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Chapter One (The Science of Life)
SECTION ONE: THE WORLD OF BIOLOGY Biology, Biology or the study of life, offers an organized and scientific framework for posing and answering questions about the natural world. Biologists study questions about how living things work, how they interact with the environment, and how they change over time. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF LIFE Organizations and Cells Organization is the high degree of order within an organism’s internal and external parts and in its interactions with the living world. All living organisms have one degree of organization. A cell is the smallest unit that can perform all of life’s processes. Some organisms, such as bacteria, are made up of multiple cells are called multicellular organisms. In the highest level, the organism is made up of organ systems, or groups of specialized parts that carry out a certain function in the organism. Organ systems are made up of organs which are structures that carry out organs, specialized jobs within an organ system. All organs are made up of tissues. Tissues are groups of cells that have similar abilities and that allow the organ to function. Tissues are made up of cells A cell must be covered by a membrane, contain all cells. genetic information necessary for replication, and be able to carry out all cell functions. Within each cell are organelles which are tiny structures that carry out organelles, functions necessary for the cell to stay alive. Organelles contain biological molecules molecules; the chemical compounds that provide physical structure and that bring about movement, energy use, and other cellular functions. All biological molecules are made up of atoms. Atoms are the simplest particle of an element that retains all the properties of a certain element. Organism Organization in Organisms Organ System Organs Tissues Organs
UNIT ONE: FOUNDATIONS OF BIOLOGY (Text from Modern Biology, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston) Response to Stimuli Another characteristic of life is that an organism can respond to a stimulus – a physical or chemical change in the internal or external environment. Organisms must be able to respond and react to changes in their environment to stay alive.
Homeostasis Homeostasis is the maintenance of a stable level of internal conditions even though environmental conditions are constantly changing. Organisms have regulatory systems that maintain internal conditions, such as temperature, water content, and uptake of nutrients by the cell. Multicellular organisms usually have more than one way of maintaining important aspects of their internal environment, such as body temperature. Metabolism Living organisms use energy to power all the life processes, such as repair, movement, and growth. This energy use depends on metabolism. Metabolism is the sum of all the chemical reactions that take in and transform energy and materials from the environment. Plants, algae, and some bacteria use the sun’s energy to generate sugar molecules during the process of photosynthesis. Growth and Development All living things grow and increase in size. Some nonliving things, such as crystals or icicles, grow by accumulating more of the same material of which they are made. In contrast, the growth of living things results from the division and enlargement of cells. Cell division is the formation of two new cells from an existing cell. In unicellular organisms, the primary change that occurs following cell division is cell enlargement. In multi-cellular life, organisms mature through cell division, cell enlargement, and development. Development is the process by which an organism becomes a mature adult. Development involves cell division and cell differentiation, or specialization. As a result of development, an adult organism is composed of many cells specialized for different functions, such as carrying oxygen in the blood, or hearing. Reproduction All organisms produce new organisms like themselves in a process called reproduction. reproduction Reproduction, unlike other characteristics, is not essential to the survival of an individual organism. It is only essential to the survival of the species as a whole. During reproduction, organisms transmit hereditary information to their offspring. Hereditary information is encoded in a large molecule called
UNIT ONE: FOUNDATIONS OF BIOLOGY (Text from Modern Biology, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston)
deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA. A short segment of DNA that contains the instructions
for a single trait of an organism is called a gene gene. Hereditary information is transferred to offspring during two kinds of reproduction. In sexual reproduction, hereditary information recombines from two organisms of the same species. The resulting offspring are similar but not identical to their parents. In asexual reproduction, hereditary information from different organisms is not combined; thus the original organism and the new organism are genetically the same. Change Through Time Although individual organisms experience many changes during their lifetime, their basic genetic characteristics do not change. However, populations of living organisms evolve or change through time. The ability of living organisms to change over time is important for survival in a changing world. This factor is also important in explaining the diversity of life-forms we see on Earth today. SECTION SECTION 1 REVIEW 1. How does biology affect a person’s daily life? 2. How does biology affect society? 3. Name the characteristics shared by living things. 4. Summarize the hierarchy of organization found in complex multicellular organisms. 5. What are the different functions of homeostasis and metabolism in living organisms? 6. How does the growth among living and nonliving things differ? 7. Why is reproduction an important characteristic of life? CRITICAL THINKING 8. Crystals of salt grow and are highly organized. Why don’t biologists consider them to be alive? 9. When a scientist designs a space probe to detect life on a distant planet, what kinds of things should it measure? 10. Both cells and organisms share the characteristics of life. How are cells and organisms different?
UNIT ONE: FOUNDATIONS OF BIOLOGY (Text from Modern Biology, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston) SECTION TWO: THEMES IN BIOLOGY DIVERSITY AND UNITY OF LIFE Unity in the Diversity of Life Life is so diverse, yet life is also characterized by unity, or features that all living things have in common. One feature is the genetic code, the rules that govern how cells use the hereditary information in DNA. Another unifying feature is the presence of organelles that carry out all cellular activities.
The “tree of life” shown above is a model of the relationships by ancestry among organisms. All living things share certain genes, yet no two types of organisms have the same full sets of genes. One way biologists build a “tree of life” is to place organisms that have more similar sets genes on closer branches, or lineages, of the “tree.” They place the more distantly related organisms on more distant branches. The placement of all kinds of organisms produces a “tree” that relates and unites life’s diversity. The “tree of life” represents the unity in the diversity of life because scientists think that all living things have descended with modification from a single common ancestor. Three Domains of Life The three domains of life are the three major subdivisions of all organisms. They are Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. Another system of grouping divides all life into six major categories called kingdoms The six kingdoms consist of four kingdoms kingdoms. within the domain Eukarya (the Kingdoms Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, and Protista), one
UNIT ONE: FOUNDATIONS OF BIOLOGY (Text from Modern Biology, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston) kingdom in the domain Archaea (Kingdom Archaea) and one kingdom in the domain Bacteria (Kingdom Bacteria). INTERDEPENDENCE OF ORGANISMS Ecology is the branch of biology that studies organisms interacting with each other and with the environment. Ecologists study single species as well as ecosystems. Ecosystems are communities of living species and their physical environment. EVOLUTION OF LIFE Evolution, Evolution or descent with modification, is the process in which the inherited characteristics within populations change over generations, such that genetically distinct populations and new species can develop.
Natural Selection According to the theory of evolution by natural selection organisms that have selection, certain favorable traits are better able to survive and reproduce successfully than organisms that lack these traits. Adaptations are traits that improve an individual’s ability to survive and reproduce. SECTION 2 REVIEW 1. Name three unifying themes found in biology. 2. How is the unity and diversity in the living world represented? 3. Identify the three domains and the kingdoms found in each domain. 4. How are organisms interdependent? 5. Describe why evolution is important in explaining the diversity of life. 6. Distinguish between evolution and natural selection. CRITICAL THINKING 7. Assign the various toppings you put on pizza to the appropriate domains and kingdoms of life. 8. According to the “tree,” which of these pairs are more closely related: Archaea: Bacteria or Archaea: Eukarya? 9. Fossil evidence shows that bats descended from shrew-like organisms that could not fly. Write a hypothesis for how natural selection might have led to flying bats.
UNIT ONE: FOUNDATIONS OF BIOLOGY (Text from Modern Biology, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston) SECTION THREE: THE STUDY OF BIOLOGY SCIENCE AS A PROCESS Steps of the Scientific Method 1. An observation is the act of perceiving a natural occurrence that causes someone to pose a question. 2. A hypothesis is a proposed explanation for the way a particular aspect of the natural world functions. 3. A prediction is a statement that forecasts what would happen in a test situation if the hypothesis were true. 4. An experiment is used to test a hypothesis and its predictions. 5. Once the experiment has concluded, the data are analyzed and used to draw conclusions. 6. Data and conclusions are communicated to the public and scientific peers.
Science is characterized by an organized approach, called the method, scientific method to learn how the natural world works. The methods of science are based on the principles of uniformity (fundamental laws of nature operate the same way at all times/places) and that events in the natural world have natural causes.
DESIGNING AN EXPERIMENT Performing the Experiment A controlled experiment compares an experimental group and a control group and only has one variable. The control group provides a normal standard against which the biologist can compare results of the experimental group. The experimental group is identical to the control group except for one factor, the independent variable The variable. experimenter manipulates the independent variable, sometimes called the manipulated variable. In addition to varying the independent variable, a scientist observes or measures another factor called the dependent variable or responding variable, variable, because it is affected by the independent variable. CONSTRUCTING A THEORY When a set of related hypotheses is confirmed to be true many times, and it can explain a great amount of data, scientists often reclassify it as a theory Some theory. examples include the quantum theory, the cell theory, or the theory of evolution.
UNIT ONE: FOUNDATIONS OF BIOLOGY (Text from Modern Biology, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston)
Publishing a Paper After scientists submit their papers to a scientific journal, the editors of that journal will send the paper out for peer review. In a peer review scientists who are review, experts in the field anonymously read and critique the research paper. They determine if a paper provides enough information so that the experiment can be duplicated and if the author used good experimental controls and reached an accurate conclusion. They also check if the paper is written clearly enough for broad understanding. SECTION 3 REVIEW 1. What two principles make the scientific method a unique process? 2. Define the roles of observations and hypotheses in science. 3. Summarize the parts of a controlled experiment. 4. Summarize how we make conclusions about the results of an experiment. 5. Why is the phrase, “it’s just a theory” misleading? 6. Give another example of a conflict of interest. CRITICAL THINKING 7. On a nocturnal owl’s skull, one ear points up, and the other ear points down. Suggest a hypothesis for this observation. 8. Design an experiment to establish if owls hunt by keen sight or hunt by heat seeking. 9. What was the average distance between the owl’s strike and the mouse if the recorded differences in this experiment were 25, 22, 19, 19, and 15?
UNIT ONE: FOUNDATIONS OF BIOLOGY (Text from Modern Biology, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston) SECTION FOUR: TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES MICROSCOPES AS TOOLS Light Microscopes To see small organisms and cells, biologists typically use a light microscope. A compound light microscope is a microscope that shines light through a specimen and has two lenses to magnify an image. 1. Eyepiece – The eyepiece (ocular lens) magnifies the image, usually 10 times. 2. Objective lens – enlarges the image of the specimen. 3. Stage – The stage is a platform that supports a slide holding the specimen. The slide is placed over the opening in the stage of a microscope. 4. Light Source – The light source is a light bulb that provides light for viewing the image. Magnification and Resolution Microscopes vary in powers of magnification and resolution. Magnification is the increase of an object’s apparent size. Revolving the nosepiece the structure nosepiece, that holds the set of objective lens, rotates those lenses into place above the specimen. In a typical compound light microscope, the most powerful objective lens produces an image up to 100 times the specimen’s actual size. The degree of enlargement is called the power of magnification of the lens. Resolution is the power to show details clearly in an image. The physical properties of light limit the ability of light microscopes to resolve images.
Electron Microscopes In an electron microscope, a beam of electrons produces an enlarged image of the specimen. Electron microscopes are more powerful in magnification and resolution than light microscopes. There are two main types of electron microscopes. The first type of electron microscope is the scanning electron microscope (SEM) The SEM passes a beam of (SEM). electrons over the specimen’s surface. SEMs provide three-dimensional images of the specimen’s surface. First, the specimen is sprayed with a fine metal coating.
UNIT ONE: FOUNDATIONS OF BIOLOGY (Text from Modern Biology, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston) Then, a beam of electrons is aimed at the specimen, which causes the metal coating to emit a shower of electrons. These electrons project onto a fluorescent screen or photographic plate. The result is an image of the object’s surface. SEMs can magnify objects up to 100,000 times. The second type is the transmission electron microscope (TEM) The TEM (TEM). transmits a beam of electrons through a very thinly sliced specimen. Magnetic lenses enlarge the image and focus it onto a screen or photographic plate. Transmission electron microscopes can magnify objects up to 200,000 times. UNITS OF MEASUREMENT Scientists use a common measurement system so that they can compare their results. Scientists use a single, standard system of measurement, called the system. metric system The metric system is a decimal system and thus based on powers of 10. The official name of this measurement system is Systeme International d’Unites. The English Translation of this French title is the International System of Units, or simply SI.
Base and Other Units The SI has seven fundamental base units that describe length, mass, time and other quantities. Multiples of a base unit are designated by prefixes. Although the base units in Table 1-1 are extremely useful, they can’t be applied to certain measurements. Derived units are produced by the mathematical relationship between two base units or between two derived units.
UNIT ONE: FOUNDATIONS OF BIOLOGY (Text from Modern Biology, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston) SAFETY Good Laboratory Practice Lab safety involves good laboratory practice, which means establishing safe, common-sense habits. Never work alone in the lab or without proper supervision by the teacher, and always ask your teacher before using any equipment.
Safety with Gases
Glassware Safety Proper Waste Disposal
SECTION 4 REVIEW 1. List the four major parts of a compound light microscope. 2. What is the difference between the magnification and resolution of an image under a microscope? 3. Compare the function of a transmission electron microscope with that of a scanning electron microscope. 4. What is the importance of scientists using a common SI system of measurement? 5. How would you convert kilometers to millimeters? 6. Name the safety symbols used in this textbook. CRITICAL THINKING 7. A biologist thinks a virus, which is much smaller than a cell, is likely to cause a disease. Which type of microscope is most likely to be used to view the internal structure of a virus? 8. How would you convert cubic meters to cubic centimeters? 9. On a light microscope, an objective lens magnifies the view of some pond water 25 times, and the ocular lens magnifies it 10 times further. What is the final magnification of the image?
UNIT ONE: FOUNDATIONS OF BIOLOGY (Text from Modern Biology, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston) CHAPTER HIGHLIGHTS
SECTION 1: The World of Biology Biology is the study of life and can be used to both solve societal problems and explain aspects of our daily lives. Living things share the same 7 characteristics: organization and cells, response to stimuli, homeostasis, metabolism, growth and development, reproduction, and evolution. Multicellular organisms show a hierarchy of organization going from the organism to the atom. To stay alive, living things must maintain homeostasis, obtain and use energy, and pass on hereditary information from parents to offspring, also called reproduction. SECTION 2: Themes in Biology Three themes in biology are the unity in life’s diversity, the interdependence of organisms, and evolution of life. Living organisms show diversity and can be classified into domains and kingdoms. Organisms live in interdependent communities and interact with both organisms and the environment. Evolution helps to explain how species came to exist, have changed over time, and adapt to their environment. SECTION 3: The Study of Biology The scientific method involves making observations, asking questions, forming hypotheses, designing experiments, analyzing data, and drawing conclusions. Trying to answer questions about observations helps scientists form hypotheses. A controlled experiment has a control and experimental group, and tests independent and dependent variables. Scientists analyze data to draw conclusions about the experiment performed. A theory is a set of related hypotheses confirmed to be true many times. Communication between scientists about their methods and results helps prevent dishonesty and bias in science. SECTION 4: Tools and Techniques Four major parts of a compound light microscope are the ocular lens, objective lens, stage, and light source. Transmission and scanning electron microscopes provide greater magnification than light microscopes. Scientists use the metric system to take scientific measurement. Lab safety is a good laboratory practice.