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5.1 Introduction

G enerator Protection

The generators used in the
powe:t system arc the alteniators which prod\.lce very
hisf> a.c. volta. The protection ol g"nerntors is very much complex due lo the foll<>"" ing


fhc gt•nc.•rators


very huge m"d1in, prod udnF, ,·4.•ry ugh vohnt;,!- and



2. Various other tquipmcnts are .tlways JSSociat cd with the generators. Such
equipments are prime, excitation systems, voltage regulators, cooling
systems etc.Thus protection or generators must consider the presence of these ()
(her equipml'Mts also.

1 ·rhe

g('n(rr.itlOr1! ar("

very cosi ly. nsive .,nd Vt.r'y 1mport1u1t foctor in , po¥1·er

sy,tem. The prot0<tioll sthtme must b;, such that It should I\OI shut off the
generators .is os possible. 11w shut off generators result' ir, .lJ power

All these factors make the design of protectjon scheme for the generator. very
much complex.
Delon.• studying the \.'tlfi<h&'l prott."Cton )('hcuw for lhc g('.1', r.uors, let us di u..
v.anou faults whic:h c. 1.Jt o«ur M,'k.'JC'. i,1h.-d with th g 1tc•nitor .
5.2 Generator Faults

1llt! various faults which can occur associated with a generator an be das..t.jfied
I . Stator faults : Tiw faults associated wtth the stator of the gencr;:itor.

2. Rotor foults :llle faults t\SS<>C.iilted w,th the rntor


th,.. gene.r,ttot.

3 ,\bnor1T1ill running eot"ldieior\S : This includ(•s number ol abnorma l rondit,ons
which ma)' o..,.:ur in practice, from whkh th geriernt or mu:-t be protected

Let us discuss these faults in detail.

{5 • 1)

5 ·2

Generator l"rotection

5.2.1 Stator Faults
The st,,tor faults means faults associaU!d with the three phase armature windings
o( the generator. These faults are mainly due to the insulation failure of the c1rmature
winding. The main types of stator faults aw,
I. Phnse to ciltth faults

2.l'hns,• to ph.,se f•ults

.3. Inter-tum faults in\•olving turns of same phase winding.
The most important and common fault is phase to earth fault. The other two are
nol very common whi.le inter-tum fault is "-et}' difficult to detect. Phaat to Ewth Faulb

Tht"'\C foults mil.inly occur in the annatur slot,. Tht fault., are dangerous and ct.n
caus,.. S('vc,ro damage to the cxpcn$IVC! m.a.chine. The fault curl'(."l\ls lcs3 than 20 A cause
aegligible burning of core if machine is, tripped quickly. But if the fault currents are high,
severe burning of stator core can take place.This may lead to the requirement of
replacing the Jami.nations which is very rostly and time consuming. So to avoid the
damage due to phase to earth faults, .o separare, 5"1\Sltive e.trth fault prottttion is
n<'CeS5<lry for the generators •1011gwith the earthing rcsl;,tan,:e. Phue to Phae Fallb

The phase to phase faults means short circuit behveen two phase windings.Such
foults are uncommon because the insulation used between the coils of different
phases in .a slot is large. But once phase to earth fa.ult occurs, due to the over heating
ph.ts(e to ph.,se foult al<;<> may occur. This fault is likely to occur at the c,,d connections of
the ormature winding,, whic.h are ,,ver,heating p•rts outside the slots. Such • fault
verc att"ll"tg with very hlgh tcmpet-'tuttS. This may lcMi hJ melting o( cJOJ)p\"f
and lire ii the insulation Is not fire resistant. Stator Inter-Tum Faults

l'he etlils used in the alternators are generally multitum coils. So short
c:i.rcuit bet."-·l-.>en the turns of one coil may occur, which is called an inte_r..tum
fault.This f1uh c,ccu" due to curr<'nt surg,,. with high .,,,Ju• of (L di/dt) voltAgc
acm•• th" tum•.But
,r th;• coils used are single tum then this fault can not o«ur. Hence for th<' large
mo.chines of the order ol 50 M VA and more, it is a normal practice to use single tum in some countries, multiturn roiJs are very commonly uS<>d where protection
against i.n tcr•turn fauJts is must.

Protoe1lon a.nd Switchg,,ar




5.2.2 Rotor Faults
The rotor of an alternator is generally a field winding as most oF tl,e alteri,ators
are of rotating field type. The field winding is made Ll_P oi number of turns. So lhe 4"0ndudor to ea.rth faults and short circmt r..·.-ecn the h.J.Tns or the fieId ,vind ing, are
the conHno11ly occ::u.rrin,s faults with 1-e.pcct to :1 rotor. rhe,,e (\ults arc caused due ,o
the 54•verc mrr:Mnl(3J nd thcrm,,I stn.--sses,.,cting on tho field '"u,ding insultlon.
'TI e field windin:gis gt"nCr.llly not ground(IO ilnd henrc ingr, hne to ground fault
does not give any fault current. A second fault to earth wdl short circuit the part of
frle field winding and may there by produce an unS)'mmetri cal fie:d syStem. Such an
l.lnsvmmetrical system gives rise to the unba1mced forces on the rotor and results in
exo:ss prcssu ri. or\ the bcMings ,,nd th1. shaft distort ion. if uch ., fn u lt is nol de.ired
\.C'1')' ('itrly. So it is very mueh 1,ec,es,ry to lmnw 1hc c>.h,£tnf(' o( the· flr...t ,,

of th<' ••rth laull so th•t corr('(tive meosure,;

<"" I' be

lokrll N>fon,s.'<'.or1d faull

The unb;1lanced lo,, cUng on the generator is responsible to prod uce the
sequence currents. These currents produfre a rotating magnetic field which rotates in
opposite di r:(".<:tion to lh.:tt of rotor magnetic field. Due to thl field. is ind1K'ed
e m f. in the rotor winding. This cnuses overhcatmg of the rotor.
Rotor crth fouh proll'<'tion and rolor h mp<!r,,t-urc in, arc thl: t
are p,o\.'idt. d tolarge r,1ttng gerwratorl'I.


5.2.3 Abnormal Running Conditions
In practice there are number of situations in which generator is subjected to some
abnormal running condtions. The protection must be pro,iided against the abnom1al
ronditions. These ttbnorm.11 c<Jnditionsindudc,
I . Overlo:tding
2. Overs-peeding
3. Unbal,mced lo.iding
4. Ovcrvoltage

5. failure of prime mover
f> l.<lG& of (!)(Citation {Field failure)
7. Cooling systm foilur<> Overloading
Due to the continuous overloadinij, the o\ erheating of the stator results. This may
iocrease the winding n>mp<lrature. I( this lemperaturc rise cxcet'ds certain limit the
insuwtion of the winding may get damaged The degree of o,•erloading dccjdl'S the

illy'Cts .'t to vny tugh . ner..s gc. The ovcrcun-ent protection .im1 ·tcmper turc rbc.

loading or the geti-L>tator rci.2.rvo1tagc.rvoltages . 'fht'5f".qpti\·e seqtu..:i o( the r..2.: ovcroh•ges i• the faulty op<'l'llion or voltage n-gul.Jluc hence rontinuous OvfillOOds o( 5 ..'"Ction tlf rot.. 1\e the time of restnkmg .?nt protecllon.auHc generators a sudden 106s or load results in situations due to rot.tion in daring .. these surges can get trans.1ltmc. 2. case of hydr.-d lood causes tre1ne11dous heating which is d0tninnnt inc:ase of C\'hndrical rotor of trubo.citors are often used .(. Gt'fl('rally a turbogovmor is provldcd to pre\.agnctic field rotates at the synchronous spt.rnor.o.'d ..wcrspt'Cding of !h. the transient O\'er . S.4 Overvottage n. .Protecllon and Switchgear . Negat1vc sequence protection is important to prevent dangt-rm. Not only th.urg.'rk surge volg.•11 as rolor .ot be stc1pp€'d <)r n:d11.' d. Thus the e.3.ctlo<I less.-s and f.1tion of this magnetic field is opposite to that or rotor. S.rotating magnetic:fit>ld. Inductively and capacitively. Atmphc.caU." bu.-d swilthing ).The dr< ul•tmg currents due to the inducro e.1cr<.e go.n'f.1ttema tors.-. Another re>><>n for th. To protect the generators from surge .ner• by direc-t lighting strokes to the aerial lines of high voltage system.ttor . Su<.U the thn. ll\t' failure of dt(Uit breaker nc4r the gffl<'raling st.ecau tht• \••ttcr flow to the tu rPine C. are responsible to O\'t>rheat con flliw reach to tho gonor.ting n.rors.ts which arc because of unbalanced load ·ond itions.. w.h !lurgt..eot the ovespeedi1"8· l!ut if there is any fault In the turbin.l c:urr(l'nts pr<>dvC't" the.3..:ake place.e p}mSt•s.e rotor winding a..mtly .2 Ovtrspeeding h.111cl moro 11\an H1".eed inst.the surge arresters and surge cap.mgt:rou. ·1his b t>."Jr\ be Limitt-.3 Unbllanud l. value than the sctting onnot be scnStod by (t\'i!tcurn. 11.1rr..-s an.ied with respect to rotor.1l\1. The re 1sons for the unbalanced load ('IO(ldilions are.: gcmir. Such atm06pherk surge voltiges are g..rator Proi...l.. gels induced..rn.emor then the dangerous ovcrsping ""'Y t.ttors.b. The dir\.>nee currei:.oldlng The u1..tke some corrective measures iJ there is some fault in the go·e.Continuous unbolanc. having double the norn.feaed to the gener3tor..2. lamping. S.:I t.. in the rotor winding.oltdges gel gcuct.. HC'nce it is necessary to supervise the working of turbine governor and :. u1tcnMI ovt." basically due to the overspeed1ng of generators.... the contacts of circuit breakers. I Occu rrence or uns}•mmctrical faults near the generating stat ion. Hcnc.3. effectively the relative speed between the two is double the synchronous speed.4 .it.m.f.11..ults in che circulation of nl"gotlivt• St'<IO(•nct) currents.·oltages.

by .

ld winding or due l'o short circuit In field or due to som e fovlt Ln ("\cile't' S}'?!tt•m.'Co. ·"<i.tion "14\)" 1. i:..5 Faihn of Prime MoYef 1he faHu. synchronous molor. The generator draws active pG'\""er from the network and continues to run lllsynchro nous speed. which is equal to the full Jood . Loss o( excitation $hould not persist for long and rorr('('tive measures hkc dis<onna:tion of altemator shou ld be taken immediately.< trip the generator circuit breaker immediately when there is a field failUl'I!.. drawing the reactive power from the bus.I may result.illowed to pc. when the transient overvoltages are generated .e in speed of the gener.7 Coollng Syat.'C earthi. For of prime mover results in motoring operation of synchronOU5 gt.S arc d.C surge suppret-sor& also help in reduang sw"it.chbw remnins .mg of fic.m.H'I be peak amplitude M gcm:. !!ch11-.m flllu. the tran$ient vt1l tagc:s havin:g .. rJre in practice.• .trt from the abovt• .3.rma l ('Ondltions. causlng some olher faulls to oo:ur. The loss of c.11w li.'. the generntor starts working as an induction generator. During arcing grounds."on.' r. 5.2. open.1s and ('.is a tripping scheme can be used which ca.'1 pe.:.e machine starts drawing an exc-iting current from the system. .1.'chlng surges.litode$ five times more than the normal line to nNllr. 5.•r.ited voluo.g rcs sta 'l(. 5..ynchronlzation.anic. TI1e (allure or ('...".2. is whet1 the arcs are grounded.t for more t:tt.d to insulation failure. Such tr 1ns2cn1 voltagt.3. This leads to the <>verhealing of the . R.. The corrective measures are taken \•vhenever the!. Smee power inpul to the.itor.n twenty Sll nds.o. Such loss o( cx('ltltion r11.!Jd tn th.u.e.-.c:.'••lw'C exceeds the Limit. Such C.d by U(.tor wind ing and the rotor bod)' due b> indt1{ed currents..5 Generator Protection the uses of modem circuit breakers..y exist wluch n1•. caus severe overheJting to rise thl' icmperature above safe limit This "'.2.5lipping cond ition which results in the n'>lt 1gic r<•.. Another situation.1bnc.t"S the increa!.--ved by direction.ion tor the output l1bov c haU rN.Pfind SwitcllgNr 5..6 Loss of Excitation The lnss <>f CJ<Citation or reduced excitation is possible due to the field failure i. 1l>e thermocou ples or resistance thermometers arc u in large machines to sense the temperature.Ap.1t rotw:Utions if ..r.:lominnnt . l·1erator. To provent this th rc•cl"l<' power protoct. l(l(al .wer rdaysis us.()()ling syst(•m .ire. ..8)' le. TI.3.t1ing of the >tt'1m turblnc·biad('. M>lnc mndltions rna.Ucd lo.This rnaylead to dangerous mech.sults hl IOS5 of l')rnd\fonlsnl within " second ond ths cau:.unp.di1i-0ns .S ..t.g. The scriuuK ov<:rl1e:..lfl.

nerotor Protection overhe.l1rn•nt nowing out of one side whale a 1. ' .I is rL-sponsible to opct:ttc lh\• rl"'l.1ins inoperative.'<fs a predetermined v"luc.ting..s h:w<.2. .s to lhe cxlernol foult If lh. It is known lhJt tho differenti•I rt'lay opcrol. Such A C'Ur'r(...ic difforentiI prolt>etiun sclwrne 11s.5..vibrations.x-r•tors is shown in the Fig the other . Oiffe<en(ia. Offl'etenlial "'"Y Li .two C. .. So the (urtent flowing throvgh 1he relay will be 11 .ldemal fault .1•· V .l t OC(ur5 at poinl X as shown in the Fig...._.1relay Fig. 5.y.n1hc tht! di(fcnmHal C'\J rr(rnt.Even :. .re i 1 and i2.. • .3 Basic Differential Protection Scheme for Generators A bn. m.._ I - C -nding V _.(>condary n1rrertb t1.• t 1 V t. CT _._ _ _ . 5.9 Protection and SwitchgMr C. excessive bearing temperature etc...1.ll quantities iexre(.moisture in the generator winding.. Bu. the current Aows tluou gh the laull from both the sides. 5.tdc·will c. •• ' ' '' /' I • · •• -. • • ----'-: ---.1gh lhl' relay 4'nd it l't"m./ E.. oxygen in pure waf er circuit. . The primary CWTeRls are 11 and 12 while tht• . -. T.e c\lrrent ttnte.. 1.ri..-'.Otnc t'. . V .. I for the g(....._ _'. now if an internal fau...'1'..• r./ - IX F111. bearing currents.• s.lrtmt will flow thr01... i(nkage in hydrogen circuit. tMn no c\. •:..T.. whm the phosor diflrrmce of lh'O or mote similar elec:trk.1 Suppose the curttnt I nows through the primor)' of C..J tio.rg.

2 . 5.Fig.

This is b<x:..eheme. ... 5.T. t.i2.ay approach the p.. secondary currents are i1 and i. N + "" ' :z .T .'<! differential pn>t.lay operates. These disadvantages are overcome in the percentage diffe..ius:t• lUll'(J ual S{'( ond.5. Thus if the number of turns of the restraining coil is N then i1 flows through and i1 nows through remaining N T The totdl ampere tturu are . The current flowing through the oper•ting roil of the rel•)' is i1 .:ntage difforentfal relay.3 Percentage dlffenntlalprotection sctiem....h•m• is als.t ion scheme...i.Generator Protttctton Thus the rela y c-urrent is proportional to the pha. .-d bias. . in such a protl-t"t' im s... " • '2 --.4 Basic Percentage Differential Protection Scheme for Generatora ll11s protection s. C.alue..ul!C the Op<"roting coil Is connectl'd to tm.e...... midpoint of the restraining coil.. 5.ccurMtl)' with he.T..or dillermce between lhe currents entering and leavii'S the prot11.t<-. s inc.\vy krn11I foulb.'<l circ11JI and if the differential currmt exceeds the pickup .s may saturate ond c.'<'ondary curr<!rHS m. .clcup valu e to opcrate the relay unnecessarily... ) ..T.i..Nntial relay... r . 2 Th C. .> cnll.3 shows th connections of the peric-. N 2 i. the re. The fauJt occurs at point X and the primary currents i.. C. The C.. This cu rrents ond the di{fcrcnc:c of St".g ¢0il Fig.. Tot' Fig. Operating ' c::oil Rettre nln.t. Whil<' the current Oowing through the restraining coil of the rel•y u (!L..!...ic dlffeM>tial scheme has following disad vantages · l Thls circuit (J_pe:r.n the circuit arc 11 and 11.

i. N .e.

.1...ff. seronda.. re equal.-ris liQ . en ll d !Jw pen.tion i-lf'C Under nonnaJ conditions. Due to this 5.•ii Ae ti'9lntng current 2 Fig. 5. "'fl.o-ar ( 11 ·.an r\ob)' 1.. Hl"nce the tcl. The field is oL«> disconnected and is discharged tlvough a suitllblc .1.Oll.s is most commonly used protection scheme for the allt'nnator stator windmgs. 5.•n:•nual rcl.5 uss th(' d.I u...• is als<> call-d bios«i differential protection and pcrrentagc dlffon-ntial prott"ttion .s c.l1 through the opt.s shown m the Fig. the relay operates.ctc..«pr at low currents.ay is and inopera6\'1"..Sed diJfore.• } TMs ls as good as the now o( current (it .ntia_l prot( •ti<>n or Mc.1t hlod .1-. ratio of t Nonoperating. the differential current i1 .·taltii llternator stator windin o( Merz.-t e.rnator stator wjndings. This popular xh.o\}icl'I d11feren tiaJ opera:-ing current to aremgc restraining cum:nl is a fi).c for aUc.PC11onand Swltct.f the rehJ)' ts zero..t.:hem.) through the entlre reslramlng co:I. tr1 lhis of )uch n biaSt'ti diffl'rential c>si.i2 flows through the operating coils of the relay.rentlal current i1 . thrf'e ph..1« protection schen.rie.cailt.c-m. Hence the .lgc.11 protection schcm.1or. Gi knowJl as 81.4. when there is no foull in the wi_ntdings.4 pcr\'ntagc difltre-nti.4.e for lh1.1ge d.This trips the generator circuit breaker to isolate the faulty tl.. e1.St'<! LLsmg current transformers. \\'hen fault occurs inside Uie ptot«:ted se<:tlon of th• stator windings.'<I. the currents in the pilot \-Vires fed fmrn C.\J pcrccnt..g char. The wires connecting relay (oils to the current tra.. The operati1.'.Price Protection of Alternator Stator Windings Th. Th{> ('har.e«>nd.1y.dJ.rat.rzPrice reg.bal. La. The .nsfornter s. i. This basic p<-rcentagc diffrmmtia l prot ection scheme rorms the basis of the practically very conunonly used -W! IOrQU8 -•.nries are ..:.. d pilo'I wires. <ystcm is ••id 10 Ix. the currrnts <II the ·o f'fld!il o( the proh-ct ttd 51«.1ting C.i. The diJfe.T.

·Fig.impcdan. Th.rrnmgemcnt of Meri-Pritt protection scheme for a star connected t.5 show< J schi!nmtk . 5. .llerna1or.

.. ...' .• .C.. Fig.J V I_ L.. frnm 1\.. ...·:J....-.... .. The C..c.. v L .Circull b..1y gi ves protectio:r..2.-... the outgoing side and machine winding connections to earth sid.. 5. .. . '• • ' ! •••. .1. ' ' ·- •• •• 5 -9 allam.l'llof SUt(OI _.. . .T.11r con1ee y 0C -Ot•l.lnillg ooa C e . .J V L Iii waldin... ' '' ' ' ! ' ' oc R._. ...t.R. . .• "'"«ilflbolll co.--. • l o..-..-..i s1inih1r arr•._r ' ' '. ' l!'aiflil'IQ 00.. ...."" r . ....J V - - ..... :lollQr Th... JJwnt 1s used for the d.s are connected in st.6. .....n1ator i:..-r C R C. . against short circuit fault in the stator winding of a generator. c. ' oc • ' ' '.ce. C D -· - coi19 and the c:r.g C... . 5. Cirow brN•. . .(1/t) R.C.. comwch>d altc.til'lecieo aJl&o.ndir.... r --..''PilO\ wii•-- oc...Re..0::.tor St!. rr· -· . 1he t)pt...... .C.. R..•h......n th Fig.n....... ... d by ch(·tilpping:...1rthing et...'II....5 Men. ' •. nc>\ltttl .ondary conncc1ion . winding...a oo.hown i..Op•r (".1.. v • • ''' • ' '' "" ''' I • and are provided on both.ncctio1-. ''"'"" .ng._J V L • - "'"' ..-.Price protection for star connected oltomator The differential te-l. The restrttining coils are cnrrs1zro from the .. · a:... . ' • y • . . ce .i C T ..."•_......----.c. -'' '' earth / n1111Arill ' ..c. - !oe.Pr Ion 111d Switchgear ... . .c... ': • '' CT .. through pilot wires.. .. .. ' ' ' RC re•.ol C. o.•tating coil!..s in each ph•se. i.. oeit.. ate tnl'fgh A. <ot ' • . Protection - . o..

.... . . -! P9to1...6 Men. .. .1.. .Pric• protection for Mita connected alternator .•1•r Fig.... 5.1age o hr. . .--. .-... ...n<.

'l\ts in the primary windings o( C. The c.e if th(• error is t•Xl"'. tOr uncf.e scrond1. C. . 6. o?n<!rg"ized by the secondary connections of C... This scheme pro. If providt. Turn on hf co! g.:flL"f1. under fault oondabons..Ulary relay s1mu1l.tion of alann and /or annundaror to indic21te the occurren of the fault and the operation of the relay the field must be opened immediately otherwise it st"rts feed.ifoHcs the followfng opcrntlons.'l'.)( S4. urrcnt ln the operating coi.l and that in the restraining coil In .ides very fast protection to the stator winding against phase to ph.. on both side-:.dtiC('ln1act .'1ddHlon to lhl·tripping of drcuit bre-akcr.If the neutral is not grounded or grounded thro«gh «. Tnpping of the ne\lttal dn:ult breaker if it ls present ..T$ while the operating cotb Me cnergizd from the restraining coil tappings and the C.ide. laHon btwct"'n the t-.ltiC>n of tht• rdl1)' mily re-suit.s on the delta connected machiru. unequal sooindary burdens etc.1J ratio and equo1ll accur. it proJucc.u11.od for fcty C. Opcr:. Very high sp<'('d OJl"r•tion with operating time of about 15 msoc. l. uncqu•I length• <!f the lc•ds. The reslra ining coils are placed in e.ying is used for the protection.'11rously ir..'("Y1vt".:twccr.T. differentia l relay O)'<'ration depends on the n..T.1C)' ntlwrwjs. ..'sl'I m. neutra1 earthing. the pert"'entage drif forcnlla l rcfay tnp a h. of C..uth fault relay should l>c rrovidc<I.. Tripping of the main circuit breaxer of generator 2. Th.i rt-suits ln a dUfer nce between 1h.The C.ttur wind ing. Wh•n diffcrcnti•I rcl.he prim mover n.:dlfory rrlay. Tripping of the field circuit breaker 3.\ rong the fouIt. at both the ends o( gl'1Wn1tor must b(• or l"qu. winding §id ar.s without any mull are ratio faults and phase to ground faults. U.1. flw advontagH ol 1his schem(" are. Shut down of I.r foully conditt01'S. the cum. a d ifferenc.s •• l f thcr is a fouJ. This . a d1ffe-rentiaf current flows through the operating coils which is responsible to trip the relay ond O)'<'n the cirwil breaker.iu of unequal currents nn both the .urcnts of th(' two cwrent transformers. .1ry c. Thus.. of the g:cner..1'. conncloo in delta while ihc outgomg ends are connected in star. due to a short orcuit ln the prok""l'1ed zort4!' of the windings. I. of the same pha!!!e. phase.• b.T.ststan·then additional scnsitl'-'C c.

.r the most .2. :ls It ensures rompl«ie stabWt)' und•. . lt a Uows low fault setting whic:h ensures maximum protection of cnachine windings.vere through and external faults.

relny s. currnt rcttlng of o. 1n this scheme. ...S.rn callt'<. . . provi<lt'd. •ire raN...l.. .' o v '' ' '• E aOp. fully Selected. Hence the relay coil n-.atue of eMthing stance omd the relay setting.·ery low (ault current than the pick up current of reL.. Uut for lurgi' gcnc rritors. 5. V ' n("\ o . . -.. The earth fault:.must be c1.i r<'Strich-.i.s' trktcd enrth fault protection scht.. The rault current 11 wHI flow through the core. .ormttrs with oir g:Jps <r sp<o.:ctit'H\. of neutral point with respect to e.itth resistm\Ce.Jtc. - .•me ts shown in the Fig.-d <'arth foult prot""'"Ciun jS. . .ill prot<·llo1.l'Olt.lrth is very tes..e. lt !I U$util practice to prot".7. Hence it is c:. as these on? costly.mdng reah. . - _l R y 8 V I . sc.ins unprotected in this schem.• near the ncutr I point th<' 'l.Protectionand Switchgear $• 11 Generator Protect on '1. near the neutral point thc.tator C.uth faults-.s..-.'.•indlngs gel partly protocted against earth faults. th \1a. -. h docs not rcquir(l current tr 1nsf. c1s sh<mm in the fig 5. . .. fr...s... ' '' ) V I n("\ L - nr..1:l '). 'tSIJn<'l'.d dcpcmds on 1he v.-..s the foult drives . 5..Httng....T. i. winding from the neutral side rem. ..ere1ing r il 't f a ucoil lt : ''. tml 'N .-ncrllll\' Mt=rz-Price protection bttsed on circulating current principle pr<wid tht• pro:1.. elnJ bnl.Jue of el\rlh n. ....sistancc.y coll..·hen the neutrol is . ' ' Ag. But when neutral is grounded through earth r.7.<b.r1h.1. I . -. '· I.7 Restricted earth fault protection Cansider that earth fault occurs on phase 8 due to breakdown of its insulation lo . . 1.tag of w inding prolt".k-d t'('5ttk:U canth foult ptoh.Thus 15 to 20'!.n the insufficient voltage ac:ros. .i.----.. :in ridd..'. Q( lht Wifl...6 Restricted Earth Fault Protection of Generator Gt..:h.. The pel"Ct."CC1on 1go lnst intcmal e.. . then the stator .t:on...J V t. But when earth fauh occun..mains inoperative.. •' X ''.olldly grounded then the generator gets ct>mpletely protect ed against earth foults.. ·-Genetator ..11111) The r.

•d .e machine.6. for a hill line to r'k"Utn1J resistance R.s surficll'nt to drtvc the.btttllce.11 point is kepi unprutcct1.1 Effect of Earth Resistance on % of Winding Unprotected Let us see th(' cff1. The setting of resttit"ted earth fault relay and setting of ove:rcurrent relay are lrTldepcnden t of each other. d"'" .. Thus part of the winding from the.rnh. rt.. 85% of the \o\'ind irig -'S.)int f f t lw foult point x is ncnrer to the neutral point then the \'ollmg:C' vb_ is small and not s-u ffichmt to drl'1e enough Tl\(• lay can or.1.d.irth foults.UI R is nol preferred for th<' lari.. th<.CT.T. But high fault <:Urrents are not desirable lnoe sm..1te C.r.. the earth fault current is limited to about 200A for f ull line 10 neutral voltag"V..t full l.eutr.:i.5. r.ctlon and Switchgear Generator Pr-UOO oi muchiru" to f:>ilrth and c<impletc th r3th through the earthing 1'cSi.. .SJluration of\ y through l..-. then . then the fault current is very V.. 5. And for this Tix> voh.eo prn<·tic.illy 15% of windl11g from the nrutr.uth r<"Sistdnce R used to limit earth fault current as shown in the Pig. I Earth resistance v wtm - . iJ relay setting is chosen \'ery low to make it sensitive to low fauH currents. the .lult current I!wht>n thl·lnult poinr ).. 'fht.!r tht... 5. for a 60 1..5..1se to e. t ph.i11..1t. relay cannot operate. U' the 1resl!itancc R 1s vi:rv • V R B Fig. The value of the resistanre R limits the earth foull rurrent. To overcome this. In high resistan<e secondary curntnf I.11 p....•r small Le..: conditions of hc..8.:ct or c.• vnluc or R is -ielco.r.nid.neutral point remains unprotected . This i$ used for dlst-ribu tion lransformcrs and S''neracor-transforrncr uni .8 C<. protecting the 1'Cmn1111ni.iu\Ct: K.lke.i. eted suc:h 1t..12 Proi.tsscs through tht> 1.1tc unc.11 cunen t 1.h.1t'lh tf'S.-IIW machine. t=or' lo\. the rd. 1n med.ti:rong op1.:t'h. R • •••••• ":. etc.•.1tlon of relay l'ni\ )' n 1. l. gc Vb i.! c•nough f..s. Lfodct tJ. 'I is unprotected ...wny frum tJw n·ut.T.-.:. secondary current I flows through the operating coil and the ·restricted earth fault relay coil of the difier<>ntial prott' operates to trip the circuit brei'.a nce on the w" of the winding \ 1hkh remai uoprol-.g N r---"-:::'"' ..wutral is almost solidly the earth fault current Is limited to about 10 A.d n rrent Jli.1cc111-..

.IU<"S.". x."<:led =• Example 5.LJ . Jt protection. 1 = RJ.-ntagc of wit1db.. 100 I.1p.•rator R • Ei..1chine and so on.1 ••<"tivah:-s the relay .1g -. Cnlc. SlriC't('d t'lfrllt fin.. \\ .. Grf•atcr perl"Cnt.1 : A g••11r• aior is prOln<JNI by n.2 x l03 = 437.2 kV Rotii. 13. arth fault current and ltSS perccntagc o/ winding gets protected. .'11/a.13 1''i-<>w highl•r dl-e v. V R :T .lon : 11.nprott.ry of C.iluc o( CMth r<'slst. of winding unprolN:ted • R\ .fjyL J:i' .utilttl in tlie ntutra/ to grom:11 romuxtion.. Jnlmum opera ting curl'<'nt in the prima..ddn-.( wind ings or :. by.JI c.tage af a:iindi.g = 10 MVA From rating. '}.T.rg proteclcd a zmst phttse to gromrd j.1dty m.1ing in VA O !Ox106 . 1 Sotvt.• lull load cu rrent.386 A RtJ.incc R. = V l. cakul1h? tht. .1 of balaw· for 2()% 01.1d cu rr. 1.urr..1d ..ct Full line to neutral \10ltage I = l'ull lo. Tlte rr:lay St'iting is sud .·percer.•nl of largest copocil)' gcn.ProtK11on and Swhct.And the 1>< r.'S running p. .y setting i!i 20':" out of bri lance Le 20% or thr rat<'d curn-.. lhr' generator rnt fn gs art 13...u1protected.rth rt'Slst•ncc Th<-"n the value ()f the resistilnce R is.= 4337. li!SS is tlw 4.llcl get prut.1ult is 85%. !l1.g rurtl"r\t .g u.te thr T'lSL<lance lo .-.3S6x 1 = 87An A = Minimum oper.v-ar 5 .c given .litfr.2 kV 10 A1VA Ti. Large percentage ol winding rem•ins . If relay setting used is 15% then 10 is 15% of the full lo.nld.nt of the largest m.-ctcd is glvct..-. that it tr.u.

\I • Linc to neutral voltage



Gene,rator P


= 13.2x1


76,21.02 V

'l» <>f wi11d

= 15'N.
as 85% is









-• Example 5.2 ; A ,t.rr i-v11111•c1 d J piwst . 12
,WVA, ll kV u/t,mnlor h•• •
rt'ftttln.icl! of W It 1$ prokctc ""tt by ,'vftrz.-Prict
circult,ting curn•nt schc•me u•Jiich is r•.-t


"P<"'"'' for fm,lt

rurri:nl 1101 ltlis //um 200

A. Cnlculat, th,., twlue of l>irlhing
rc-sislrmce to iv prauid,"Ci in ordtr IO msure that
only 15'% of tht 11f matoT «rinding
rtmd1111:: ,mprdt« f,I.

Solution : rh1.: given v.alut.'S arc,


R.>ting • 12 M

V,_ - 11 kV

IL =


"3xlfx10l x





" A • I






v,. - I J ,10'
,/3 -




X =






.rnc of

R. ting = VL 11.



PNKectlonand Swltchge1r



Generator Protecdon

(% of unprot,,cted wmding) ,(X)


" JOO x l.0083
= o.1s12 n
v =- \'Olt.ige induCbi ln unprote<ted


x V s 0.15 •6350.8529

= 952.6279 V

Fault t;.urnmt

• 200 A


lmp '<loncc offon'.<1 to the foul!



. .(II

= 4.7631 n


Z • r ... j (rc.lcl.lm"C of unprotcch.".CI

,.. i (o.1s12J n


Jr'+ (o .


Equating (1) and (2).

Jr' + (0 .1512)'
22.61175 = r '·• 0.02286
r • 22.6646
4.7631 =




4.7607 n

This is he earthing resistance required.

5.7 Unres1rlcted Earth Fault Protection
'The unrtStrkled ••rth fault proll'ction US<'.S • residually cmuw,ct -d earth fault l\'lay.
1t «lt"lsists of three in ,•t1dl phase. Th,.. St'<.X>ndary windings of these C.T.s

«)Me<:tcd in parallel. n., earth faull

rcl:ay is connected ocross the secondaries which

".f\l!. is zero.'.<'. The scheme is shown in the Fig.carries a residual current.9.un. When there Ls no fault.e. z. l\dtuy currents b also . 5.C>. vector sum of the three lit\(> c. HrJlce the Vt. under normal 'Clor sum of the th S\'.

Hence it is not possible to intmduc.11y oonnOC>Od) To tripCil'cuil Fig..\. the earth fault at •ny location near or away from the location of C.• ----' -I. . tor_w_in•_di_n_g .V.. In each phase on neutral side as required in Merz•Pri« protection. secondary currents then under normal conditions we can WT itc.... the n•la)• opttah..8 Balanced Earth Fault Protection In pr.. 5.....• th<l1" the pkk-up \'alu(' or the enrth f:. the bala.T. ""l. Eafltiing res1S4tlnee . )" t ib> = 0 Tlie sum of Ilic 11... the balanC\' gets disturbed and the residunl current llil!i is no more :1. S.&..e earth fault relay is connected in such a way that the residual current flows through the relay operating coil.T.:tcd to a single point. Under nocmal condition....nditioos. C.el\ is . Hence the protected zone is not definite..ult J'( )'..l.'eT jn presence of earth faull co1\ditkm.. - • '• • '.a l current is zero so rl!lay does not ca rry any OJrrent and is inopentive..T a1or •... are C.>f ..9 Unrestflc1eld . R -.. In such C3$4!$. i... In the scheme shown in the Pig... 0. wh..l.. 1 ----· e RN)' 1-._ --.._ _ _ ' [ R ...ctlcc for .s can cause the residual current. f\lrroml1i i "" duI (Utf\'i'lt 1. under non'MI o::.. 1. . the neutral end• of the three phao<s ar oonnc..V..ero. JJ this currcnl ls mo_n.and I...9..t.... 0 .. . resid. 5. Such a scheme is hence called unrestricted earth fault protection..Pto141ctlon and Switchgear Gener110r P.. . I y I V I •• • •. 1l-.nced earth fault protection can be used..11 roting altcrnoton..... .a..J opens the drcuit bn••krr through tripping of the trip eira.. '' ' ' '• • ' ..T.-ton 5 • 16 fault prolKtlon So if I.

urie :wro ('u rrent hence no 01rrcr\t is sup1pl100 to rela) from ncut:ri\l 1l>idl". .. The neutral earthing is athiC\rM thrt_q.-4 • •.r - .y and M> 1'1eutral c.alternator Line currents is exactly equ.I 1•. tripping circuit.. is connected on the neutral side in the pik>t wire ctmnecting neutraJ of alternator to earth.tJ to the current in the through the refoy.. the rel•r operates. c.. the ttlt cm.. secondnrk-s.A relay is ronncctt.-. e. the three". of C.h nl•utr.'!. 5. A single CT...pickup v•lue of the . .. the protection ag.10. m .rJ1b. 1-1<:nte the ..- Fig..T.J • R . .ator lmc c.1n chr currt'nt lhroug.stcr lhar\ the. This trip.1( sid c-urrt-nt tr. opening the circuit breaker .T. rr the fault appears at F2r at a position outside the protected zone 1hen the smn of the.- ' •' ' ' Ray '' '. But if tho fauJt Ol"'<:ur'S nt 1:1 which i$ the ptot(1(.. .ult prot<'<Cti on i shown in the l'ig.17 Generator Protec11on The balanced earth I.t.-nt Aows thr<msh the n!lay is inopc.lrallid .hruugh the secondaru. If this is gre. -. Thu no curr<_"_nt flow 1hrough the rcL.T '•' ''' '• ' '• ' '• ' '• IV I V I .So relny is inopl•rativl•.u\S(ormcr.Ctor 51."tt'd un then vector sum of i!lte>rnJ tor line C"U rrcnt'!t is diffcrrnt th..[ay..r\t Oov. across the C. is t..: I -. .ire..10 B1l1nctd earth fault prottellon At th outgoing . By this scheme... Under normal tonditions. Thus wn> curn..5.• V L N C.rgh the earthing ?Ui.. an: conn(X'h•d bl unrestricted earth fault protection..sUnce. Mcnee a t(")idu al curi·e.ltnst earth faults is restnc·ted t'o the f'\"g:•on ... R - 0 V o • V 4 I B .T._ide.vrrcnts add to zero.5 . th<.cormected in p.1m or th current1.

1rn•1.t trnnsfonn<?nt .bttt:n the neutral and the position where line ct.1r'C ins1.'d. .11Jf.

--·.-.ow.•asu rcd b)I a me:tsuring device.u-'lh ... This Increase is mt.•n m the Fig. The primary or the courling traJlSfornwr is e).issrd. no protection scheme is in a position to give<ompete protection to the sta'. ---. Thu current is continuously injected into the generator stator winding through the --iooondary of the coupling transformer.: 111 neutrnl 10 g:ro-und circuU...Dt-p. Uut m modem d1.R • ---.._cit<'J b) . . 'fhis ll"K'tt'i3SCi chc m cmitoring cur r.u\l"C is byp.or or gcncrat0< against earth faults. .itor It us.'CtiOll <ll:hi ved is upto 85 to 90"1. it111 R .-.x>d -d signal current source. The maximum prot. This ooded signal current has a r""l"cncy of 12. ' ·-.ProtKtlon and Switchgear Generator Pl'OIKtiol1 5 ° 18 5.-- .ng - -c::5--= = .Stalor ot the oener8klr -.-.. the 5tr.uthing: r1.1te corrective ac-tion is taken..•nt.11 100% onrth fault prolK11on A C'OupHng tr. from the schemes disc-ussed uptill now.--.•s a courting tr.1y connect1.'ll curr. .el 16uH!I ot 12 $HJ --Fig.mformt•r 1s cunnt_'Cled belW1.1r1h foult proll'<'Hon to chc s:no.ult occurs.Earthing reslstance Me I .--.'ffl the earth .. or tlw &<'"<'r. 111.•t.y ca cH...._nsformrr nnd th( 4•cxted sign....)'S it is possible to provide JO()% (•.e hcrne is shm.1ndlng upon this me 1surement rm lmml-di... • .9 100°/o Earth Fault Protection As seen uptiH r. t.S..'. But when . .5 Uz.11.·norator and dir.. 5. Sog. During thr normal condition the signal current injected into the sta tor OO\¥$ through strlly capacitan<\! of the g.-.lnd th<' (•..d system.

cs the protection of ·15 to 20% or stator winding from the neutrill side. The remaining por11on Ls proteded by Men-Price protection..ults.This schem e gi. . Overall 100· of stiltor windmg gees pn)lt'(led against earth f. the portion which is unprotected by Merz-Price prote("tion.

10 Stator Protection Against lnterturn Faults The Mer-2-Pfice protection syslem g.T.1l1tt'S1 dut! to t w very h·twy curtl.T.lgj.!Ction against intertum faults. C.-. C.-. C.T. C.·e.1n\ fault. This means. protection ag.inst phaSl! to phase faults and earth faults. H<"1Ce -MPr-t·Prke prott'<'. II doos nol give prot..T.-s not -'ffcct the cutTl'l"lts •nttnng ond leaving th<' winding at the two ends..T. Thus the current pt0tlua.\inst lnt<'rt1.s ore localed.19 Pro4. 'the intertum fault protection is necessary.itors.ydroelectric generators These generaiors h. C. .:t. there is no question of interturn faults but in multitum generators. TI.J.. ·nte Fig.s spliuing of .T. C.12 shows tl intc.e inter tum fault is A short circuit between the tums of the same phase winding..oelectrk gerwr.e winding into two ls orlvant.we double winding armatures.nts wMch they have 10 c:.lon and Switchgear G.whc•re C.T. e•ch phase winding is divided into two h.inglc phui:. in providing intttrtum faul l prot«tion I<> uch hyd.JSl'OU :.nerator Protection 5.rtu m with double wind ing armatures.. s. So such intertu m protection is pro.1rry Thi. 5.tion annot give protection .•ided for multitum generators such as h."<I due to 5Uth fault is " kx:t1I drcruit ('ummt and it do.S . In single tum generator.

o---. 5.num ftuh prot•C1lon .uor s.1'11ase B o---.fault protection scheme used for the get1 c.Plla&et Y s. s . s. Fig.12 lnt. s .

Pro!Ktlonand Switchgear

Generator Pl"OIKtion

5 ·20

The scheme u en differential principle. Each pha of the genertltOr is doubly
,..o,md and split into two parts S1 and Si as shown in the Fig. 5.12. The current
tr•nsforme rs arc conn«t<>. d ;,, the two parallel paths of the e,ich phase winding. The
S(.'Condaries of the current
tn:msformers are cross connected . The current
\'10r on tircul 1tmg current principle. The relay is connected t1rross the cross
4•,.onrn. tcd scrondaris or th.:i c4rrcn1 tr,u, form,
Ui,dcr 1,ontrnl OJ><'tating i, ndili(ms., wht.-n the hvo paths are sound then currc,nts m the
two parallel paths S1 and Si are equal. Hence aun:-nts in the sec:ondar of t
currt>nt transformers are also equal. The secondary current flows round the loop and
is same at all the points. Hence no cunrent flows through the relay and the- relay is

If th • short drc\llt b d•veloped bc,t>,·L..,n the ndjocent tums
w1odini; s.i,y 1hc,, current


lhrou gh S1 and


the part S1 of

no longl•r n.•main s.1me. Thus

,1.,rr, nb will be inducrrd ln ihe S('(". Ondariies of the c:urrctll ttanslomw.Tht-..
of the,e currents llm"s through the relay R. Relay then closes its contacts to trip the
dra1it breaker which isolates the generator from the syste
Such an intertum fault protection system &s cxtremt"l}' sensitive but it can be
the generalo hH'ing doubly wound armnhires.



Rotor Earth Fault Protection

The rotor ci rcuit of the Bltemator is tnot earthed and d.c.,,oltagc- is impos;t--d on it. An:d
hence single ground fault in roto:r does not cause cin:ulating current to flow through
the rotor drruit. Hence single ground fault in rotor does not cause a.ny d.1m.1 e to
it. But single ground fault causes an increase in the stn.".Ss to grotmd at oUwr
pouH it\ the Rt.·lt..i w inding w.hal voltages i1re lndu«-d in the rotor du tt:, tr;ut.Sit:t\ts. Thui, the
probJbiHty of second ground (Ault increa.
Ii the second ground lauJt oc,,urs then part of the rotor winding is bypassed and
thr cun:ents in the remaining portion abruptly. This causes the unbalance of
roh)) circuit and hence the mechanical and thermal stresses on the rotor. Due to this,
rotor may get damaged. Sometimes of bearings and bending of rotor shalt
tal<<'.S plJce d ue to the ,·ibrations. Hentt the rotor must be protected ai;ainsl earth
Method t : 11, this me,hocl " high rc,;i.,.:tA , ron.ncc. k"l(f ac the rotor circuit It
is provided with centre tap and the centre tap point is connecled to the ground

throogh a sensitive .-arth fault relay as .hown in the Fig.5.13.

Procoction and Sw1tch99,ir

5 • 21

High resifrtaroee


'" $on$1(1Vt




• re:lly

Fig. 5.13 Rotor

earth fault protection

Ext the centrt point, the earth fault relay detects the earth faults for most of the
rotor circuit. Thus mos1 ol the rotor windif\S pJtt is protcth.:d against the earth faults..
M_ thod 2 : 111<· modcn\ medu.)d of l':arth fault prot,.oeti<m
mJt"(.'ticm or a.c. inj(l(."lion. The schcnle ls shO\..'n 11\ the Fig. S.14,
A sm.111 d.c. power
supply Is connected tu
the fietd circuit. A fauh
detecting sensiti\'" rt!
l.1v and the resistant.'\' n;
150 fll1111Cl l'.d h\ Sl"ries
i,,,•ith the C\n,".UJi

Thb. high resistanc
through thu circui I.


point on








EnMer -



magnitude throush Ille'







operation. The

:.upply lS preferred and
amp)(> to USl' and It

h.l• "" problem ol tl><'
lfakagc c:. urr<:nts. ln
case of a.c. injection#
lhe high resistance is

replaced by • capacitor.



Fig. 5.1.t Rotot e1r1h fault p,ouctlon

. Induction generator.The 1055 of excitation may lead to the pole slipping conrution. the equivalent gene. normal.. loo...kc1Uhon or the ator may result in the I ol synchrontm .rmmals.12 Protection Against Loss of Excitation The loss t\f t. Hence protection against ks of e. the relay operates. 1..c:ltallon chara tlm (lquiv<.15 Losa o1 . on R X ranr of R-X diagr... a single ground foul!does not require an immediate action of isolating the generator. This is because. 5.11qt tl•nl .r"able. And it disconnects the generatOI' from the $)'Stem.rator lmpedanc-. .-c:tlon ·11..wer from the system which is u11de:si.. It dra.wn reacrh•e pt.nd hghtly lncr.The rela)' operates when generator first starts to slip poles.. 5. . •X - .mcl becom(-:.irdance tJkes value in the region covered by the relay cliaracteristics..tntJy.'hen the c. the grncT·ator can then be r1•. The protC'ctioo lS provided using directional distance type rel. This Fig.. Yl.nerator P.·ided.....·n in the Flg.c-d ..15. The distance reby Is used which covers the portion of th'-'" fourth quad·rant \here impedance locus path exists.e Vilri'5 and tr:.15 shows the loss of excitation cham<teristics alongwith the relay operating characteristics. 5. ase 11. -x Fig.. 5.QQ.. loo. The machine statts having s a.. When th( rc is l'!t of excitation. Then relay trips the field cimiit breal<t'r. a path from firt't qu.S a curv o\S shov.n\Cd to !!CrVlc'..C' h\St.t'.5 tra«. Qt (IUVlg bl$of twcitl!M)f\ . Thus when the impt-. eMth bull relays are instantaneous in operation and are connected to an al.dtation must be pro.. 1he gencr"tnr $pt-ed. lc-nt gt"TWr. tt.itor impedanc.5·22 Protoctlon and Switchgear O.m to the fourth quadrant. (.irm circuit for jndication and to take the proper with the generator h".cit•lion " n:g w.

\inst phtsc to phas(' foulrs which arc respon5able to produc neg. n c:o gl"n<>r.(.cti<."l'H:e telDys re gencr..oint or vit•w .1s th<"'-<' n1rrcmts (. Ncgati\1e phase SL---q"t" relay. C. y ----- --t-----.:====:::ttr't:::::t-- C. th('SI! relays provide protection against negative Sequence component of uJanced currents existing du to unbalanced Loads or pha-pha faults.lmc<"<I c.:.•nts.e a nega tive sequence relay has low current settings.T -------. The unbal..>.23 C. dangerous situations he1'1-.. id pmtttlion ag.c carlh relay provides protl!<:hon / or phose!() eorth fault but not for phase to ph..ur.n laulL A neg•tive S..ators and mo1ors 1..16 &:hows the schematic.uid motors i..T. --' ----t-.\g..e unbalanae urr.13 Negative Sequence Relays The negative relays an. R --.s (rorn gcner.i.r on•rhcating. Low order of over current also can cau. ••:•• I C .tive sequence relay has a fil ter circuit which is...11)' ued to give pn.. operative onl.T. 1lit> fig.inst unb.::::: 8 't:::::.::::===J'11"1=:. rou..c coonpon. l)t'(1us. A t<tegi.:t-ly 8 -A Relay -.t]Ul•ncc rC'lay pro.{t currents d.uors . also caUed p!i..nerator Protec1io<1 5.-C.)tc.. for negath· sequence components..ion a1td Switchgear S .'. '11..-.itive S(>(\Ufo\C.1ng rnent of ncati.

S.D '• Fig.16 Not1aUve phase sequence relay .

' .. Let The pcrpendicu lor is drawn from point A on the diagonal meeting it at point 6.17.' ..17..Pr'*ctl on and Swttch.. 1.. IA ' '' '' ' ' ' .mmts in the sho. . 5.. ..sistance and reactanc. The phasor diagram is shown in the Fig../3 T . rags .. ros 30 = OB OA .. by 60".. (I) 1. The vertical branch 6-0 ronsisb of lnverse time charMte:ristks1 z..c cum•n t '• gets divided into two equal parts 11 and 12• And .' 12 A '' 0 Fi9.. by 60'..s Z.mnt 10 gets divi into two equal parts 13 and 14• The current I.aell' Oenerator PTO!Ktion 5 ·24 Basically it consists of a resistance bridge network. The impedances Z1 o10d 23 an........ llle magnitudes of the impcdan of all the !>ranches of the network are eqwsl.. Lig.. I . No..mches 2 and Z. .... and Z.... SimUarly the cu. ..' .. .ations of n..-.v 11 lead.' .5. ' .. This bisects the diagonal....... in the Fig...... ('. I. 06 2 Now in triangle OAll. !Ji....i. 5..nd are the oombi.._ 11w cu. rom equatlon (I) we an write. lag by 60' from the currents in the br-. The reloy h•• negligible imp..' ......dan(('. ...) ---r :7 3 :1. . ..17 "Jl.. purely resistive while the impcdan= 22 a. +i.. rel•y.< JR b)• 30' while 12 lags'• by 30' ...

.. The current enhrnng the relay at ithe junction point B in the Fig.. 5.16 is the vector sum of 11. . IJ and J. (2) The current I. leads 16 by 30' while curttnt 13 lag:s 18 by 30°..

y .. 5.''' ' (b) \/ocior sum (•) C. li11t:.r.g. CUfflntl Fig..components I.lgs lo by 30') vector sum is .nd no "'.g.Ont.1.a(h other at the jumction poiJ\l 8 1-h •ncc 11 and 1) (_. 1 Now consldt•r 1h. b.Jue 10 which neg.+r. (! S\'qucnot1 C\lrt"Cnt. 5 18 when the load is balanced a.11 It con be seen from 1he Fig..T.y coil carrit-S the curn.h. thti c:urrc.19 (a). d point D is t.tnC'.... and 13 arc (-qual and opposit(• to e. t..18 that. "''• trips dosing the .ilanced load on gent'r. 5.1y is inopc.U\ C for.. ro Sllniltlrly the n:ultant current at junction I) ls also 1. Now the rcl. 1..1l each ollH..rator ProtK'tlon (leads .T.c <vrrents exist....Protec1lon and Swltehgeaor ln-1. The . rhus the n l. is shown in the Fii. r.5. the t". 5."' r..•. J:i S·25 Gene.tor or motor . The phase sequence o( C. = ly + n. and 1.hown in the F. 11 +13 = -ly Thu.acts of trip circuit which opens the circuit breaker. ' ly '• ly ' ' .nt<'nng tht._.. t there is unb.aila.19 (b) under this condition. '• .itlve SL--q ucnc.ero.•octor diagram of 11. c:dst. t I\' ond when this current is mol't' than o predct\!nnim•d vnlu. n:1 .by 30") + J:i (l. 5..ncco. secondary currents is as shown in the Pig.

5...20 (b) and (c).• (b)-aum Fig.... i..' ' ' ' It ' (bl (a) (c) Fig.. 5.....n from .. 5 20 (d) !hat... 'lhesi· '""ms are shown In the Fig. S. We know that.T..... ....20 z...'+r....20 (a).ro '• = i....5...'•G = in phase with Iv o.. .Proi.cNon and Sw1tch9"r '• .. 30' ' '' 121)' ' 'e • '• '• (1) C. i. •econd"'Y culffnta . .... shown in the fig.. ...18 Negatlive uquence curTenls Zero SequmN! Cun-ents : The zero sequence components of secondary currents ... I '" ' '' ' '' ... ... 'a .... II can b<> 1hc Fig..r.. • 'l• (d) c• currents r....._.

tK<e tM rel.•v op1•. .ty. Ht-.r. l'he tota current through relay is i.. Thus under zero uence currents rh to.+i".gh the rcl. .aJ curr("_nt of h.•ll'C the zero sequen<r current no""rs 1hrou... rr1ts to opeu lh(·drcuit bfl':ilker-.

.. Its coostruction is slmiJa. . ..Lly wnsitive to onlr negative sequence currents by making it inoperative under the influence of zero sequence currents is possibJe bv ccmhccting the ('urttnt tr. - jo L-. ' 'C u .L'l ir..okc the r..Cit<:"- _ .- - -· To .. Und('r ddt-1 conncctlon of curN•nt trrmsformcr:-. rolay The ('(•nt r.22.nsfor-mcrs m dt•II• •s shown an lh<' Fog. The . and 3. 5.1io11 type. 5. nrV C..wga tlve scql!ienoo winy is induc.21 Delta connection of C.-. no zero sequence currcr\l can llow in the net""'·ork. > I I Fig.... ..T.r to that of induction type over current relay..t.S<X:lion 1·2 1s energized from the secondary of on auxiliary transformer lo R-plra.. S.21. 2. j - . V 1 $ • C.- !Mt---. _ -·· _ • ' • .Du lo this.Protection 1r>d Switchfl"W l r7{ V - 27 0.- -.T. · - -.l limb of upper mdg1wt carries the primary which h. 5.....T. C.. the prlmary winding has three terminal ll cent re tap.atk diagram of thb. - .l I" >>- >- I . _. .22 Induction type n<tgatlv o soquonc. -.1 Induction Type Negative Sequence Relay Anolhvr commonly used .The section .s 5."'...13. .Mra1or ProtKliotl To n. The schem... Fig.-. type oi relay is shown in the Fig..

mg.1ry c1n .23 is directly energized from lhe Y phose current.1ry and second. The auxiliary transfonner is a special device having an atr gap in its magnetic dn·uH With lhe help of this.le between it:. prim. the phase a. Fig.iry c:. the re-lay prim. Tht phos(. Pos..23 (c) that tht' resul1ont is St..go •• by 120" Mcnee the telay plim. Thu.-.. 30' 120' ly IR (1) C..C it is adjusted su ch thai output <"urr(•111 11>. VSYl !60' from Yw i_npyt.*(tor sum of la1 and .-e ror poiitivt.: diffctt" o( 114 1 and Jy i the Yt..p.23(a). and ...:..23 {b) shows the position of vector lxi lagging LR by 120". secondary currents are shown in the Fig.T.S23 (c) shows the vectm sum of 1 .cunc:nt which is phase dirferencr of l..T..ero .. nee cun-ents . IIICOndary currwnll (b) C4llrtnl ••.itive Sequence Cutff nts : 1ne C.. -ly (c) Reuyc.'.-ctJon and Switchgear 5 ·28 be easily adjusted.rries the.("f'I f rom tfo:: Fig.•r ••. I" = rnput cu_rrent d auxiliary transformer [10 -= Outpu t current of auxiliary ll'allsfonn<. b} 12' 0° rat!. lt c.i Fig. The Fig. l.. 11. !11:q currtmts..u and ly.I relay 1s ino1)f r. In pr.r y current is 1.1cli<".23 Polttlve . 5.

uc hQwn m the Fig.. eondn ry cutr'\'fllS ..: the. . and ly which is the relay cunent.ce ol .t es to d()!.sc. 5..r difference of J 1 and ly results utto a c-1.u rrent But the l'c1:. 5. br'l•11kcr. tht' rt"lay< dJffere.oll QI:he iclly.·e.24 (c) show.n:•ch.' i't opcNt the c1rcui.5.1l'ntt. The Fig. I'hc d&sc rot.rn.S. This rek. Under negati ve. 5..5.y ls tnoperath· fur zero pha :.29 Neg. '• • '• '·· (a) C..24 Negative sequence cuR'fl'l'ta Undr the inJhu.T.nts Thq: CT St>.qucnce currents.ds . lagging 111 by 120• Th(. I.. .ative !!ftqurnc·r cufftt.24 (a).y Co\ n be rn.ry currents .:.C the tnp rtN.\dc .t.{'<1uencc c.nt Fig. This c u rrent l Oows through the pri mar)' \". 12!1' (b) C"""'''•• ' '•• ·ly (c) Relay cum.-. the.rnmt 1 as shown i_n till• fli' g."llcc: o( cu.24 (b) sh()ws lhe position of 1 .24 (c).

ct.)\'iding .residual circuit of the three line c r. lltis windJng is conru..y.....>d in the .s. This n>lay is called induction typl' negative and reru se. . o( z.operative for tM flm.ero seque currents also by pn.1n nddihonal winding on the central limb of the upper magnet of the re!.iuence relar.

so cttuSc s. S %S 1 x'IOO 1 percentage asymmetry I....itions and hc..cp""""'d as. ..tivc osymmetry of • three ph.. Hc"1ce effectively the relative speed berwcen the two is double the synchronous sp('('tl Thus double fre<Juncy currents . Fig.. 5.- i IM!IMlw and zero Hquence . E I t:: - ·. curre11ts llow. • ..iting <>f llltor..-. Malhemaijc•Hy It can be e. The n.The.. Hetic:t' it is l'IC"C<"Ssary to provide the negative M'<juence protection to the gcnemtors against the unbalanct'd lo.25.1ry prOtll(lioo agail\51 the unbaJ. The n:l. • . unb..14 Protection Against Unbalanced Loading \Vht'1\ tho lo:id on thir g.. ' _. generator is given by the ratio <1( negative ><'lurncr current to th.wtor curn:nt.lont'E'd t. neg1>th'e phase sequcnc. nl.• r...g. _. - t:: .ned Ci1n cau"SC damage to the n.lay is shown in the l'ig. • I b .30 Pr Ion and Swllchvear Generator Pr The schematic arrangement of induction type negati\'e and zero sequence S(•\ t"tt!' hJting of the rutor .25 Induction type - I . The negative phaS<> sequence filter alongwith the overCW'l't'!lt relay provides the ns... These curren ls oau.d i tions...are indu<:ed In the rotor.Negative sequence (UJTent . .1Hve sequence a>mponents produce a rotating magnetic field which rotates at synchronous speed in a direction opposite to the direction of rotor field. -.:. ere vibr.tor.lay 5.w._•nc•rntor b«omes unbahmred.11K\'d load.5.

1t<!d current .J = R.

tit. \IVlf/11 mu t !>I' the 111/11/. 1 1.•mntor is t•rll. tvJtPH tlren is ()Ill of l»Jtt11c. in the fi .. the "<'8th·e phase S<'qllm«' filler drcuit prod..'..26 Neglllve Hquence prot<octlon A negative phase SL"qUC. 5.1. f.le 5.• rurren't of 0. the r. Th(' filter cit-cuit is :st. ... • rrsi. A negati e phase sequence filter consists of resistors and inductors..>h.8 A. ds up to about thrcl: tin...1lCC liltcr is eonn4. .ntage of the windi11g is prolecti!d against urll. WJn.rt1ay . Hence the relay operat to open the circuit breaker to isolate the generator. c. the relay is inoperative.'<I full h 1d.Exomp'. These are so Arranged lha..ProtKtlon .. h-.r11d Switch Generator Protection 5 • 31 'The.i/ of • II AV alt..rd 1/.. . -------' ' ' • -. y I V I C..5 26.roa. .s /.(.: ' ' ' '' '' ' '' '. This is directed thro<1gh the relay coil..T ' ' CT ' ' ' .n11m l"Jlue qf Nr/l1ing •<-Sista. ..."<".« r... . V o n<"'\ 8 I NegalJve phese sequeooe filter R Fig.f 12 1l.ibJc.T._ an output proportional to the negative phase se<Juence components.t under norrna1 ope. - R I V I C B.3 : Thr n.en unbnh1nt\>d l"'d occurs...'.ting condi tfons. llre C.iries of the current to the second. faul/ f. t .rd.11tml p<Jl.11uin/i to gillf . (or the symm<'trit aJ ovcrlc>.ovr a r<tlo of 200/5.. Examples with Solutions .negJ tiv(' scquenc-e protection scht"me is show1.s t to operat..

.32 Prote<:Uon and Switchgear Generator PT- So'tution : The· given v.1ry to give 90% protection...11rthi11g r..46 q.. IN P'r<tntng.0.sistanee of 7. nco. Example 5.Cf ion to tYJd!J1. s.ratio = 2000/5 .ige 11x 10' J3 .lluts ar(".46 ii 39. Ca/culat. x -5 -5 Q = 320 A V = line to neutral volt. % Winding unprOtl!<:tcd .tJ.ugest rnachine. . 100 = 12x 320 x 100 6350.53 o/i..8 A mirtinw m operating line .5 n ..8529 IOO This is the minimum value of resistaoce to give 90% protection to the l.m of prott". of winding uuprotc1c-1rd ut dr plta. winding ls prOl"C<.T primary) .e ngainst amth fo u{ls if tire minimum optrntirig currart of tM .T.'li?d..g 1000/S rvl lo c·r. v.4 .8529 o/o 100 ·· 60. 3 1•l1JJSr. 2000 .:ul'l't'nt (C. It 1:i.. r...d by 1 M tn·t>r1'« 11rof«:hcm us!r. JJ kV synclrrv 11011s . '1J1M ? · 5 . ti SO MVA . = ll kV R = 12 ll Ion C. = relay current = 0.. It jj providrd u•. I/If .90 = 10% Rx l • x JOO 10 V Kx 320 6350.-st ricttd rarlh ult proh-clio" will.53 % Th u.8•2000 i.. % Winding unprotected = 100 . R 10 x 'I/ = 60.s. Wi1H mg protccK"CI :. with R • 12 0 emir 39. m11or is proh'tl..

relil y is 0. utlo 1000/5 R 7. s are. Sofutton : The gl\'et\ valut>. V1.5 0 . T.5 A. 33 kV C.

u. nci·of ciroda1ms tr A faull currmt . X = V 0. . t = 0.. 1000 0..5 .Jr.u. reacta.t VL :13.:> n1tmlt• of rJu• 11eutml g.S I' = 100 M\o\' P = "3 Vc lt <'OS + IOO <IO• - JJx 13.r·at1"1:t1-.-s lltr> 10% of lhc· u·mdmg u111.etlOI> and Swttct.full h..103 x I L • 0.2 p.Sx 100 ..'t'folr ri·o·<11..2 = 5467. 3 11/rnse..11.. Example S.: reaclnnce per phase p... 100 MW nt 0.d current The p.rarator Protection 5 • 33 -= minimum Opt?t. 2• 10') whore V " Jii X = 0.Winding unprotected = R 0 - x JOO 7..·n.t tr..·rm.J3 X ( 1 3.g.100 A V • V.8 pf.o-ar J G.5467.55 =\ mn rt-. If it js Ol"iPJ't'd willt at ltast at 5(X) O. • 33x J03 . I .Proi.t1 pro ttrtiou Sotution : The given values nre.55 V . l.l kV.n r14ttt11l n.Jj 19052.nce is given by.r01m. IX where X .33 A .. 11/trrrwtor /ms O.2 kV sN V 'Jj X = 0.u. A 13.2787 Cl per phase % of unprotected winding = 1cw.Z p.islmu:r tJu. 1 d1fltrr•n1. I. 'ow co./5 = ..2 .8 IL .·--·--•100 191)52..5x1000 = '9"5 !5 = .936% .tlir\g current (pritJ\ary) ...

.2787 .'Cl winding a i•0.Rcoctance of unproleet.

X? = R<.3224 .21. Assuming C.rryiug lond.6 : An nltem11 tor stator winding prot f!C ttd by a pen-entagt differential relay is slzow11 i11 the Fig.rts flowing at eoclr md of the geuerator winditrg are also shown.!Q.T. tuill tl!r relny operate l o trip tire circuit brenke.-sistance in neutl'al C .sistm1ce ground fault has occurud nttr !he grounded neutrnl end of the• gmrrl1tor wind ing nJiilt lire generator is a. TIie cn-rre. of c!111rnctcristics (11 - I i) 11gnb1s1 (/ 1 + 1/2 ) .actance of 10% of winding X Now z= where V = V I Voltage induced in 10% winding = 762. The high r. ' = 762 1023 V 112 " 100 100 J3 .02787 n Voltage u.. = 2.1023 500 C r = 1. .1023 V i = F. . v = 7!.Q_ x V = . = 762. .s24 n This is the required resistance in neutral earthing. •• Example 5. . rotio to be 500/5 A ..1023 V Let this voltage be where Z = Jr2 z = Impedance offered to the fault r Rc.02787)' = 1. TIie relay lras 15% slupi.ult current = 500 A .5242 r2 + (0..02787)1 2 3232 . .Jrl + x. Jr ' + (0..2.C Generator Proteetlon 5 ..:.5.1 .t.34 Protection and Switchgear 0.d uced i n 10% of unprotected winding 10 c -1.r ? .

5..i2: ) ii.0.T.28 The current flowing through the relay coil is 11 .27 11 + 12 2 Solution : From the given current at two ends. St:.4 A = 3+ 3.t I J I.jO A 500/5 IV C. Generator Protection 5 ·35 Protection and Switchgear 340 t.L 50015 ex..0. = (300 + j 0) x S and .i2 = Slopex( iL. .B.3. IV . . let us calculate C. i the out of .28. corponding to balanre current required is.4 A =3A The dire<:tions of currents are shown in the Fig. - Fig.. 5. 'Fiull I ling coil - (a) (b) Fig. ..•o ends..12 = 3 . 5.0 A :C.0. = (340 + j 0) x 5 = 3.. .T..4 = .i 2• 11 .2 A While 2 Prom the characteristics of 15 % slope. •.4 = 3.:icondary currents at t\. . . i 1 .300 . ..

= 0.1Sx3.2 = 0.48 A .

6 kV r = 7. lull voltage .48 A Le.Voltage across unprotected winding = l x 3810. ndary of 500/5 A current lransfonncrs.4A A ' Thus i1 . Tire alternator neutral is mrtlred through the rc-sistnnc:e ..511 = 38.· = r + j (0... How mudr % of winding is protected again.29.atthfault? Solution : The given values. above the line to operate the relay but actual point is located below the line in negative torque region.10511 X V r = 7.7 : A must be more than 0. 5. i.. Tlze relays are set to operate when there is out of balance current of 1 A in sw.511 V 3 V =.. Reacta.48 0.5 !l C. = 500/5 Let the x: % of winding is unprotected.02 x) .ce of unprotected winding = ::0 x 2 = 0.1 2 0.Jf 7.29 - Hence the relay will not operate. 5..5 n.rotection . II is protected by drc11lati'1g current M erz. = 6..02 x n 1 V .2 A Fig.()3 = V L = 6 ·6 Jj = r.6 kV. stM connected nlter1111tor has a fransieut reactanet of 2 0 per plwse and negligible winding resistanu. •• Example S.Protection and Switchgear 5 • 36 Generator Pn>tection Th. Pria .is iS shown in the I 15% S6ope +vo Fig. -ActualPolnl ' ' 3.5 Z = n Impedance oflcred to the fault . X = 2 0/phase V.T.

IZI = 7.5 + j (0.02x)2 = fault current = ou t of balance secondary current x C.5)2 +(0.02 x) 0 = j(7.T.ratio .

8 : A :!. .1friChr<mo11s gem:r11tor r-ntcd nt 20 kV pr-otu tcd by cirt11lrtti11g currmt system h... X = 388.02 x)' 56.J OSll x J(J .fj .. = % of wind ing unprotcct<>.efoy is set to operate ii/lier. primary) . .%68 = 19.25 :. Determine.d _ R 10 x JOO = 15x 6CX\ OO .. The C.s 1111w ratio of 100015 A . .. Example 5.25 + 4 x a w·•x2 = 0. there• is nu 0111 of bnlar1ce current of 3 A. (7. . . Vl = 20 kV.19.T. ::: i.ieutral groundtd through a resistance of IS Cl.wing . ratio = 1000/5 minimum line operating curre1'lt (C.7 = = 11547 V %X C.7% This is % of winding unprotected.J The % of windlug remains unprotected m Va/u·o/ 1Mrth n sistllnce to achitV4 75% ptotec-tion of winding : Solution : The given values are.Protect on and Switchgear = 1>< 500 a 100 A Iz I = Generator Protection 5 • 37 5 \I I 38.5)2 + (0. i) l0 o R = 15 fl.1448 x' = 56.._.1452 x2 0. == 3 A.'f .5) 1 +(0.X s:.. .29 % .1452 x2 0..T.02x)1 100 = . 5 = 600 A V a 3 VL = 20x l0 . 1000 3x 1000 l. Tire diJJere11tial protection . . % of winding protected = 100 .

V 11547 .

A -340 + j0 A (lf'j m • Fig.Protectionand Switchgear Generator 5 ·38 Protection = 77.75 = 25 % Remaining conditions are same except R.lny will operate.94 % ill We want 75% prote<tion..rn. 380 + .9 : The Fig.tor winding.25 2 = 4. a i340 + j O) x = 4. 5.c.oiJ while 4. 1• Example 5.T. % X = 100 .(f earth resistance.t ground ft wlt occurs near t he grounded neutral end of tire $t'P! trntor winding wUh tlit current dist ribution ns slrow11 it.secondary currents can be obtained using C.5 A So i 1 t_hc i? C:UJTI.30 Solution : For the given current at the two ends. ratio a.:nt f-lOW$ through oper:1ting c:. 5..).d f or the protel'tio11 of n11 nit.i2 = 4.25 = 0.T.30 s!Wl<JS the percentage dijfere11tinl rc/J. 1 25 = R • x JOO· V R x 600 x lOO 25 = 11547 25x l 1547 R = 600x100 = .5 A fiOW$ throush .75 . tlte F( .25 A i 1 .4. The relay hllS minimum pickup curre11t of 0.75 A = 4.25 A and Ju1s a % slo11c of 10%. 11 = 1380 + j 0) " 5 400 i. the C. A high resis-lnnc.1". Ass-wne a C.30. ratio of 4()() : 5.75 + 4.811 n This is the tt:.y us. 5. delmninc if rr.5 A l.quirt.

:.n. .straining coil..

i2 must be greater than 0. Thus to operate the relay.Protection and Switchgear Generator Protection 5·39 With the minimum pickup current of 0.10 : Arr alternator rated 10 kV protected by balanc..SA Fig. }' = m x + c At origin. 5.i1 = 05 A as shown. It is IOC3ted below the line in negative torque region hence relay wiU not operate. l• Example .ed circul11tillg current system has its neutral grounded t/rr/Jugli a rr. x = 0 but y = 0. +ve torque I -ve lorque ---Aciual point _ _ _ _ _ J' _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . But actually i1 .lx 4 . -. = slope = 0. the operating cha racteristics is as shown in the Fig.25 y 'C c 'Q 0.5)+0. 1 1 = (0. 5.7 A .25 Hence d1aracteristic cquat-ion is. ·•v' = 0.31 TI'le equation of the characteristics is. and slope 10%. ( .31. Tile protective . Minimum : pick.5 A.25 4. 2 .5 we get.25 A. i1 . +2 + i2 0.25 c.7 A when is 4..1 i1 • i2 = For where m m i.upcurrenl 4.J il ) • 0. .25 = 0.sistanct of 10 ohms.

s 5'!t to oper4lt wlren theu is an out of balance current of I. .cted to tlJe secondary of currrnt transformers with rntio 1000/5.8 amperes in tire p Wt wires which art con.rday

. Minimum earthing resistance required .Protection and Switchgear 5 .Un in Fig. ator is carrying load..2075 0 ..hirig rtsistnnce required lo protect 80% of tire winding.11 is s.tio and no hiaccuracies will the relay trip tJrt gem:rlilor C8 under this fault condition. % Winding unprotected = 100 .ar)' to give 80 % protection. The protected IJy a ptr c<ntnge relay has 0.32(0).5026 V x JOO = = ·x 100 =. }A high resistance ground fault hos near Ure grounded neutral end of the generator winding while gem7.3538 % il) It is necess.1urJ. Assuming that the CT'S Jrnvc 400/5 amps ra.11 : All allernator stator winding differcnlinl rda. primary) . i = 10 fl.T.32. (V.mains unprotecled . ...T.-ristics occun.C.15 amp minimum p ick up and a 12% slope of ckaract. 5 6 10x l03 = .8x = 360 A 10 5 5 . 5.T. 1000 1000 = x = l.8 A l-0 = minimum operating line current (C..so26 x 100 R = 3. :. 5.40 Generator Protection Determine : i} T11e percentngt winding which re..80 = 20 % R x 360 20 = sm .!d 2 (i1 . R 1000/ = 5773.iz) Vi ( i l . V = line to neubal voltage i) % Winding unprotected V = . Example 5. ii) The minimum value of tlic eart. ratio = 0 = 1.U A ugust•2002) Solution : VL = 10 kV. The currents fl owing nt M cl1 end of the genuator wi.nding are shuwn in Fig.

Fig.32(a) . 5.

.5 A = 0.d Switchgear Generator Protection 5 ·41 l1+l2 Positive torque -'c 2 (AU•April-20041 Fig. 5.125 A From the chuacteristics of 12 % slope.Protection an.i:.125 A Fig.75 A = 4.125 = 0. let us calculate C.i.75 A.T.75 A (300 +jO) x 4 i1 -i2 = 4. = The relay coil current = = 3. Hence th.495A 4. must be more tha tn 0.12 x 4.495 A Thus i1 . the out of balance current required is.ii) .) = 0. secondary curents at two ends.33 . relay will operate : 12 % s1o1>e 0 75A 0.32(b) Solution : Prom the given current at two ends.i 1 = slope xC' . And actually it is 0.495 A for relay to operate. i1 . corresponding to (i. •2 = 300 +JO)x i. 5.

c.954 impedance offered to fauJt Z = A + j 0.18 % As this slope is more than 12% of the characteristics given.5117 X .l11nce current ocurs nt 20% tJJ f ull load rnrre. 3 1.7731 A lO < lO• . 6. relay will ope.Protection and Switchgear Generator Protection 5·42 Actual point is locntet. Rating = J3V LJ L IL R e.7731X lOO 3310.:.Full load current .125 = 18.0Sl17V = Fault current V 2 = -:-I 13ut = = 20% o/ IL = 174. X 100 • JO lOO . Rating = 10 MVA. .1 in positive torque region..12 : A 3 phase ... Slope of Une through actual point is ('' .. Assume nltemntor r<>1ctn11ce of !0% Neg/ eel resistm./3 = 38105117 V..178 n .-2004) Solution : VL = 6. (AU-Dec.4356 = 0. V = VL/./3X 6..< V = 8 .rate.04356 0 e A 2. 1• Example 5.zt . Cnfculnte Ille value of f!arth resisttmce lfJ t.95 i.4356 0 Reactanc.6 kV altunator s11pplies a load of 8 M VA al 0.8 pf . Voltage induced in unprotected wind. order to ensure t/1111 only 10% of nltemator winding remains rmp"Olected .X "" Reactance per phase IX = v x lOO JO = 874. of the a/tcr11ator . X = 0.rz price circulating c:urrtr1t system and its relays arc so set that they do not operate until the oitt of lx.6X 103 . : (ii It) :0.e provided i..6 k V. 10 MVA. = = is bei11g protected through M c.04356 0 v •. ol unprotccl\!d winding = / x 0. <X.ctance .

.04356)2 (2.04356)2 R = 2.178)2 = R1 + (0.Earth resistance required ..177 0 .Iz I = JR2 + (0.

'eds 30% of Ore normal full load currc-111 of tire altcmnror. Assume tlrat sttrr po. ..SA = 100 A = 6·6x lo' = 3810. = Impedance of x% winding = >e % 1 (0 + jl) Value of earthing resistance = 5 !l .5 x V = :.T. The star point of the al ternator is enrlhed through n rt>sistmrce o/ 5 n .6 kV nlter1mtor.0 0 per phase and .01 x) Voltage induced in x % of winding .-2005) Solution : The full load current..ected altcmat.nt of alterrmtor is e11T thed through " n istonce of 7. 6.r('gl igible rt'Sislance.13 : Current tmnfo rmers of c11rre11t mtia a{ 1000/5 A nre used f ar protection of a star connected 3 pJrasc.= RI.S1 l00 x 100 3810 17 i• C )9. Wlrnl percent of the stator n>inding is left 1mprotocted ? S how that tire cffect af the alternntor mrctnnce can be negltehrd. d'mg unprotected Jj io = 0. t tlz. 1 10 = 10 x C.5 x. (AU-Dec. TIie diffcrenti!. C. rday is set to operates fo r a minimti nr current of 0.5 n.738 = 13:1214 .Protection and Switchgear Generator 5·43 Protection •• Example 5.3 x 43.6x lOl Out of balance rurent Let winding unprotected = 30% IL = 0..6 kV star com. % wm. ra tio = 0.I relay opemtes if Ure out of balance current through it exc. (AU-April-2005) Solution : VL = 6.5117 V . Jj x 100 = 7. R = 7. 10 MVA. I _ VA 500 x 103 = A 43 738 L ..6 x 10' V. = [5 + j 0.or iuiuditrg rvltidr is unprotected ngains mrt/J fault tuhtm the mnchinc Opt rates at normal voltage . Calculate the percemage ef each plzaS(' stat.682% Example 5.14 : A 500 kV A.or l1as a synclrronous rroctnnce of 1.5 n.fJ VL = f3x 6.. Tola!impedance al fault of the fault circuit. 6. ratio = 1000/5.T.5 A.

6.6 x 103 X 66x = x100 =Jj Jj Out of balance current = Voltage induced Impedance .

What a"its 11isM1.of grnmrtor..' pror«tion of •lttnJR. in Me.0lx) 2 = 8. neglected.fl!S trictc!d eartl1 fault protectia.1rtl1 . .itiue mid .. Hence effect of alternator reactanc.7217% TI.1.1 rxplnin bi1/nnrecl atrth fa11lt prot«lion «Mme.(1) S+ j O.r faull /JrOttimL i!Xpl"l'!>-Sio11 fo r tire pt-mrntRgt: of winding 1mprolcC'ti•d 10. WTly ti prokctim1 of g1:111tmtors is compk"X ? Explain.ant4ges ? S..904 x 25 +(0.....:lst i11 11 gtnera:tur ? What arc tltr:ir 4fi ws mid lmw tl1c.d.ts shows that the reactance can be neglected without any error. E.J1t1. Explain thr OOsic pi. Draw it s OJ1frf1fing t'NNk'fristks showing 11()5.4334 x' X = 1.. Oi:riw t.Winding = 1. djlft'rt. J( S ) 2 + (O.e can t.'1tlinl protn:tio.Olx)2 = 2. 2..1214 = •. Omw art. Explain ll:. 66x s.Ol x TI1is is to be solved b)' trial and error method.tploill u.1214 = s...•m·.fllding$.. Considering effr c.t-itm 1·1.-.. 7... £. i. Review Questions 'J.f5 13.. WJrnt i$ 1/u• rol1• of auxiliary rtlay. .. which mlly e.7n7 % unprotetced The equation (1) can be solved as.ts can bt mbtimfud ? .Mich ca11 OL"C111·in n gc-nttill()r ? E:xpl. 6. Orrrw n.1ilJ Om opll'mtkm of 1mrHtriet"-d Mrlh f 1wlt prot«:. J.r. Statit its ndvontagt"S.f5 X •.f5 13..1 i!xplnin tl1e M erz Pricl..e vnrlous typ"S of fiw U.Olx)2 J25 +(O.rt-Pri( J110!tetion ? 8.-.bnsic dlflem. 9.tial proti-ctiori sch 'mt..1214 .1egatiw torqur rrgiuns.. 66x 13. Wltid1 tJW tl.5·44 Protection and Switchgear Generator Protection 66x .tor sta tor u.:(."· i11 tire rcs-trkted e. Wltid1 llli! the t"1rious abnormal ru11!fing tonditions.tin in brief.tmt.

ut earth faults ? Hou. .«Jtd agai.ct iOff for Stator of alt rn11tor. I s it pos·. S"ggl'tl illt sd1em1• for i11tertlm1 fault prote.or ii prot.·12.imling of gtinr-rut. 1 13.•tble tlrat 100 % u.

J)-0 . :R lay will not opera t e) Circuit breaker 320 + JO . £xpla.Pdt-.:88. 2 pol. 15.::. Determi11t % of ruindirig protected agai.J1e.:i' a ccn:l"-q 1t.: n galitic plrase St.aker. Sfm J:VA..12 vs (11 + 12)/2.!S 11pcm out of balnrru current . (.:tion for 111.T. ( to e«lr phnse lvi1tding ? (Ans.Ans.tio11 ? 16.'.r M rth f. ratio of 400/5 ampt.rrying lood.imling .t 19. the cirmt:i' in ampcn•s fl otving at '#Of «-nd of tlte windir. The ratings arc 11 kV.t phase t11 g.39 A '' '' --- $k.::_'l---t l• 3-04 •JO Operating COIi Fig.rm:diori.c p 1:rcrntngt of winding prot ttt 1 ogoim.9 A 0 2 Characteristic 10% ttJ rrh.1y applN'11 to tl1r prOltt-tiori of on nllmMtor windh1g.quc:..· #Jiu mrn:nt bola11ce prot1l'C'fion wl1ich oper11t.ntinl rt'l. W11nt p(r«11tnge of J/ic tA..t mad1i11.1.$ prt>li 'tted agnir1Sf fault to t'-l'trtJ.ic 90% prot«t.88 I'll 18. f poi1tt of " 10. Tir...\1%) 20.·ri!$.e resistnna to &e ndd&1 in nmtrnl to ground (Ans.:.()00 kV A oltenrotor has 1111tral tvtrtJ N'd through n rt>$istnau of 7 oltms.( c1m·et1t of 1A..000 V nlt. A.s hor.'!1' tt:t'.mgJ1 n resistn11a of W olim. td 20% of full of Winn(.::. A J pl1as . What ore the mctliods to provide rou.hnracteristir:s 11 . will ti1t' rt·loy 0pentte to :rip tJ1e bn·. fault is 80%. 11 kV . 1'Jre f'ig.t gc. and wlrat m111-t lit' mi1tinwm u1/ue of t'l1f'tJ1i. 5.?d tlm.isl .pe = :3.5%.wll prot«.1Gc: prote. 10.34(a} $#1otus pcrr:e11tngc diflere.Protection and SwllChjlear 5 -45 Generator Protection 14.·""te 1._. Tlit rrlny S. nl!11tT1. 5. 5J4(b).-arth foull . A grue-rn/ .c " rlllio of 100015...r is providt"d wWr rc:stricted (¥Jtthfo1tlt prot«tio11.t(•tg Ju(h l/111t it trips for 25% out of bnlo11u.T.r Fig. 2.u. A high rt'4si tance groutrd fault o.34(a) I 0. The C.94 rn co. Tlr.g ll're slicrwtt i.ln How tht> pl"Olect ian ngninst ll. Assuming C. Th relay hns 10% $lopr of c. Calrnlnte tlr.d ln gmmw.1g n!Sis-lnnce to gr.1$S uf aciMtfon is pror. the rday ii se-t to op.r tfort ia a11 .m l Why it is important ? 17. 71r.1..:currtd 11a.1110. r Ille gromtded neutral c-nd of thf! gt'm'rator rvinJing whilt·3rrirtnlor is o.

5.34(b) .Fig.

g 1000/5 #nrp c. A stllr co..nt for tM mily is j 1..ltcmbtc.h.!11e11tnd rurthl/lg rt:si.: 19.5 A. 011d its.a.()()() kW al 0. : rn1ctn1tct of 1°"'.rn:nt tmnsformer. (Ans. Tm' star po nl of lltit aJt4·malc>r is M rtl1ed througli n fl'Jl {j tnncr: of 7.Nng c11rrent balanct sdu:mt 11si11g 2000/'j ampere ci.v 10% of tht t. (Ans.g of ctr£h phaY of thr stator winding nohid..u.s prot« ted by Men-Pria circulnting cummt prindpl t ustl. 6..ig-<u"L''lt pr1'nCJ'ple iuhich Is Ht to a._Tf in ordc to er1sure that oul. A 11 kV. 33 kV alternator i$ l1e.Protectlon and Swltch9tar 5·46 Generator Protection 11. It i"S prot.rmt1t11rr.Ri"Artnnet' of o. (A. detm. A 50 MVA.145 1 22.?55 than 175 A.ds of man: t!Mm 200 A Find t i. n1indin2 l$ 15 pt"l'ct'lli .f: cu'"nts not 1£Ss thn. A s.1ormol uoltogr.·for /twit Cll"C"IIU not l.e of tlu: ne11tml L"t1ttJrig rt'$istm1u /txJ V('S 10-X of tlN: winding$ mrprot«ttd 1 {Ans.wrat. 3 phn&t alft·r'INJtor l1t1$/111/ lbt1d r:1t1d t11rrtrlt 200 A.ff'4Cl1mct rs J2...i11g proU!Cfl:J by Ill.-Pria drc1.Y'S mrtlt fault prol1'C'tim to 90% of sta tor windit1t.rtt.S O . wl1i h git. (Ans.1111.1e is opcmling al . rAlcqlatt tire /"' c11rnnt fer lhe ri•lay is 0.89 Q) wliat pt·rtt11t1.ns.stance.s S(·t ta a.: 1.5 an.r prol£et1011 wJuch .r earth /'11411 rnn-r. 3 /Aliast.6 kV altirrnntor .mh. 'fl.r systt!m i.k..Pria cJ'rc:11/ati.69 %)· 24.. 10 M\lt\.8 pf.· of tltt• wi:tdlng of 1'-lldt phase unpl'Qltcled against tortlr ri:.r toi. J.5ohms..o•altm1ntor lu s n mu:dnwm tonliirno11.s ?L\11('" tire m11d1i.1lati11g curm.r 200 ampeus.5%..S. is 1mprOfl"CII$ 11goi11sl l'Rrlh J.nding "nrai1t$ voltose.171 0) vo/ A 6600 volf J-plln$t' t1tr/.in-tnl tr11nsfarmtrs. If /lit pick up c11rrt.rcmglr a NCR of 7.88%) DOD .:'d "ti Men:.flrd 3 ptingu 70 MV A. Firtd wJ.11C' '19'l(:11ine <l'ptntfN 12t nomii.ralt' nt f.If lhe mfnlm11m Optratf. 6 6 kV altmtator Ms a per plu. : 7.s set to opttrote o. It is eq111pptd wirl1 Mtn. Cnlr1dnte tht wlue of enrtJring mislnnce to hr prcmid.s rnting cf 2.? uSi: of drc. 0) : 3. Tht ne11tml of tlle grm:rator is eartli«I tl.t1u--roJtm•c.s1 aboUt 0.e dif/t'r1'11tial proll--r:tio.

ction.. d or starting lasts for longer duration or rotor does not trlove because of excessive load (stalling) at start. Hence before studying the protection circuit we have to consider the abnormal conditions and failure th11t may occu r i.-d for the protection o( induction motor.C fuse and thcrmul overload rcl.:.·hgear are employ<-.e. In this case thermal relay or in. It might be possible that the rotor is lockt>.s viz shol't circu it protectio1. [n all these CilSCS motor d raws heavy current from the supply and n.n case of induction motor.2 Abnormal Conditions and Failure in Case of Induction Motor ·n.1 Introduction Induction Motor Protection Based on the control action i. If the current to be interrupted is six times the rated cutn.d.1sic proh. various controlling clements known in electrical terms as swit.nt of the motor then contactors: cnn be used.". and o.t)'S nlong with circuit breakers.t from the supply and there will be simultaneous rise in temperature of winding and deterioration of the insuliltiOn resulting in damage of winding. Generally two b. iJ the motor is heavily loaded beyond its capaci ty then it will be overload condition of motor in which case motor draws heav)' curre1. st. The contactor is a kind of switch through whid1 supply can be given to the motor when its coil is mechanical overloading with overload protlion circuits. stopping or reversal_.:.:lrting.-sults in damage to the winding due to overheating as stated above. H.Vitchgear used for protection includes contactors with H. over current re. If the rating of the . The S\.'OUS ovtrcurrent relays are uSti. circuit breakers are used.doad relays.lays or miniature circuit breaker with built in trip coils may be used.stantant. (6 • 1) .R. NorrnnUy thermal ovc.•erload protection are provided for each motor. 6.notor is upto 150 kW then contactors and fuses can be used wrule for motors having rating beyond 150 kW.--nce the motor must be protected against th.e thre\? phaseinduction motors are used in numerous industrial applica tions.6 6.

Wi th tmbalanced supply voltage there will be excessive heating while with undervoltage the motor draws . ln such cases phase reversal relay may be provided which will disconnect the supply to the motor through U1e circuit bn...lay. 3 Under vollag• Under voltage: re'8ase. for undervoltage protection. Table 6.1 . 4 Unba anced VQl!e Negative phase sequence relays.enoad retease.•cr voltage. o. · With c<>rTect phase sequence. single phase preveme. phase sequence reversal of supply voltage.tnstenteneiovs overcurn. relays. Summary of abnormal condition and protection circuit to be employed is given in the tale. hoists or elevators. ln such case motor continues to nm and if it is loaded to its rated value then it wW draw exc. undervciltage relays are used.lill be damaged due to excessive overheating. ker. differential protection ma)' be used. the insulation may get damaged which may lead to stator earth fault or stator phase to phase fault which are rare in nature.under voltage relay. HRC fuses provide sufficient protection against these faults while for large rnotors.nlrelays. mnleture circuit b<eaker (MC8) wl h bull n trip eoil.thermal overload relay. With <:hange In phase sequence or supply it runs in other direction which is dangerous in some of the applications such as cranes. Sometimes special single phase preventer may be provided.. differential protection may be employed fOf economy. ov8f curren1 relays.essive current which will damage the rotor and eventually the motor v. For latge motors. Normally thcrma_l overload relays nre used against single phaing. Due to blowing of fuse in any phase or open circuit in one of the three phases n:sultsin single phasing. Abnormal condition Choice of protecUon circuit to be employed ' Mec:hancaloverload 2 s1alllng or prolonged s1artlng or motor Thenna..Protection and Switchgear 6-2 Induction Motor Protection 1r the supply conditions are abnormal such as loss or supply voltage. 5 Reverse phase sequence Phue reve<sal re. unbalanced supply vol tage. Thermalovertoacl felays.note cun-tmt for the same load. the motor runs in one direction..\$0 f-avlt or-phase to earth faolt 7 $Ingle phasing O. nstantaneous overcurren1relay.. Due to excessive temperature rise. under voltage or under frequency then also the performance of the motor is affected. ' HRC fuse. 6 Phase to ph. For low rating motors.

6. size of motor.Protection and Switchgear Induction Motor Protection 6-3 line d agram Fig. cost of motor. kept in mind that during starting and permissible overload conditions. Its cost should be less than 5% of the motor cost.3 Protection Circuit for Induction Motor ·Jllc protection circuit along with its single line diag'ram is shown in the Fig. the protection circuit should not operate. type of switchgear used.fmal ""'""" M(I Contaclor energ1zlng coil controlco il cl refay Induction Molor (a) Induction Motor {b) S n. type of starter. R o-----------------Y o--+--. starting current possibility of occurrence of abnormal conditions etc.el3y < Supply Switch ON pushbutton Fuse (normally open! Swilc:11 OFF (Normally Button CIOSed) • •• a•• •• I •• •• f • a Main contacts R • a y B AC !:J • Cootactor The.1. type of ind uction motor.c motor protection circuit that is designed should be simple in operation and economically feasible. It should also b<. 6. The choice of motor protecti11g circuit is based on va rious factors such as rated voltage. rated kW.------------- B o--+---1--t-----------Fuso Thermaloverl03d .1 . type of load.. 6.

e OFF push button which is normally closed when press. ThermaJ overload relay consists o( bimetallic strips.Protection and Switchgear 6-4 Induction Motor Protection The three phose supply is given to the motor through various elements such as fuse. If supply voltage fails.4 Single Phasing Preventer If one of the supply line is disconnected due to open circuit or improper contact in switch then stiU the motor continues to run.. . The component which is present in this unbalanced current called negative sequence componen t causes magnetic Aux rotating in opposite direction to the main fh. Even if the ON push button is released. The sta rt (ON) pu.cnt?. A setting range is provided for adjustment for various load conditions.uc. When the start button is pressed then the contactor coil is energized as it gets supply button is normally open gn.rgize the coil and disconnects the supply to the motor. The current in the other ph:t.GC-.. Because o( bending of one or more bimetallic strip results in operation of common lever which operates the trip contacts to dc. The bimetallic strips can be of self setting type or ha. the contactor roil rem.i ins energized as it gets supply through amd Uary contacts. Thus major damage to motor ma)' take place due to single phasing if proper precaution is not taken. [t should be observed that the rating of thermal relay should be such that it should not operate during normal starting condrnons..inism locks itself in operated condition. Thus motor starts running. a int-rc-'GcO to . This is called single phasing which results in unbalanced stator currents. . The coil attracts the plunger when excited and the main contacts are closed along with the auxiliary contact. the thermal overload relay operates./J tim('. control coil is de-energized which opens the contactor and motor windings. The power is then supplied to the remnini.S normal value.£1 cuts the supply of the contactor coil and hence the main as well as auxiliary contacts a re open so motor eventually stops.'.bou titt.1ter coil through whJch motor current flows.lng coi l. For la rge rnotOl:'51 these rel"ys <u:c connected secondary of current transformers. This results in double frequency currents to induce in the rotor to cause its heating. Protection against short circuit is provided with the help of HRC fuses. start and stop buttons.en switch while the stop (OFF) push button is norma lly closed red switch. During ove:rload condition.s required as the trip mech. switch. they cannot give the instantaneous protection against single phasing. As the phase overcurrent relays react slowly. The control circuit of contactor consists of energl7. 6. TI. contactor and thermal overload relay. i.nd resetting type in which mechanical reset i. The bimetal lic strips are either heated directly by flow of current or with the help of special he.

6 ·5

Protection and Switchgear



For small motors separate protection agai nst single phasing js nonn•Jty not
provided as thermal relays sense the increased current in remainiJ1g phases due to
si,,gle: phasing and provides the sufficiel'lt protection.
•Ai separate .singJe phasing protection circuit is requin.". d in case of large ind uction

motors as even a smilll unbalan can cause daO'lagc to motor winding and rotor. The
single phasing preventer is shown in the Fig. 6.2.



L I LC.T.[



C.T. C.T.


Thermal oveaoad reay







···· ·v·•·e ··r l-: :

Three phase

Fig. 6.2

As shown in the figure. it consists of C.Ts connected in each phase. The output of
control is fed to the level det'ector which sense the magnitude of unbalance.
Depending on this output fTom the control d.rcult the tripping c.onunan,d to the shU'Ni
or the circuit breaker is give.n when negati\'e sequence current exceeds its preset limit.

Protection and Switchgear

Induction Motor Protection


6.5 Ground Fault Protection

The ground fault protection is achieved using earth leakage circuit brcaktt (ELCB).
When the fault current or leakage current Rows through earth return path then it
forms the earth fault. These faults are relatively frequenl and hence protection is
required against these which is provided with the help of Earth leakage circuit
Consider an example of a person whoS<? finger sticks into the socket. Even though
the metal enclosure is securely earthened, the person will receive a severe shock. Under
such case there must be certain device that will cut the supply. This can be done with
the help of ELCB which will typically trip in around 25 ms if current e.:11;ceeds its preset
The schematic of ELCB is shown in Fig. 6.3.


.. .
. ..



C i rc
ui t


aupp 1y

, .,...








- .... _ _ _




_ _ _ _ .._.. .-



Fault to

earth OJe to

1 .ako1ge or


>-- - - -·- -

• a M tetmlnal


Motor en::IOsure


Fig. 6.3

As shown in the Fig. 6.3 EU:6 consists of a small current transtormer surrounding
live and neutral wire. The secondary winding of current transformer is connected to
relay circuit which can trip the circuit breaker which is connected in the circuit.
Under normal condilions, the current in line and neutral conductor is same so the
net current (le -IN) floy,ing through the core is zero. Eventually there.will not be any
production of Aux in the core and no induced emf. So the breaker does not trip.
If there is a fault due to leakage from live wire to earth or a person by mistake
touching \o the live terminal then the net current through the core wiU no longer
remain as zero but equal to rt. -IN or 11 which will t up flux and emf in C.T. As

per the preset value the unbalance in current is detected by C.T and relay coil is
energized whic.h will give tripping singal for the circuit breaker.As C.T. operates with
low value of current, the core must be very permeable at low Aux densitjes.

At the time of such a fault. R Y B . encircles the conductor of all three phases as shown in the Fig.4:. The Fig. . Fig. to aV'oid burning o( coils and stampings tJ.Protection and Switchgear 6•7 Induct on Motor Protection In case of three phase circuits. the componcnt of Ouxt>. 6.. Relay Core _ of C. Attracted armature type relay unit is connected in each phase with a current setting of 4-5 times the fuU load current. s due to fields of three conductors are balanced and secondary carries negligible current.1. Under normal condition.5 shows ZSCT pron. In case of earth faults. Secondary of.e motor must be disconnected as quickly as possible from the supply. (See on next page) 6.ction scheme. lt is preferred for the systems with neutral earthed via resistance. C.d current of the motor. 6. This method to provide earth fault protection is called core balance type protection or zero sequence current transformer (ZSCT) protection.. 6.6 Phase Fault Protection This protection is also caUed short circu it protection. the current increases by 8 to 10 times the full 10.T. single ring shaped core of magnetic material.4 During fuulty condition.T. This is beca use starting current can be 4-5 tu' nes full load current. the balance is disturbed and current is induced in the secondary to trip the circuit breaker through relay. A secondary is eo1mected to relay circuit.

T . ..-. _:.. 6.• Cable bOx -I---! Core balance wrrenltransformer (ZSCT) Three phase supply lnes. Such a protection is shown in the Fig. 6. .B frpc.Induction Motor 6-8 Protect.c_ol _ . - C. 6.> I ' ·- Y phase B wppty I Eart ' Phase lault procection hfault pro<action Fig..6. R Three - . - lnduic«km _ mo1or Fig. - Induction motor .6 Phase and earth fault protection .Three : r}} C.ion and Switchgear Protection = R -----.s . ....5 Earth fault proteetlon by ZSCT Hence to operate the relay only under fault condition such a setting is necessary..- -- ' II ' .

r l.n1trst1I ? WJ1at ls its efft-ct ? How It is pret1t ·nta1 in imlurtiou motors J ODO .Protection and Switchgear 6 -9 Induction Motor Protection The phase faults can cause burn out of coils and stampings and hence inotor should be disconnected s quickly <ts possible \\'hen fault occurs. As mentioned above to avoid relay functioning during starting. mll prot ecrkm i. disc rotates in a particular direction which keeps the auxiliary contacts dosed. 4.-..11d11ctio.wtors ? 7.d from $i/ls1'e pl1asiltx ? 6.ersal protection is provided..tion is provided to tJ . nie:n the dirt.Now motor is prot« le. l.i r. lifts or in threading mills etc. 6. typi! of protrctk. But if any two lines are interchanged after repairs the phase sequence reverses such as YRB.:.l11glt pJ11.oetion is dangerous if the induction motor is used for cranes.n is setcr-trd for mrious nbr1orm.ndurti1>u motors.d to lhe i11duetio11 motor$ ? S.7 Phase Reversal Protection The direction of induction motor depends on the d irection of rotating rnagJ'\etic field prod uced by the stator wind ings.d fo r ind11ctilm motqr. Review Questions 1.Ction of rotating magnetic field also reverses and induction motor starts rotating in opposite direction. Expl11/11 s..'.1$ ? 3. The arrangement is such that for a normal direction of motor. Su ch cha.: i. Due to this auxiliary cont-acts get opened.1l co. Hqw pl111:.r. hoists. Thus phase reversal protection for the inducti<>n motor is achieved. Thus to disconnect ind uction motor from supply if there is phase reversaJ. This protection is provided using motor driven disc working 011 eloctromag'netk principle .si11g i.Jays also ari? used to provide pha fault protectiol'I. rtl. For a particular phase sequence RYB the motor rotates in H particu lar direction due to corresponding direction o( rotating magnetic possibl t< f.·1f lurt• of ind11dion metoN. fxplnin Ori·ooerloml prot ec-lion 11$1/tg lltmnnl relays lrse. This intum c.ither ope. prut1id. Haw 1•r. fou rts prote-.ersal relay sensing the phase reversal is used . faptt1in "buormal ronJWons. Past over current re. phnse re.nge of din. Witol is pt1ase r. the short circuit protection current setting must be just above the maximum starting current of the motor. The secondaries of two current transformers connected in two lines drive the motor to operate the cUsc. Now a days solid state phase re.rat<!$ the circuit breaker or denerg-ises starter coil to d isconnect the motor from the supply .iditiu. But if there is phase reversa l then the torque prod uced reverses to rotate the d isc in opposite direction.

(fl • 11) .

h the: distribution transformers. th<>ugh rare. Hence it is not necessary to instaH any automatic protective relaying eqwpments wit. But though !he fault possibility ls rare. But the power transformers having large ratings always need some type of automatic protective relaying equipments. Ove. Over fluxing Let us diSCUSI these faults. Similari)' possibilities of running on abnormal conditions are also less in transformers compared to the generators. Hence the chances of faults occurring on transformers are much rare as compared to lhe faults occ11rring on generators. I. Higher loads are permissible for very short duration of time.g. Open circuits 4. 7.2. if fault occurs.2 Possible Transformer Faults The generator. Winding faults 3. The various possible transformer faults are.1 Introduction Transformer Protection The transformers are static devices without having any rotating part and are totally enclosed. The overloading which continues for longer time is dangerous as it causes overheating of the transformer. Similarly the failure of the cooling system. the transformer must be quickly dlsconnected from the S)'Stem. Hence the protection must be provided to the transformers against possible faults. The rare faults if not cleared quickly can get developed into the major faults which may be very serious for the transformer. (7 • 1) . of overlv:atin. to give protection agrunst the possible faults.heating 2. are subjected to the number of faults and abnormal conditions but the: transformers are not..The permissible overload and the corresponding duration is dependent on the type of transformer and class of insulation used for the transformer.1 Overheating The overheating of the transformer is basically of sustained overloads and short circuits. Through faults S. is another possible caus.7 7. The use o( series fuses is very common in case of small distribution transformers instead of circuit breakers. 7..

ero sequence protection and negative sequence protection are fauJts which occu r outside the protected z.. 7. i) Phase to phase faul ts ii) l!a rth faults iii) lntertum faults The overhea ting or mechanical shocks cause to deteriorate the winding insulation.2.irth fault protection.xtern. the n larm sounds and the funs are started. when tem.3 Open Circuits The open circuit in one o( the three phases is dangerous as it causes the undesirable heating of the transformer. For the high capacity transformers in additJon to main d if ferential protection. These faults are.i as open c:in uits arc much harmless compared Lo othef (a ulls. If the through faults persists for long period of time.Protection and Switchgear 7-2 Transformer Protect on Generally the thermal overload relays and temperature relays. But this protection is not economical for the transformers below 5 MVA for which an over current protc.". SimiJarly temperature indicators are also provided . neutral current relays or leakage to frame prot'cction system is uSt:. there is a possibility of short circuit betwe<>J> the phases or between the phase and ground.2 Winding Faults The wind ing faul ts are called internal faults. z. The thermocouples or resistance temperature ind icators are also provided near the winding.4 Through Faults Through foults are the e. If the corrective action is not taken within certain period o( ti me then the circuit breaker trips. 7. These a re connected in a bridge ·drcuJt. A separate relay protection is not provided for lhe ope1. the bridgc balance gets disturbed and alarm is sounded.tial prt)tcction is very commonly used to provide protection against such faults. 'fhc differe-1. Whcm such an i1. cif\:ta. the transformer may get subjected to the thermal and mechanic. Through faults are not detected by the differential protection .m the system. For e. Also the possibility o( short circuit between the adjacent tu rns of the same phase winding is also possible.2.d.le t(ilnsforrners. When temperature exceeds the limiting safe \ alue.tcrnal fault occurs. there is possibili ty of oil lire.>Cted fn.pel:'ature exceeds the permissible limJts. The overC'urrent relays with undervoltnge blocking. sounding the alarm are used to provide protection against overheating.'l.2.. the transformer must be quickJy disconnected fTom the system.l stresses which can damage he transformer. the overcurrent protection is also provided as o bockup protection .. the restricted earth fau lt protection system. rn ase of sud\ faults. 7. If the winding insulation is weak..:..ction is used. On ti. (( such a fault persists for longer time. the transformer can be manually disconnt.

ln normal conditions. slow developing faults may also occur in the transfo1mers.5 Overfluxing The flux density in the transformer core is proportional to the ratio oi the ·1oltabre to frequency i. The overfluxing relays with enough time lag also can be provided. The setting of the overturrtnt protection not only prottoets the transformer but also cov-crs the station busbitr and porno.s protection against phase to phase faults and phase to ground faults to the power transformers. The difference current /lows through the operating coil due to which relay operato. ·n. In the generator transformer unit. But when there is phase to phase fault or ph.3 Transformer Protection used to give protection against through ful1lts.3 Percentage Differential Protection for Transformers The percentage differential protection or Merz-Price protection based on the circulating current principle can also be used for the transformt?rs.. incipient /au. 7.. Th satu tation of magnetic circuit is a so the probable cause for the over/luxing operation.e. V/ (. Compared . 7. The Buchholz relay is used for oil immersed transformers to give the protection against incipient faults.Its i. of . So 1. there are certain import. this balance gets d isturbed.2. trippiJ.Protection and Switchgear 7. . This relay docs not allow exciting current to now till the generator reaches to a synchronous speed a nd runs to produCi! voltage of proper frequency.g the circuit breaker. Apart fnim these faults. high voltage surges due to lightning and switching. These points are. the two currents at the two ends of the transformer are equal and balance is maintained.ant points which must be taken care of while using such protection for the power transformers.i. some other faul ts like tap-changer faults.c power transformers are designed to work with certain value of flux density in the to ground fault. Sud\ a protection acts as a backiip protection for the dtfferenrlal prorc. This system give. The V/ f relay called volts/hertz relay is provided to give the protection against overfluxing operation.0 current flows thr'Ough the operating coil ol the relay and relay is inoperative. The vector difference of currents 11 12 passes through the operating coil while the average current (11 + [i)/2 passes through the restraining CDil. if full exdti1tion is applied before generator reaches its synchronous speed then due to high V// the O\•erflu xing of rore may result.:rton.e. Higher core flux means more core loss and overheating of the core.n transmission line.s. The principle of such a protection scheme is the comparison of the currents entering and lea\'ing the ends of a the differential protection used in generators.

seconda ries for the various types of power tra1lsformer connt. c. connections shou ld be such that the resultant currents fed into the pilot wires from either sides are displaced in phase by an angle e<1ual to the phase shift between the primary and secondary currents.T. Thus there always exists difference in current on the prima ry and seco1. In case o( powr transformers. the voltage rating of . DeJta Della Sia. Though the turns ratio of C.Protection and Switchgear 7 . TI1l-'Se ratios depend on the line currents of the power transformer :ind the connectio11 of Due to the diJforent turns ratio. Hence iJ C. Power Transformer Connections Secondary Prfma. then relay may get operated through there is no fault existing.the two windings is different..y Secondary Sta.T. the current ra tios of C. Connections Sta. the currents fed into the pilot wi.s on star connected side of a power transformer are connected in delta while the secondaries of C. Such a differential current may operate the relay though there is no on low voltage side is made K tjmes greater than that of C.T. To compensate for this d ifficulty. Sta.secondary currents.s.r transformer.T.s on high voltage side. on the two sides of a powc. Sta.T. secondaries of C.r.4 Transformer Protection 1.1 .s on ead1 side are di fferent. Defta Star Star Delt a Delt a Primary .octions. Hente it is necessary to correct the phase difference. This introduces the phase difference between the c r. there is an inherent phase difference between the voltages induced in high voltage winding and low voltage compensate for turns ratio of transformer .r.T. 11w high voltage winding is low current winding while low voltage winding is high current winding.T. Due to this.T. Della Delta Sta. a differential current may result due to the phase difference bet. The Table 7.ransforrner.s are selected .res from each end are same under noannl cond itions so that the rel3)' remains inoperative. To compensate for this. the C. n the currents on hY'O sides. To achieve this.. ln a power transformer.T.s on delta connected side of a power transformer are connected in sta. there exists a phase difference between the line cunents on primary and serondary sides of a power transformer. for example if K is lhe turns ratio of a power transformer then the ratio of C.l gives the way of connecting C. C.s of saml! rn rio are used on two sides. 2. De£1a Table 7.dary s-ideS o( the power t.

:.power transbmer -- \.T. the connection of C.Protectionand Switchgear 7.secondaries in star for de!ta side of power transformer is shown in the Fig. Delta side or power transformer Siar a. s«ondary windings while the operating coils are connected between the tapping points on the restraining coils and the star point of C.1de of .T. star and power transformer stars are grounded. Many transformers have tap changing arrangement due to which there is a possibilit/ of flow of differential current.. secondaries on primary side must be connected in delta while the C.2 The restraining coils are connected across the C. Hence to compensate for the phase difference. Hence currents fed to the pilot wires from both the sides are in phase under normal running conditions and the relay is ensured to be inoperative. 7.. the turns ratio of C.T. The primary of the power transformer is star connected while the secondary is delta connected. For the sake of understanding. In .T.T. 7. secondaries on delta side must be connected in star.T. For this. 4. secondaries. 3.s«ondaries in delta for star side of power transformer and the connection of C.T. The neutrals of C. ...1 (a) and (b)..T. the C.3.T.s on both sides of the power transformer are provided with tap for of C. secondaries.T. the phase displaCt>ment between the currents gets compensated with the oppositely connected C.s on both sides of the power transformer are provided with tap for their adjustment. The circuit diagram of the scheme is shown in the Fig. .5 Transfonne Protection With such an arrangement.1 (b) 7. C.T.T. The star point of the power transformer primary as well as the star connected C.. secondaries must be grounded. 7. --+1 - (a) Fig.1 Merz-Price Protection for Star-Delta Transformer Let us study the Merz-Price protection for the star-delta power transformer.

Slat conn.8.. ·'--II I Wlre5 .ecte<I Oolla eonncc100 c.....• ..... ...-R c": _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ : ..... c...T..". • 1 •• '1 po J .secondari41g I i-f&1 -. -O Y : ' llfe\1 1 ' '' '' ' _ _ _ _ _ _' ' ... +- ' ' ' •' ' ' ' ' f i.. I Star delt3 power trans o.:.• "' ' R. .ar ei s ·· 1 Y o 8 0 1 primary oon.( - Star .00000'7-H ":- :.:.' vwvuvl g: 1 C...seoond.-'0 I ' ': '' '' -ve I•IOopoc• I ··--·-· ..<:ted 1 I T... .. ... Delta conMCted .B._ -_ . -OR !....c .. . 1 seoondary .T. . I ' lfeL C.. C.. ... ' ' '' '' ..

o..C. '• ' ' il . ' f . ..-.Oiffcrontlol rcloy Fig.B.C.. 7..' ' ' RC._ .Restraining coil ' O.c.bperating ooil C.-.--.- !I ' ' ' o..Circuit bfeaker ' '' R..2 Merz-Price protection for star-delta power tnnsformer - =. o...-· .c..c.

7. The basic requirements of the differential relay are. Due to this the currents on both sides of the power transformer become unbalanced.T. secondaries. Both primary and secondary of the power transformer are connected in star and hence C.s the coils are under baJanced condition during normal operating cond itions. secondal'ies carry equal currents which arc.!faults. interturn faults also. The operating roils are connected between the tappings on the restraining coil and the ground.n circuit breakers on both the sides of the power transformer.2 Merz-Price Protection for Star-Star Transformer The Pig. The ope.rating coils of differential relay carry currents proportional to the difference of current between the two sides of a power transformer. I.3 (See Pig. the turns ratio of power transformer gets a ffected.T. The rest. The &iar points of both the windlngs of the power transformer are grounded . It is important to note that this scheme gives protection against short circuit faults between the tums i. The operation of the scheme rema ins same for any type of power transformer as discussed for star-delta power transformer. This causes an enough differential current which flows through the relay and the relay operates.T.7 Transfonner Protection· With the proper selection of turns ratio o( C.s get disturbed.raining coils are connected in the C..e. This is because when there is an intertum fault. secondaries on both the sides are connected in delta to compensa te for the phase displacement.noperative. 2. on next page) shows the Merz-Price protection system for the star-star power transformer.3. \Vith an internal fault in power transformer windin!'.Protect.T.ionand Switchgear 7. This causes the relay opert1tion which trips the mai. . in phase under normal conditions. 7. The relay satisfying these requirements is used in Merz-Price protection. The differen tial relay must not operate on load or extern. I t must operate on severe internal faults. So no current flows through the relay and the relay is i. The C.S the balance in the C.T.

c. .--.----. PIi 11. a... 0 ' 0 - • ' ' ' R...-.-. :. '' 1- ' ' '' ' ' ' '' '' ' C.e09ndaries . ._ 8 . .C.-.J '' ' ''' L ..J - ' ' ' ' ' - jl 0 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ /r HOOOdry ' ' ' '' '' :..T...."O 1 0 Star-Siar power 1r&nsr0tmer S1arprimary connected """ Della connected C.-' ' '' ' .-- o t V .c. . I LJ V L ' ' '' ' '' ·--.-. e R ' ' ' LJ L. -' r . R ..-. s. Delta --' oonneded ' ' '' ' II St¥connected .e.C. . "::r y .. : ' R..8. 1 "1' ' L..-..'\_ _ . L.-J V L c. ' • ' ' .... l'X'\ y ' ' . '.-..-o. .

breaker '' o ' ' Ope. ''I ' ·---------.· Ground Fig. R o.aling '' :. c. I ' Price protection for star. Otfferenti al .R. M i "O .star power transformer ' O . Restr 'c.e.

T. c 5A . 7.s prima ry will carry current of 1:JOO A.s is.7.. ratio cf 400 V to 33 kV is comzected in stnr-d.4.'/'.- --------. Ip = H)OO < lO TI.T. On the primary side. ratio is 1000/5 on the primary side hence the current in C. 7..4 Solution : The arrangement is shown in the Fig.T.:ltn. which is 400 V side of transformer the current is 1000 A.1 : A Scftr •<Selt8 rans. Hence C.ratio 011 33 k\/ side.T.T. •• Example 7. The C. The C. Secondaries which is phase current of delta connected C.9 Protection and Switchgear Transformer Protection t/1ree pl111se power tra11sformer lzaving n li11e voling. 1r C. What must be Ill<' C.secondaries in star 6'/3A '' Fig.T. Assumi• current cm 400 V side of lransformer to br 1000 is shown in the Fig.ormer -.-----------------------' ·------- ( l '----------------.s on 400 V side /rave current rntio ns 1000/5..4. 7.---.

IL = J5 I.c 543 A .

f!. But at the same time the average current (11 + 12/2) flows through the restraining coil which produces enough restraining torque:. change : To alter the voltage and current ratios between high voltage and low voltage sides of a power transformer.T. C. '11lis is the required C.T.iacteristics of C. To compensate for this effect.T. a tap changing equipment is used.ncountered in the simple diHercntial protection arc. Hence each secondary of C. catio on 33 kV side. Ratio change due to t.T. . J · rabo Secondary current s. This causes an appreciable difference in the secondary currents which can operate the relay. 2.T. l.n this relay.T. A. _ Primary current _ 12. the tappings can be provided on C.1000 = . · Primary apparent power = Secondary apparent power J'!.2 = 4-00x 1000 = 12.lters the turns ratio.T. 7. But this method is not practicable.x 4-00 .T.s also which are to be varied similar to the main power transformer.12 A while each secondary of C. This causes unbalance on both sides.s connected in star carries a current of sJ'!.tion is avoided. This is an important feature of a power transforme:r. characteristics due to ratio error at high values of short circuit cuITents.12 _ 1·4 .f!. . For the power transformer the apparent power on both sides must be same. Ve. on the secondary side of transformer carries a current of s .s connected in star carries a current of 12. 1.T. Vu lu . ratio on 33 kV side is./'!.. Hence the C. Unmatched cha. This equipment effectively a./'!.12 A 33000 Thus each primary of C.x 33000x I L2 lt. secondaries are connected in delta. Hence relay becomes inoperative for the through faults.10 Transformer Protection This is because the C.So the relay operates Jor through external faults. there exists difference in the C. I" = J'!.4 Problems Encountered In Differential Protection The problems c. This difficulty is overcome by using percentage differential relay. the difference in current due to ratio error exists and flows through relay coil. The same current flows through the star connected C.T. A.s : Though the satur.T.Protection and Switchgear 7 .

Due to this magnetizing·current inrush is Less or more. the condition initially is of zero induced e. Size of the power system c. The cunent is called magm?tizing cunent inrush. Difference in lengths of pilot wi res : Due to the difference in lengths of the pilot wires on both sides..the required flux may be in same or opposite direction. At this instant. Tills decays very slowly and is bound to operate differential protection of the transformer falsely. II it is more.. The method by which transformer is energized.rt\$ on both sides. The tune constant L/R of the circuit is variable as inductance of circuit varies due to the change in permeability of the core.ct to the amount of unbalance occurring at the extremities o( the tap change range. In percentage differential rela ys the taps are provided on the operating. Depending on the size of the transformer.. These are called balancing resistors.. the time constant of inrush current varies from 0. With the help of these resistors equipotential points on the pilot wires can be adju sted . 1'his current may be as great as 10 times the foll load current of the translormer. The waveforms of magneti7.t of residual flux existing before energizing the tmnsformer. And in a hall wave flux reversal must take place to attain maximum value in the other half cycles. e. lf the residual Aux ex:ists. The 105&'$ in the circuit damp the inrush currents. the current and flux should be maximwn in highly inductive circuit.m.5. 11\is current decays rapidly for first few cycles and d.ed when the voltage wave is passing through zero. the unbalance condltion may result The dlfficulty is overcome by con.J.11 Transformer Protection The percentage differential relays ensure the stability with respti.2 sec to 1 sec. The factors which affect the magnitude and direction of the magnetizing current inrush are. 4. the magnetizing currB)t inrush is maximum.:ays slowly. . and it is similar to the switching of an inductive circuit.n pi lot wi.7. ·Magnetizing current inrush : When the transformer is energized.coil and restraining coil to achieve balance. '-'· Size of the transformer b. it is responsible to saturate the core which further increases its component. Type of magnetic material used for the inrush current in three phases is shown in the Fig.en dc. If the transformer is energlz. 11.l!rotectionand Switchgear 7 . Due to this the transient inrush of magnetising current flows in to the transformer.necting the adjustable resistors i. 3. d.

7. OrdM of harmoNC content In magnetizing curnnt Amplitude u •% of lundamontal 't" 63.4.nt. In the latest method. 7.Protection and Switchgear 7 . Secondly the time setting may be made long enough for the magnetizing current to fall to a value low the primary operating current before the relay operates. Firstly the relay may be given a settlng higher than maximum inrush current.1 Harmonic Restraint and Harmonic Blocking The high initial inrush of magnetizing currents consist of a h.12 Transformer Protection Phase R -..v Phase 8 Fig.1 . This is called harmonic current restraint.5 Typical magnetizing Inrush current waveforms There are number of ways ensuring immunity from the operation by magnetizing surges.8 •• 5. the harmonic content of the magnetizing current flowing in the operating circuit is filtered out and passed through a restraining coil.2 gives the typica l values of harmonic contents in a magnetizing curre. But these simple remedJes are inconsisten t with high speed and low primary operating current.igh component of even and odd harmonics. Table 7.0 3• 28.

2... The circuit used to compensate the effect of magnetizing current using harmonic restraint method is shown in the Fig..---c-o-i-ls.. •••• . . This relay consists of JOO Hz blocking filter in opernting coil while 50 Hz filter in restraining coil.. ...ntial protection rather than simple differential protection is preferred .nt o( the inrush current only.2 The ope. So use of percentage diffure. The magnetizing current has large third harmonic compensates for the differential current resulting due to the flow of magnetizing curren The separate blocking relay in series with the differential relay is used . more is the restraining torque and the relay does not operate.-' ..: ' ' ' '' ' ' := ' -R..- -'' ' ' F2 . At the time of i_nrush current.. Thus more the harmonic contents in the inrush <urrent.: : = • '' ' ' '' • '' ---f R..oni<: component which energizes the additional restraining coil R. Rnttainiog . .6 Magnetizing current compensation The filter F1 is designed to pass the fundamental 50 Hz component which excites lhe operating coil R.. The current passing through normal restraining coil and current passing through additional restraining coil R. The operation of this relay is based on harmonic component of inrush current..1 s• 3.mental together l• passed through the restraining coil. second harmonic component is maximum and thus blocking relay is blocked with its contacts remain open... The filter P2 is designed to pass the third ham....7..13 Protection and Switchgear Transformer Protection s• 4. . .. 7.'' ' '' ' • Fig. :. The harmonic contents and fundn. There is an additional restraining coil R.... I • • ' ••• • •• • • ' F.7 . produce sufficient restraining torque.7 ..6. Th..rating coil carries the fundamentaJ compone...4 Table 7.

. the harmonic componen t is negligible and 50 Hz component is dominant. This protection can be provided to the metal clad switchgear. This pr. 7. senses the current due to which current passes through the sensitive earth fault relay.V bus foundation ":" Earth ng Fig.7.equipments are lightly insulated from the ground.--::::::i--unit& of me1al clad switchgear Eanhfautt current Eerth n.7 .5 Frame Leakage Protection 11.14 Protection and Switchgear Transformer Protection In short circuit case. . Th. enclosure is grounded.0-. The resistance of these equipments with earth is about 12 ohms. The arrangement ls shown in the protc"<:tion is nothing but the method of providing earth fault protection to the transformer . 7. For the large transformers. Hence the blocking relay operates to close its contact.7 Frame leakage protection The metal dad switchgear is lightly insula ted from the earth. then fault current leaks from the frame and passes through the earth connection provided .king. Thus the primary of operates the relay. This is done through a primary t'>f current transformer in between. 7. The concrete foundation of switchgear a_nd the other . The frame of the switchgear Le. the differential protection is enough to sense and operate for the earth faults. When there is an earth fault. Ccncrote r-- r---. Such a protection is provided only for small transformers.nciple is called harmonic bloc..

15 Transformer Protection 7. It uses the principle that due to the faults. 7.8 Basic arrangement of Buchholz relay The constructional features of Buchholz relay are shown in the shown in the Fig. lf the faults are severe it disconnects the transformer from the supply.) Under normal conditions. 7.8.Protection and Switchgear 7 . The 70% component of such gases is hydrogen which is light and hence rises upwards towards conservator through the pipe.-ed in the pipe. It consists of a ca.9 on next page. The float being rotated tn the upper part of the housing.9. 7.nk Fig.6 Buchholz Relay The Buchholz relay is a gas opernted relay used for the protection of oil immersed transformers ageinst all the types of internal faults. the Buchholz relay ls full of oil. oil in the tank decomposes. The slow developing faults called incipient faults in the transformer tank below oil level operate Buchholz relay which gives an alann. the relay operates and gives an alarm. It is named after its housing conta lnlng a hinged hollow Aoat. Due to the gas collected in the upper portion of the Buchholz relay. Another hinged flap valve is located in the lower part which Is dtrectly in the path of the oil between tank and the conservator. Buchholz. generating the gases. . (See Fig. A mercury switch is attached to a Aoat.. The float closes the alarm circuit while the lower Aap valve doses the trip circuit in case of internal fault . 7. Buchholz relay is conn . Another mercury switch is attached to a Aap valve._ Transformer ta.

When gas gets accumulated in the upper part of housing. This completes the alarm circuit to sound an alarm. Due to this operator knows that there is some incipient fault in the transformer. bad switch contacts.clay. Hence transformer can be disconnected before fault grows into a serious one. which can occur. but gt.Protection and Switchgear 7 .Due to which the hollow float tilts and close the contacts ol the mercury switch attached to it .rated. The transformer is' dJsconnected and the gas sample is tested.nor. The alarm circuit does not i.1 Operation There are many types of internal faults such as insulation fault. Through passage of the gas is prevented by the flap valve.16 Transformer Protection -Teslcode to oolliect gas sampkt Gas accumulated --Float tilting with red:uced oillevel Mercury switch From = top of transformer ==> To conserwrtor . The testing results give the: is because ·some times bubbles in the oil circulating system 'may operate the alarm circuit through actually there is no fault. what type of fault is started developing in the transformer.6. fault)' joints d1Sco1mects the transform. .. the decomposition of oil in the main tank starts due to which the gases are gene. As mentioned earlier. When the fault occur. 7. core hetiting.9 Construetion of Buehholz relay 7.ves only 1ndlca non to the aper. The oil level inside the housing /alls. ma nlank Fig.mmediate. major component ol such gases is hydrogen. The hydrogen tries to rise up towards conservator but in its path it gets accumulated in the upper part ol the Buchholz .

7.6. 2.2 Advantages The various advantages of the Buchholz relay are. • for the econom.rvator should be as stTaight as possible and should slope upwards conservator at a small angle from the horizontal. While doing so it passes though the telay where flap v•lve is present.6. 7. It operates when fault occurs. Buchholz relay and are indicated by alarm : 1. 2.tne tra. ]. by anticipating the fault and operating the alarm circuit. This energizes the trip circuit which opens the circuit breaker.nsformcrs hnving conservator tnnks. Only faults below oil level are detected. 7. But Buchholz relay gives an indica tion of the fault at vc. l. oiJ rushes towa rds the conservator.2 54:-. conds. Can be used on. Setting of the mercury switches can not be kept too sensitive otherwise the relay can operate due to bubbles.17 Transformer Protection However if a serious fault such s internal short circuit between phases.ic considerations. Due to this the. Buchholz relays are not provJded for the transformers having rating below 500 kVA. This angle should be between 10 to 11°. Core bolt insulation failure .is the mercury switch contacts get closed. Thus transformer is totally disconnected from the for e>il irn. Due to th. earth fouJt int>idc tht? tank etc. occurs then the considerable amount of gas geb gcncrat·cd . Normally a protective relay does not indicate the appearan<e of the foult.ry early stage. the pressu re in the t.4 Applications The following typ<!S of transformer faults can be prote<:ted by the. Local overheating 2. 4.1 seconds and a\'cragc time of 0. Thus the transfonner can be taken out of service before any type of serious damage occurs. The nap valve gets deflected due to the rushing oil.. earthquakes mechanical shocks etc. It is the simplest protection in case of transformers. vibration.Protection a_nd Switchgear 7 . Thus due to fast reduce level of oil.3 Limitations The various limitations of the Buchholz relay are.e.6. The relay is slow to operate having minimum operating time of 0. Entrance of air bubbles in oil 3. J. The connecting pipe between the tank and the cons.1nk lnctcases.

s on high voflag e side. Solution : The connections are shown in the Fig..Short circuit between phases 8.slil r.2 : A 11 kV/ 132 kV power transformer is conn«ted in del/a. c:r.10.Winding earth faults. Bad and loose electrical contacts 7. Exa"l)le 7. _ 5A _ ______________________ _ . 7.._ ) . Short circuited laminations 5. examples with Solutions •». Winding short circuit 9.d the suitable turns ratio f or th. . Tl1t c:r.s 011 th.Protection and Switchgear 7 -18 Transformer Protection 4.. Loos or oil and reduction in oil level due to leakage 6. Fh. Delta C. Bushing puncture lO.T. .low voltage side iulve turns ratio of 600/5.

This cu rrent w1U flow through each line on primary of transformer. . 7.Fig.e. low voltage side of power transformer be 600 A.10 I et the current on the primary i.

7.r is Now apparent power on both sides is same.s connected in delta on secondary of transformer.s are connected in delta. 200 kVA.fjV. Also oblai11 I rirculaling current when the fault of 75-0 A of f ollowi11g ty/J"s occur on the low oottage side : i) Earth fault within t/. J j kV/41)() V lransfon11.T.T. ratio on high voltage side.. C.ence current IJ\ each secondary of star con. ratio on high voltage side = 5/ ( C. Hence current in each secondary of C.3 : A 3 phase.J.T.32 : 1 n Example 7.:. Let cu.T.mntcled i11 delta- star.s are conncci.e protective zo11e ii) Urlh fault outside the protective zo11e iii) Phatie to plrase fault within tlre prolecl ittt zont iv) Pll!Uie to phase fault outside the protecti1}t zone Assume balanced Determine Ike C. T.f3x132000x lu 11000x 600 132000 . which is phase current of C. Now lu = 500 A . Solution : The connections are shown in the Fig.secondary connected in delta . On primary which is delta conncci. lu . 3) = 17.10. current in star while On secondary which is star connected.11.' ' = 50 A This is the current flowing through each primary of delta connected C.nected C. C. 5 Ip = 600x = 5A 600 Transformer Protection on primary is the phase The same in line current IL which is Line current for the C.T.T.19 Proteclion and Switchgear H.f3xll 000x 600 = .. 7. fj VLI ILi = . The C.rrent on low voltage side be 500 A. is the line value. as shown in the Fig.T.7 . 5 lp = A 'JJ times for C.s on low vollage side halJ< / urns ratio of 500/5.

Ir = 5-13 A on h.T.Side t ) _./jIr = s-/3 A Same is the current through each secondary of star connected C.11 C.Protectionand Switchgear Slaf· H. = S A • t. V.v. side CT. ix..s = 500x . .V. ratio 500/5 · Current through primary of C.T. secondaries .Sid e C.. seoonda ries - Transformer Protection 7 ·20 Siar 0e11.on high voltage side . 7. secaidaries L. Fig. .T.T.T. C..T. on low voltage side = lu = 500 A = 11.- . = Lme current through pilot = wires . Current through each secondary of delta connected C.

1 = . .f:ix llOOO ./j Vulu .Apparent power on both sides ol transformers is same.l u ./3 Vu 1."'3x 400xS00 ..

side is. 7.s on high voltage side 18. = 27.) Now Equating apparent power.99 2_099 A So 12.99 A current will Oow through the relay and relay will operate. Jj Vw ILi = Jj Vu IL? · J'3x1 1000x lu = J'3x 400x7S0 2727 A lLi This is the line current on h. (ii) Consider the earth foult outside the protective zone as shown in the Fig.18 slf . Secondary C.T.27x 1 = 12.. Tran1fonner Proteetlon 7 ·21 40Jx500 11000 = 18.: 2. (See l'ig.099 : 1..12.5 A Current in pilot wires = 75x J3 = 12.T.Hence corresponding current through C.7.v. secondary on h. The C. · Current ratio of C.99 A as delta connected .v.current a: 7SO Q :. The line current on secondary is 750 A. 7.12 on next page..T. side under fault condition. 5 x soo 7.s connected in star.T.PT-elion and Switchgear .ratio is 2.C99 : 1 (i) Consider the earth fault within the protective zone as shown in the Fig.18 A This is CUJ"rcnt through czch primary of C.T.13.

'.99A ffi I I '\ I eo 27.I Fig. YO 12.99 A -.------ ----- :. V.Sida I! L.$9A -5 12.7.- ' 11.Side .12 il' i.27 A R. (II I I ! 27..27 A l l '\ y I 8 12.99A I l Rf) 12.• -.= I 750 A •• H.V. . i :. .

'' • • -v-- . ili) Phase to phase fault in the protecied zone on low voltage side. So on both sides the current is balanced hence no current will flow through the relay and relay will not operate. 7. 7 • 23 transformer Protection i I > / • t''• • E• E• € l l • < < & g < • -.7...14.• ." .g.. This is shown in the Fi. v l n "' '> I · ' 1 •' The currents are shown in the Fig. .Protection and S"'1tchgear •' . ..-v- '' .13. a > • • • • < u ••• -• .

.- !l • • . This current on high voltage side wiU flow through the relay and relay wiU operate.< . ! 0< . Due to such fault current will flow in o phases of low voltage winding but in all three phases in high voltage winding as shown in the Fig. l E E . l .•. • ! i J n > << I. N • < . 7.: < it .. > " ! - > E. • . r . II ..Prolection and Switchgear . < = / ! > :i < N / < 1. Transformer Protec:tjon 7 • 24 . I I • • n...• J > l • .14.

s. Determine the ratio of the et1"ent trnnsfanners OH H. l • • • N • • / N "" • . side.. • > • iv) Consider phase to phase fault outside the protected z.15. 1 !.. Drnw the c<1mrection diagram slrowi. E l • • Transforme< Protection 7 • 25 •s •s f r .6 kV is connecte. The various currents and corresponding distribution is also shown in the Fig. 7. 7. V.Example 7.d Sblr/dclbl and the protecting current trnnsfonn ers on the low voltage side have a ratio of 4(/()/5.rg how the relay opera f ts tmder fault co" as shown in the Fig.- 0- / / J 2 • •n ' ' • I l . > l • • i . ...e relay "'ill not operate.. . no current nows through the relay henc.: t -• - £ .4 : A 3 phase transfonner rated for 33 kV/6.Protection and Swltchgear • > • E• I. As the currents on both sides are balanced.15.

Thus C. ratio on H.6 kV side. side is.nee current fed in pilot wires from low voltage side is 5 A.e./3 i.s Della in star I I I I . C'T' Secondaries in delta Star .s on high voltage side is 5/. Hence the seconda. C. Same current is fed from C. 6.T.T.712:1.s on star connected side arc delta connected hence current in secondary is equal to current in pilot wi res divided by . connections on high voltage side which are delta connected. Hence sccondary current of C.e.s on delta connected side are star connectc-0.7 -·28 Protection and Switchgear Tr.6 X )(}' X ILi c 80 A .16 t-1- .fj X 33 400 This is primary current d C.T. 7._1 = ./3 VLl ).T.T./3. Ao:a:1rolnlng cola ' -. Operatirg cols J_ Fig. secondaries are star connected.80 : 5/.2 12 J3 X 6. Assume 400 A is flowing in the lines on low voltage side i. on high voltage side.-./3 A. S A..J3 V i.ansfonner ProtectiOff Solution : C. The connection diagram is shovn in the Fig. On the delta side of transformers the C. C't' S.oondar1&. 27.T.r)' phase currents are equal to currents in pi.lot wires.T.16. Now primary apparent po\\1er = secondary apparent power X )(}' X JLI = . Their socondary current is. He.T. 7.

Protfqion- A 3-p/ rr. 7.urec(ed on HV side ?.tar ..T.. ( . secondaries in s..17 Star • delta ans/ormer .e a current ratio of 500/5. 7.. Ls. Example 7. Thus transf ormer having line voltage ratio of 440 V/11 k V is connected in star/Delta.T.. Wlwt must be the ratio of the pro tection transfonntr co.Protection and Switchgear 7 ·27 T. _ _·-------------_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_-_----_. The C.. ratio is 500/5 A hence secondary phase current of C.anaformer.• ••• •• Fig. ' C.17 On primary side wruch is 440 V side.. Delta connected C:r.s on primary side Ip = IL 5 500 x soo = SA J5 Ip sJ3 A . .5 : (A U-April-2005) Solution : The arrangement is shown in the fjg. lei the current be 500 A..j Ip ------------- . Tlte pro lcctfon t ransformer on the LV sidt hm.T.T.s will carry the current of 500 A..s ..J .

T .V. Side Delta -.s connected in star on H.T.lta(. Primary current _ 20 Secondary current - 5. He. seoonclaries . Siar· V u lu . side carries a current of 20 A while ech secondary carr.309 : I . ratio on 11 k V side is.T..6 : A ( current of 5..'.fjx llx 103 x l1.2 Thus each primary of C.S. 11 kV.V. on the secondary side of transformer carries a current of 5./3 A.Side R y _ 1. Required C. 7..2 = 20 A 11.Protection and Switchgear Protection Tranafonnftf' 7 • 28 The same current flows through the star connected C./3 A.T.. v.T.T.ratio on the HV side of the transformer ? . sec:ordaries L. ratio on H. . Example 7...n in the Fig.0. .T.4 k V trrmsformer is connected in O.a.<Onda ries.SC 500 k VA. = .side 3 pl..V.18. I.I Delta· H. Star C.tnr.nee each second')' of C. The proteclion transformer on the LV sid< have turns ratiQ of 5(/1)/5.-2005) Solution : Thi? connections are show. = .fj V ./3x 440 x S00 . What will be the C. The apparent power on both sides must be same : .T.. Henoo the C./3 = 2.

7.. ) Fig.18 ._ .


nSt'. Drrm.rrmt ratio of 600.t (Ans.tV ptm..tivt C.S . star/dl!lta.Protection and SwJtchgear T • 30 Transformer Protection.OOO IW f.·s LT side lunoe ratio of 300/5.385 .ntng1·s.Id. : 35 : 1) CICICI . lransjomrer i. A . and t'Xplain flirt constri.r.T..i tilt! l."J :1) 12. Wrilt 1' !IOfN Olf.(t 5idt. (Ans.uu•rted .?ntS 01(. Show tlwl tl':r C. Sr1tt1• tll( prohl.• prot ectiw trunsform 'T'S 4n tl1e 210 V sidts l1. orm4!r is proth:led by Men-Price dra.formtrs on 220 V side llavr a n.· tfw mtio of pmh\.'. 8. pt11L1'T transfornNr has II oolt1gt mf io of 33/6..laJing current $ystmi.1w a curnnt ratio of fi}()/-j'j' Whal must be tlie rutio of 11/)()() V shit• ""d Mrv $hall they b.lOlts .s ronna-t.i kV side ? (Ans. 5...6 kV 1lde ltmJt • currtnt ratio of 100.ttdMn and disa'1w. 1..dtfta and th. Tfh· prot«..ny giM Jht prol1'ttion ? State must &.s on th. What should be: C.s ttar delta co.T'hc C. A 3 pl. ProJtct ing current tra11sfarmt rs on the low t'Oltog1t side Jrm:V! a ratio of 250/5. 0.T of 220nJ.000 \I . Tt1.d i" a simpli di'fftrmtW prolcction of trrmefo.s o.ctltm and wo.d .• I (An. 6."5'C1'ibe wiJfr l/N: ht:111 of n m:al diagmr..T.! c:onn«Jtd "? th1t C. ratio on 11.10lto. TJu prot«. A tltn"C plNJS(.tir11. i) Mngnetic c11rre11t in rush ii) H trmonit restraint ttMd hitrmonic bl0<kinJ iii} Fmml! lef1kage prokC'lit>11 1. Wh.1'.: '14./i °' 9.1 tht conn«dons of diflt!rmtial prolection of a tnmefornwr.s on HT side will lttn't' a mtio 60 : s. 210/11000 V transformer is c:ormt'(Jtd in star..T.3 plin · trnnaf<mn. A J p/rtJ'Sl!' 33/6.t tmnsJ. tmns.mers. .: l2 :5) 11. Find the r11tio of tht airrmt 1rs11eforn11trs on Mg!.T. 1.6 k\l $tar/del ta corr11tded tnnsforma is prottttM by dijfrrentNII sy11tem..011nlert. o:mnected in §JAr/ddta. A tfm?t phtrSt: 66 kV/11 .1) 10.6 kV t1ml .king fJ/ Buc.th11t CT.ltl1olt rday. on the 6. Against wllich friul! s Buchho/2 rtl.