainage paths in the no-fines concrete may occur. This can
occur where material transported by ground water (dissolved or undissolved) deposits itself within
the no-fines concrete, or a chemical reaction between the ground water and the no-fines concrete
results in the formation of a precipitate.
Where no-fines concrete subbase is used for base thickness design purposes the total thickness of
the no-fines concrete and asphalt is to be modelled as a 150 mm lean mix concrete layer.
A specification for no-fines concrete is available from Pavements & Materials Branch.
Where an open-graded asphalt surface is provided over continuously reinforced concrete
pavement (CRCP), a minimum thickness of 40 mm of DG14HS dense graded asphalt must be
provided under the open-graded asphalt to protect the concrete base from milling during future
resurfacing.
The minimum design base thickness for JRCP, CRCP and SFRC busway pavements is 230 mm
(240 mm including 10 mm tolerance).

9.3

Concrete channels

A separately placed channel made of structural grade concrete may provide some edge support to
the pavement, but less than a full concrete shoulder. Therefore, a separately placed channel does
not warrant a reduction in pavement thickness. In this case, a no shoulder design condition is to
be adopted.

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Queensland Department of Main Roads

9.4

Pavement Design Manual

Example design charts for rigid pavements

The example design charts in Part 2 of the Austroads guide may be used to establish a trial
thickness for a given subgrade design CBR and design traffic for commencement of the normal
iterative rigid pavement design procedure. These are based on a number of design assumptions
so their relevance to a particular project may be limited.

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Queensland Department of Main Roads

10 COMPARISON OF DESIGNS
10.1

General

When comparing various alternative pavement types and configurations, cost is a prime
consideration. For most lightly trafficked roads, a granular pavement with a sprayed seal will
usually prove to be the most cost-effective pavement. However, for medium to heavy traffic loads,
particularly over weak subgrades, other pavement types may be more cost effective. To determine
the most cost-effective pavement, a whole-of-life cost comparison must be made.
Technical and financial considerations influence the types of pavement selected for consideration
on a project. An analysis of these factors is needed prior to undertaking an economic evaluation.
Financial considerations may limit the acceptable pavement options.
The various features of alternative designs need to be explored and agreed upon at this stage.
These include:

purpose, scope and objective of the design comparison

outputs of the analysis

technical project constraints on pavement types to be considered, including the operating


environment such as traffic predictions and subgrade conditions

maximum pavement capital cost limitations, if any

feasible pavement alternatives to be analysed

maintenance scenario(s)

assessment period

pavement design life

other underlying assumptions

an estimate of the resources required to complete the analysis.

In order to determine the acceptability of the proposed scope and parameters of the analysis, and
to minimise rework, these should be recorded, reviewed and accepted by the decision-maker who
is to consider the study results. If some of the above cannot be determined at this stage, an outline
of how these issues will be treated, whether by assumption or further investigation in the study,
should be documented. The parameters, once agreed, may be varied later during the study by
agreement with the decision-maker as further information becomes available.
For heavy-duty pavements, comparison of alternative pavement types and configurations shall be
undertaken in accordance with A Guide to the Whole-of-Life Costing of Heavy Duty Pavements
(QDMR 1998).
10.1.1

Assessment period

The assessment period for road pavements, usually expressed in calendar years, starts from the
initial trafficking of the original structure and has a duration that is the least of either:
a)

the period for which the models for pavement design traffic determination and/or pavement
design are considered accurate (usually accepted as 40 years)

b)

the period for which the use of the pavement and/or the road alignment can be assured.

Pavements consist of many elements, each of which has a different design life. Some of these
design lives are short and less than the expected service life of the overall pavement. To maintain
the functional requirements of the pavement, planned interventions that extend the life of particular
elements will usually be required. These interventions may include, but are not limited to:

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enrichments
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Queensland Department of Main Roads

reseals

overlays

removal and replacement of the surface layer and underlying seal

retexturing

maintenance.

Pavement Design Manual

There can also be interventions after the original design period to further extend the life of the
pavement if it is still required. These are usually categorised as rehabilitation (refer to MR
Pavement Rehabilitation Manual for further details).
In determining the design lives of individual elements, the design charts or mechanistic design are
only one indicator of possible life. Many other considerations, including other loads, such as
horizontal shear, could significantly influence the design life.
Pavement alternatives within the assessment period provide different options in respect of:

risk

cost (initial cost, total whole-of-life cost, intervention costs)

interventions and consequent user disruption.

The alternative that satisfies the owners particular needs (including affordability) at the time is the
appropriate design.
The assessment period must not be selected on the basis of available budgets, present and/or
future. Budget influences, along with risk and intervention costs, are accommodated in the choice
of pavement alternatives, assisted by reference to the dominant criteria, as indicated below.
Design period or design life as used in this supplement is not the life of the whole pavement, but
the service life of a particular pavement element, for example: the fatigue life of a concrete or
asphalt layer, the terminal rut condition, the life before excessive oxidation of a surface bituminous
layer.
10.1.2

Design inclusions

A pavement design must include not only the original structure but also all those interventions in
the assessment period necessary for the pavement to maintain its function to the end of the
assessment period. These include:
a)

initial structure

b)

interventions, including, but not limited to


i)

essential maintenance tasks

ii)

staged construction activities (such as incremental overlays) if these have been part of
the design

iii)

treatment of surface layers (such as reseal, recycle, remove and replace) on a regular
basis where surface layers cannot be designed to last the full assessment period.

A pavement design must include all activities considered necessary for the design to last for the
specified assessment period, and not just those activities required for the initial structure.
10.1.3

Determining the optimal solution

The optimal pavement design solution is that which best satisfies the design requirements for the
specified inputs at minimum cost for the whole life of the pavement, and allows for the following
constraints:
a)

design considerations that cannot readily be quantified and taken into account by the design
procedures in this manual

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Pavement Design Manual

b)

the needs of road users and the community

c)

road safety

d)

future maintenance

e)

availability of plant and materials

f)

drainage

g)

environmental considerations (e.g. noise).

Queensland Department of Main Roads

The cost criterion to be applied for comparison of alternatives is minimum whole-of-life cost, which
allows for discounted future maintenance and rehabilitation costs. However, certain design
constraints which are not easily quantified must be applied to allow for factors that influence
maintenance, safety and user costs. These constraints may override cost considerations.
10.1.4

Selection constraints

The following examples illustrate practical constraints on the choice of design options:

Although asphalt surfaces are more costly than sprayed surface treatments, they are
provided on heavily trafficked roads because of the costs of traffic disruption and the dangers
to traffic and workers associated with maintaining a sprayed seal.

Certain combinations of pavement and shoulder materials and their configuration in the
pavement may be required to promote pavement drainage.

Where the pavement is likely to be exposed to soaked conditions for extended periods,
cement or bituminous bound material will be required to protect the structural integrity and
service standard of the pavement, despite possible additional costs.

When comparing the cost of structurally equivalent alternatives, consideration must be given
to non-productive costs associated with establishment, overheads, provision for traffic and
wet weather. These may be different for each alternative.

The type and configuration of the pavement selected may impact more than just the
pavement and direct pavement costs. For example the selection of a dense graded asphalt
overlay may necessitate the construction of noise mounds/barriers adding to total project
cost. Ancillary or indirect impacts must be considered.

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Pavement Design Manual

11 TYPICAL CROSS SECTIONS


Typical cross sections, pavement structures and pavement edge details for various pavement
configurations are shown in the following figures.
The cross sections, including shoulder widths and verge requirements, are the minimum requirements for
structural reasons and are not those that may be required for other reasons such as trafficability, sight
distance, safe standing, guardrails, signs and so on. Other relevant manuals, guides and / or technical
notes are to be consulted for these issues. Actual details to be adopted must also comply with the Main
Roads Road Planning and Design Manual.

11.1

Typical cross sections


3.0

(1)

trafficked lane

trafficked lane

min. 1.0 (median side)


min. 2.0 (other)

(1)

C
L
Surface Seal
Binder
Base

Working
platform

Subgrade Treatments
- cover over reactive subgrade
- capping layer
- drainage layer
Note:
1. These are minimums relating to structural requirements.

Figure 11.1-1 HILI asphalt


(full depth asphalt, flexible composite and deep strength asphalt)
0.6

(2)

0.6

3.0

3.5

3.5

min. 1.0 (median side)


min 2.0 (other)

C
L

(1)

Surface (asphalt)
[continuously reinforced only]
Base
Lean mix subbase
Working platform

Drain
Subgrade Treatments
- cover over reactive subgrade
- capping layer
- drainage layer
Notes:
1. These are minimums relating to structural requirements.
2. Minimum width of base for designs with shoulders.

Figure 11.1-2 HILI concrete


(unreinforced, jointed reinforced and continuously reinforced)
(1)

min. 2.0

(1)

trafficked lane

trafficked lane

min. 2.0
min. 1.0 (median)

C
L
Full width seal
Pavement structure
Working platform (if specified)
min 200 mm from
bottom of working
platform

Subgrade Treatments
- cover over reactive subgrade
- capping layer
- drainage layer
Note:
1. These are minimums relating to structural requirements.

Figure 11.1-3 Unbound granular and cement modified base

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11.2

Queensland Department of Main Roads

Pavement structures

Figure 11.2-1 Unbound granular

Figure 11.2-2 Asphalt over granular

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Queensland Department of Main Roads

Pavement Design Manual

Figure 11.2-3 Cement modified base

Figure 11.2-4 Temporary pavement

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Pavement Design Manual

11.3

Queensland Department of Main Roads

Pavement edge details

Figure 11.3-1 HILI pavement in cutting

Figure 11.3-2 High side of one-way crossfall (all pavements)

Figure 11.3-3 Cutting with open table drain

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Pavement Design Manual

12 REFERENCES
Austroads 2003, AP-G63/03: Guide to the Selection of Road Surfacings, 2nd edn,
Austroads, Sydney.
Austroads 2004a, AP-G76/04: Sprayed Sealing Guide, Austroads Pavement Technology Series,
Austroads, Sydney.
Austroads 2004b, AP-T33/04: Technical Basis of the Austroads Pavement Design Guide,
Austroads, Sydney.
Austroads 2008, Part 2: Pavement Structural Design, Guide to Pavement Technology, Austroads,
Sydney.
DOTARS 2002, AusLink: Towards the National Land Transport Plan, Green paper, Department of
Transport and Regional Services, Canberra.
Powell, W.D., Potter, J.F., Mayhew, H.C. 1984, Laboratory Report 1132: The Structural Design of
Bituminous Roads, Transport and Road Research Laboratory, Crowthorne, Berks, UK.
QDMR 1998, A Guide to the Whole-of-Life Costing of Heavy Duty Pavements. Queensland
Department of Main Roads, Pavements, Materials and Geotechnical Division, Brisbane.
RTA 1992, Concrete Pavement Manual: Design and Construction, 2nd edn, Roads and Traffic
Authority, Sydney.
RTA 2004, TP-GDL-012: Concrete Roundabout Pavements: A Guide to their Design and
Construction, Roads and Traffic Authority, Sydney.
RTA, Rigid Pavements: Standard Details for Design, Roads and Traffic Authority, Sydney.
Standards Australia 1997, AS 1289.4.2.1: Method 4.2.1: Soil chemical testsDetermination of the
sulfate content of a natural soil and the sulfate content of the groundwaterNormal method,
Methods of testing soil for engineering purposes, Standards Australia, Sydney.

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Pavement Design Manual

Appendix 1
Unified soil classification system (simplified and metricated)*
Group
symbol

Clean
gravels
Gravels
with
fines
Clean sands

GW

Well graded
GRAVEL

Predominantly one size or a range of sizes with


some intermediate sizes missing

GP

Poorly graded
GRAVEL

Non-plastic fines (see ML below)

GM

SILTY GRAVEL

Plastic fines (see CL below)

CG

CLAYEY GRAVEL

Wide range in grain sizes and substantial


amounts of all intermediate sizes.

SW

Well graded SAND

Predominantly one size or a range of sizes with


some intermediate sizes missing.

SP

Poorly graded
SAND

Non-plastic fines (see ML below)

SM

SILTY SAND

Plastic fines (see CL below)

SC

CLAYEY SAND

> 50

Liquid Limit

Silts and clays

Highly organic soils

Typical names

Wide range in grain size and substantial


amounts of all interim sizes

< 50

Sands
with
fines

Gravels (> 50% larger


than 2 mm)
Sands (> 50% smaller
than 2 mm)

Coarse-grained soils
Fine-grained soil

Fine grained soils

More then 50% by mass < 60 mm is < 0.06 mm

Coarse grained soils

More than 50% by mass < 60 mm is > 0.06 mm

Field identification

Shine

Dilatancy1

Toughness1

None to very
dull

Quick to slow

None

ML

INORGANIC SILT

Moderate

None to very
slow

Medium

CL

INORGANIC CLAY
of low to medium
plasticity

None to very
dull

Slow

Slight

OL

ORGANIC SILT &


CLAY of low
plasticity

Dull

Slow to none

Slight to
medium

MH

INORGANIC SILT
of high plasticity

Very glossy

None

High

CH

INORGANIC CLAY
of high plasticity

Moderate to
very glossy

None to very
slow

Slight to
medium

OH

ORGANIC CLAY of
medium to high
plasticity

PT

PEAT and other


highly organic soils

Identified by colour, odour, spongy feel and


fibrous texture

A) The system excludes the cobble and boulder fractions (> 60 mm) of the soil for classification.
B) It adopts the particle size limits given in AS1289.
C) For laboratory classification, the closest AS sieve to sizes shown should be used.
Notes:
1)

Procedures for fine grained soils or fractions:


Dilatancy (reaction to shaking):
i)

Prepare pat of moist soil, adding water to make soft but not sticky.

ii)

Place pat in palm of hand, shake horizontally by striking vigorously against other hand.

Position Reaction: Appearance of water on surface of pat, which becomes glossy when squeezed between fingers; water and gloss disappear,
pat stiffens and may crumble.
Toughness (consistency near plastic limit):
i)

Mould sample to consistency of putty, adding water or air drying as required.

ii)

Roll into thin (3 mm) thread, fold and re-roll repeatedly until thread crumbles at plastic limit.

iii) Knead together and continue until lump crumbles.


Diagnosis: A tough thread and stiff lump indicate high plasticity; a weak thread and lump indicate low plasticity clays.

January 2009

Pavement Design Manual

Queensland Department of Main Roads

Appendix 2
Weighted mean annual pavement temperatures

ii

Town

WMAPT (oC)

Town

WMAPT (oC)

Ayr

35

Julia Creek

39

Baralaba

35

Kingaroy

29

Barcaldine

36

Longreach

37

Beaudesert

31

Mackay

34

Biloela

32

Maryborough

32

Birdsville

37

Miles

32

Blackall

36

Mitchell

32

Bollon

33

Monto

32

Boulia

38

Mt Isa

39

Bowen

36

Nambour

31

Brisbane Region

32

Normanton

40

Bundaberg

33

Palmerville

38

Cairns

37

Pittsworth

28

Caloundra

31

Quilpie

36

Camooweal

39

Richmond

38

Cardwell

36

Rockhampton

35

Charleville

34

Roma

33

Charters Towers

36

Southport

31

Clermont

35

St. George

33

Cloncurry

39

St. Lawrence

35

Cooktown

38

Stanthorpe

25

Cunnamulla

34

Surat

33

Dalby

30

Tambo

33

Emerald

35

Taroom

33

Gayndah

33

Thargomindah

35

Georgetown

38

Toowoomba

27

Gladstone

34

Townsville

37

Goondiwindi

32

Urandangie

38

Gympie

32

Warwick

28

Herberton

30

Weipa

39

Hughenden

37

Windorah

37

Ipswich

32

Winton

38

Isisford

36

January 2009