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• The process of metal cutting in which chip is formed is
effected by a relative movement b/w the work piece and
the hard edge of the cutting tool.
• The relative motion is produced by a combination of rotary
and translatory motion of either work piece (or) tool (or)
The relative motion
present between Work
and Tool in various
Machine Tools.


Relative Motion
Machine Tool
Shaper, Planer
Fixed R & T
Surface Grinding
Cylindrical Grinding R & T


• The motion responsible for the cutting action is known as
the primary motion or cutting motion.
• The motion responsible for gradually feeding the uncut
portion is termed as the secondary motion or feed motion.
• Depending on the nature of these relative motions, various
types of surfaces can be produced.
• The line generated by the CUTTING MOTION is called
the GENERATRIX and the line generated from the
• Various geometries can be obtained depending on the
shapes of the Generatrix and the Directrix and their relative
• They are represented in the following figures:




Generation of various surfaces
Generatrix (G) Directrix (D) Surface obtained
Straight Line Straight Line Plain Surface
Straight Line Cylindrical Surface
Straight Line Plain Surface (Lines)
Surface of revolution
Plain Curve


Tracing of G
Tracing of G
Envelope of G
Tracing of G










Dr.SPECIFICATIONS OF LATHE 1) Height of centers over bed  U.K. 2) Maximum swing over bed  USA spec. R. of speeds and feeds etc. 3) Maximum swing over carriage 4) Maximum swing over Gap 5) Maximum distance b/w centers 6) Length of bed 7) No. . spec. PRADEEP 7 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. C.

















1) Bench lathe:
It is a very
prepared bench
or cabinet and
used for small,




2) Speed lathe: They do not have provision for power feed
and have no gear box, carriage, lead screw etc.
Two or three
speeds are
available by
cone pulley
They are used
for wood
spinning etc



3) Engine lathe: In olden days lathe was driven by a steam
engine. Hence the name is still in existence even after
modern lathes are provided with motor drive.




4) Tool Room Lathe: It is nothing but the engine lathe
equipped with some extra attachments for accurate and
precision work like taper turning attachment, follower
rest, collets, different types of chucks etc. The bed is
relatively small.




3 Dr. G. PRADEEP 16 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. The turning tools used in the rear tool post are reverse tools with reverse geometry. They carry special mechanisms for indexing their tool heads. The turrets can hold only drilling related . R.5) Capstan & Turret lathes: These are semi automatic type machines very useful for mass production (small lot sizes). Video 2. C. They are provided with a front tool post which can hold 4 turning related tools and rear tool post which can hold 2 to 4 turning related tools. Less skill is required for operator and wide range of operations can be performed.

PRADEEP 17 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. . G. C.Turret Indexing Backward travel of turret Dr. . Dr. PRADEEP 18 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. Rotation of the turret head by exact angle is accomplished by insertion of the locking pin in the next hole of the six equi-spaced holes. the locking pin is withdrawn by the lever which is lifted at its other end by gradually riding against the hinged wedge as shown. Further backward travel of the turret slide causes rotation of the free head by the indexing pin and lever as shown.Turret Indexing in Capstan and Turret Lathes Just before indexing at the end of the return stroke. C. G.

PRADEEP 19 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. . R.Turret Lathe Dr. G.

G.Turret Lathe Layout . PRADEEP 20 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. R. C.

com . R.Capstan Lathe Dr. G. C. PRADEEP 21 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.

C. PRADEEP 22 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.Capstan Lathe Layout . G. R.

PRADEEP 23 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. rigidity as forces are hence suitable for lighter and transferred to bed. No tail stock .Turret Lathe Capstan lathe 1. 3 Tool travel is along entire bed 3. Hence smaller jobs (up to 60mm) and capable of handling heavy precision work. Tool feeding is slow and 4. The above arrangement gives 2. Tool travel is limited because of length auxiliary slide traverse limitation. G. C. jobs (up to 200mm) and severe cutting conditions. R. Turret head (round (or) square hexagonal) is mounted on (or) hexagonal) is mounted on saddle auxiliary slide that moves on guide ways provided on saddle 2. hands 5. Turret head (square (or) 1. 4. vibrations occur. Less rigidity. Tool feeding is fast and causes causes fatigue to operator less fatigue to operator hands. No tail stock 5.

Video Types of automatic lathe: 4. high speed lathes employed in mass production(large lot sizes).com .  Chucking automatics 2) According to No.7 1) According to type of stock material  Bar automatics. Geneva mechanism is used for indexing the turret. They fall in the category of heavy duty. PRADEEP 24 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.  Multiple spindle 3) According to the directions of the axis of m/c spindles  Horizontal. R.6.5.6) Automatic lathes: These are designed so that all the working and Job handling movements of the complete Manufacturing process for a job are done automatically. of spindles  Single spindle. No participation of the operator is required during the operation.  Vertical Dr. G. C.

G.Dr. PRADEEP 25 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. R. .

tubular or ring type and of relatively smaller size. Unlike the semiautomatic lathes. and continuously over a long duration repeating the same machining cycle for each product • provided with up to five radial tool slides which are moved by cams mounted on a cam shaft • of relatively smaller size and power but have higher spindle speeds Dr. bushings. screws. bolts.The general purpose single spindle automatic lathes are widely used for quantity or mass production (by machining) of high quality fasteners. PRADEEP 26 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. R. C. . handles and similar small metallic parts from long bars or tubes of regular section and also often from separate small blanks. rollers. pins. including bar feeding and tool indexing. • run fully automatically. single spindle automats are : • used always for producing jobs of rod. G. shafts.

PRADEEP 27 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.000 rpm) for small job diameter. • Dimensional accuracy and surface finish – almost as good as provided by grinding In respect of configuration and operation: • There is no tailstock or turret • High spindle speed (2000 – 10. C. G. . Dr. like components of small clocks and wrist watches in mass production.Swiss type automatic lathe The characteristics and applications of these single spindle automatic lathes are : In respect of application: • Used for precision machining of thin slender rod or tubular jobs. ⎯ Length range – 3 to 30 mm. • Job size ⎯ Diameter range – 2 to 12 mm.

G. PRADEEP 28 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. are moved axially using swivelling device(s) • The cylindrical blanks are prefinished by grinding and are moved through a carbide guide bush Video 8 . R. C.• The headstock travels enabling axial feed of the bar stock against the cutting tools as shown • The cutting tools (up to five in number including two on the rocker arm) are fed radially • Drilling and threading tools. if required. . vertical lathe. Video Eg: Facing lathe. PRADEEP 29 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. R.7) Special – purpose lathes: These are designed to perform certain specified operations only. crank shaft lathe 9.10.12 Dr. C. . R.Dr. PRADEEP 30 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. G. . PRADEEP 31 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. R.Dr. C.

used for round cross sections b) 4 Jaw – Not self centering. PRADEEP 32 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. R. C. G. square. used for .WORK HOLDING DEVICES 1) Chucks ---a) 3 Jaw – Self centering. rectangular cross sections. medium in size. smaller in size. Dr.

Used in – Tool Room lathes.c) Collets– Fixed size. R. Vertical Milling m/c to hold end mills. Bar Automatic Lathes. PRADEEP 33 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. Dr. . They are air operated or hand operated. G.

Surface Grinding machines for light works and also where Distortion is not permitted like in aerospace components. G. f) Vacuum – Similar to above. e) Magnetic – Used for ferrous metals in . PRADEEP 34 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. the component is released from the chuck and another blank is loaded from the magazine. C.d) Pneumatic Chucks – In chucking Automatics Note: In bar automatics the component is parted of from the bar and in chucking automatics. used for non ferrous metals Dr. R. Milling.

com .2) Face plate – Used for large size work pieces of round. Dr. square. PRADEEP 35 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. C. G. and also very complex geometries not possible in any other devices. R. rectangular.

Catch plates or Carrier Dogs – Used for supporting shafts. They clamp around the work piece and allow the rotary motion of the machine's spindle to be transmitted to the work piece. PRADEEP 36 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. G. mandrels for imparting rotation. . C.3) Carriers. R.They are used in Lathes and also Cylindrical grinding operations. .4) Centers – For supporting the rotation a) Live centre – used with face plate b) Dead centre – used in tail stock Live centre NonRevolving Dead centre Dr. C. G. PRADEEP 37 Revolving Dead centre (Used for high speeds and high clamping pressures) Email: grcpradeep@gmail.

PRADEEP 38 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.5) Mandrel – Used to support the work pieces and also for holding hollow parts to meet concentricity requirements Live Centre Work piece Dead Centre Face Plate Mandrel Carrier Dog Dr. . R. G. . G. R. 7) Follower rest – mounted on carriage and moves with tool. PRADEEP 39 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.6) Steady rest – mounted on bed. Dr. used for long heavy jobs that deflect centrally by self weight. used for long thin jobs that deflect laterally by cutting force. . PRADEEP 40 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. C.TOOL POST Dr. R.

R. Setting the tool below the centre decreases the effective rake angle and increases the effective clearance angle. This increases the cutting forces. Effective Rake is the apparent Rake angle w. This increases rubbing with flank surface.Tool Setting on Lathe 1. Setting the tool above the centre increases the effective rake angle and decreases the effective clearance angle.r. 2. 1) 2) Dr. PRADEEP 41 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.t tool and work position and not the actual rake angle provided on the . G. C.

TOOL HOLDERS HSS Tool Holders Brazed Carbide tip Tool Holders (Can be grinded) Throw away Carbide Tip Tool holders (Can not be Grinded) Dr. C. R. G. PRADEEP 42 Email: .

Box Tool Holders – Used in turret lathes to apply heavy cuts & act as travelling steadies. C. PRADEEP 43 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. Dr. . R.

PRADEEP 44 L ФD d Email: grcpradeep@gmail.OPERATIONS 1) Straight turning: Here the work rotating about lathe axis. G. Here Diameter is effected but Length is not effected. . tool is fed parallel to it. thus producing a straight cylindrical surface. C. R. 2) Shoulder / Step turning: Same as above except that diameter is reduced only up to certain length. depth of cut is perpendicular to it.

14 Dr. PRADEEP 45 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. Video .Process of embossing a diamond shaped pattern on work surface which is used for gripping purpose. C. but Diameter is not effected. R. Here Length (in Shafts) / thickness (in plates) is effected. G. 4) Knurling:.3) Facing:.Here the tool is fed perpendicular to the lathe axis and depth of cut is parallel to the lathe axis and thus producing a flat surface.

R.Operation of producing tapered . C.5) Taper turning:. L θ D1 = Larger Dia D2 = Smaller Dia L = Taper length θ = Half Cone Angle 2θ= Included Angle / Full cone Angle Dr. G. Any D1 D2 Corresponding Taper length. Swiveling of compound rest – Any Angle. The following methods are used 1. PRADEEP 46 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.

com . C.2. R. PRADEEP 47 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. Long Job Distance θ f d S = Set over Distance L = Total Length of Work Piece Dr. G. Tailstock set over – Small Angle.

Short taper length d. PRADEEP 48 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. C. f 4) Combined Feeds – 450 Chamfers Dr. G.3) Form Tool – Any . R.

C.5) Taper turning attachment The cross slide is delinked (Movement of tool is similar to from the saddle and is combined feed) connected to the attachment fixed on the bed. PRADEEP 49 Email: . As the carriage (saddle) moves longitudinally. R. G. the cross slide is moved crosswise by the guide block which moves along the guide bar preset at the desired taper angle. 15 Dr. This action causes the d f cutting tool to move at an angle to the axis of the work Video piece to produce a taper.

C. R. Dr.It is the operation of pressing and forming cup shaped components from sheet metal. G. PRADEEP 50 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.Video 16 6) Metal .

PRADEEP 51 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. Here coiled spring can be made by passing a wire around the mandrel which is rotated in a chuck. G. .We can wind spring on lathe.7) Spring winding:. Dr. C.

Boring. G. Grinding etc. R. PRADEEP 52 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. Dr.8) Miscellaneous . Milling. C.

parting tool. Acme. buttress etc. G.9) Thread cutting:.There are different thread forms like V. PRADEEP 53 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. grooving tool etc. Zero rake angle is used for form tools like threading tool. Square. Dr. Here the tool has the shape of thread profile. C. .

Thread Thread Dr. tool advances from right to left. tool advances from left to right. When cut on .Majority of screws are right handed threads. left hand pedal of bicycle. Screws with left handed threads are used in exceptional cases. R. They are tightened by counter clock wise rotation. PRADEEP 54 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. When cut on lathe. in Turnbuckles in combination with right handed threads to adjust the tensions in Left Hand Right Hand cables. Spindle rotation is same for both operations but lead screw rotation is opposite. left-hand grinding wheel on a bench Helix grinder. tie rods etc. C. G. connections on the acetylene Cylinders (to avoid wrong connections). Left hand threads are used on lathe spindles. They are tightened by clock wise rotation.

PRADEEP 55 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. R. which require a water tight (or) air tight . Tapered threads Single produce a wedging action and hence produces a pressure tight joint. G.Tapered threads are used for water (or) Gas pipes and plumbing supplies. C. Lead = P for single start thread Triple Lead = 2P for double start threads (It has two start points) Lead = 3P for triple start threads (It has three start points) Dr. Pitch (P) – The distance between two successive peaks or valleys. Double Thread Terminology: Lead – The distance moved by screw or nut in one revolution.

The Lead screw in lathe in combination with split nut uses an Acme thread which can apply load in both directions. It will take care of engagement of thread at the same starting point for every cut. Lathe spindle and lead screw must be in same relative position for each cut. Dr. The Buttress thread can be used only where the applied loading is always in one direction. R. A Thread-chasing dial is attached to carriage for this purpose. C. It is sometimes used in bench vices.V threads are the standard threads used on most threaded fasteners and are by far the most common. PRADEEP 56 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. The Acme and Buttress threads are easier to . the square thread is more difficult to machine than a V thread and is only used where strength and wear resistance make it worthwhile. Due to its profile. G.

PRADEEP 57 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.19 Video 17.18.18.Thread-Chasing dial Half Nut / Split Nut Video 17.19 Dr. G. . C.

Feed Rod is provided in medium to big size lathes and is engaged for other lathe operations except threading and operates by rack and pinion mechanism operated by change gears and other gears in apron. C. Dr. G. PRADEEP 58 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. .

C. R.Video 20 Dr. PRADEEP 59 Email: . G.

R. • With a back gear . G. PRADEEP 60 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. • Screw cutting also requires slow speeds. in other words. C. it is possible to use it to the very limits of its capacity and strength.Back Gear • “Back gear" is a gear mounted at the back of the headstock and allows the chuck to rotate slowly with greatly-increased turning power. Dr. big-hole boring and large-diameter turning and facing. the lathe not only becomes capable of cutting threads but can also tackle heavy-duty drilling.

com . C.Dr. G. R. PRADEEP 61 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.

3) Combining above two formulae we can write. R. T = πDL / 1000fV min 3) Feed per minute. Df = Final dia 5) Power or Work done = F x V N-m/min F = Cutting Force = k x d x f. C. N = RPM of work Note: Some times D is taken as mean diameter also. k = material constant Dr. PRADEEP 62 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. fm = f x N mm/min 4) Depth of cut = d = (Di – Df) / 2 Di = Initial dia. G.TIME ESTIMATION 1) Machining Time = T = Length of cut / (feed x rpm) = L / (f x N) min f = feed in mm/rev 2) Cutting speed= V = πDN / 1000 m/min D = Starting diameter of work in .

of cuts Time per cut = L / (p x N) [For Single Start Thread] p = Pitch = 1 / No. C.P + Approach Length + Over Travel 7) Time for Drilling = πDL / 1000fV L = Depth of hole. D = Dia of drill 8) Time for Boring = πDL / 1000fV L = Depth to be bored. R. of threads per unit length L = Length of W. . D = Starting Dia of hole 9) Time for facing = L / (f x N) L = Radius of W.6) Total Time for Threading = Time per cut x No.P 10) MRR = 1000Vfd mm3/min Dr. PRADEEP 63 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.

30. (20.Gear Train Calculation for Thread cutting: 1) Transformation ratio = Gear Ratio = Lead of Work piece / Lead of Lead screw = Speed of Lead screw / Speed of Work piece (Spindle) These relations are true for threads cut in metric or inches units. R. All lathes are generally provided with set of change gears having teeth from 20 to 120 with a variation of 5 teeth. In addition the set has gear with 127 teeth called translating gear. 40. G. Dr. PRADEEP 64 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. etc). . For a simple Gear train. 25. Gear Ratio = No. C. of teeth on Driver Gear (On Spindle) / No. of teeth on Driven Gear (On Lead Screw) The number of teeth on intermediate gear has no effect on the gear ratio.

Gear Ratio = (a/b) x (c/d) a. PRADEEP 65 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. d = Teeth of respective gears . C. b. c. G. R.For a Compound Gear train.

PRADEEP 66 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. These surfaces may be horizontal. vertical or inclined. G. the work is fed (during return stroke) to provide an uncut layer for machining. This is used for initial rough machining. The cutting tool is a single point tool similar to lathe. and after every cutting stroke. Dr. C. Here cutting is not continuous and hence the machining is known as Intermittent cutting operation.SHAPER INTRODUCTION: The shaper is a reciprocating type of machine tool intended primarily to produce flat . Here the cutting tool is given a reciprocating motion. R.

C. G.Video .4 Dr. R. PRADEEP 67 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.

G.Bull Gear used in shaper to reduce the speed of rotation obtained from motor Dr. PRADEEP 68 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. . C.

PRADEEP 69 Email: . C. R. G.Dr.

According to the type of mechanisms used for giving reciprocating motion to the . a) Crank Shaper: Crank and Slotted lever mechanism is used to change rotary motion of the driving gear called bull gear. C.TYPES 1. Dr. PRADEEP 70 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. R. G.

C. G. R.Stroke length = P1P2 = 2AP (CB/AC) Dr. PRADEEP 71 Email: .

in readiness for another cut. Geared shapers have a reversible electric motor or any mechanical mechanism which quickly returns the ram. PRADEEP 72 Email: . Dr.b) Geared Shaper: Rack and pinion mechanism is used. R. C. G.

Dr. G. oil with high pressure is pumped into a cylinder with piston. . C.c) Hydraulic Shaper: By hydraulic power i.e. PRADEEP 73 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.

PRADEEP 74 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. Inertia of moving parts is relatively . R. Dr. 5) More strokes per minute can be obtained by consuming less time for the cutting and return strokes at a given cutting speed. 4) The range and number cutting speeds possible are relatively large and control is simple. 3) The ram stroke reverses quickly with out any shock as the oil on either side of the piston provides a cushioning effect hence vibrations are minimum. 2) Power available remains constant through out hence it is possible to utilize the full cutting capacity of the tool. C.Advantages 1) The cutting speed is constant almost throughout the stroke unlike the other shapers where the speed changes continuously. G.

It has a round table that can rotate and also can be fed longitudinally and cross wise. . a) Horizontal shaper: Reciprocates in a horizontal axis. C. PRADEEP 75 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. According to the position and travel of ram. b) Vertical shaper: Reciprocates in a vertical axis. Also the ram can be reciprocated at an angle up to 100 from the vertical position enabling machining inclined surfaces. R. G.2.

C. . PRADEEP 76 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. Used for heavy jobs where table feed is not possible. R. G.c) Traveling head shaper: The ram moves cross wise for feed during reciprocation.

Dr. . R. C. PRADEEP 77 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.

According to the type of design of the table: a) Standard Shaper: Table has only 2 movements. to give feed. the table can be swiveled about a horizontal axis parallel to the ram ways and the upper portion of the table can be tilted about a second horizontal axis ┴ to the first axis. Dr. PRADEEP 78 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. R. b) Universal shaper: In addition to the 2 . C. G.

G. Vertical. C. Key ways. R. 4) Number of speeds and feeds. . PRADEEP 79 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. Angular surfaces 2) Cutting Slots. Dr. 5) Floor space required 6) Weight of machine etc OPERATIONS ON HORIZONTAL SHAPERS: 1) Machining Horizontal. Length of stroke or cut 2) Table size 3) Return time to cutting time ratio. Grooves. Gears etc (External Only) OPERATIONS ON VERTICAL SHAPERS: Similar to Slotters.SPECIFICATIONS AND OPERATIONS SPECIFICATIONS: 1) The max.

PRADEEP 80 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. . G. C.

TIME ESTIMATION (1) Cutting speed V = NL(1+m)/1000 m/min (This theoretical formula is used in calculations) L = Length of cutting stroke in mm m = Ratio of return time to cutting time N = No. C. The stopping point of cutting stroke in hydraulic shapers can vary depending on the resistance offered to cutting by the work material. In actual practice. Hence the average cutting speed is expressed as: Vavg = V / 2 = NL(1+m) / 2 x 1000 2. of double strokes per min = RPM of bull gear Note: 1. G. the cutting speed changes during the cutting stroke in the crank type and geared type shapers. . PRADEEP 81 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. Dr.

R.(2) Time required by cutting stroke = L / 1000V (3) Return stroke time = m x cutting stroke time= mL/ 1000V (4) No.5 f / tan θ mm Where 2θ = Angle b/w the two cutting edges in the single point tool f /2 Rt θ Dr. where d = depth of cut in mm (7) Power consumed = K x MRR hp where K = constant for calculating horse power consumed (8) Theoretical peak to valley height = Rt = 0. of double strokes required to complete the job = W / f W = Width of W. C. f = feed in mm (or) mm/Cutting stroke (or) mm/double stroke (5) Total time taken for one complete cut = LW(1+m)/1000fV (6) Metal Removal Rate (MRR) = 1000Vfd mm3 / . PRADEEP 82 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.P. G.

com . C.SLOTTER INTRODUCTION: This operates almost on the same principle as that of a shaper. PRADEEP 83 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. Here the ram reciprocates in a vertical axis. R. There is no quick return and the mechanism used for ram is Crank and connecting rod mechanism. G. Video 1.2 Dr. Slotter is more robust compared to vertical shaper. The slotter is provided with a rotary table that can be moved longitudinally and cross wise. Slotter was invented before shaper. The slotter is used for making regular and irregular surfaces both internal and external and also for handling complex work pieces.

TYPES 1) Puncher slotter: A heavy. R. PRADEEP 84 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.8 . Dr. C. The length of stroke is very large (1. for removing large amount of metal from large forgings and castings. rigid .2m). G.

Used for accurate finish. PRADEEP 85 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. Dr.2) Precision slotter: It is a lighter machine and is operated at high speeds. using light cuts. . G. C.

grooves of various shapes. PRADEEP 86 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. Cams. R. Internal machining of blind holes. C. Net weight of the machine etc. Cylindrical surfaces. keyways. Length of stroke 2. Amount of cross and longitudinal travel of the table 4. Dr.SPECIFICATIONS AND OPERATIONS SPECIFICATION: 1. G. machining of dies. of speeds and feeds 5. internal and external gears. 2) Machining flat surfaces. Diameter of table 3. Floor space required 6. OPERATIONS: 1) Machining slots. No. both internal and . punches etc.

Dr. PRADEEP 87 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. G. C. .

Video 5. R. In a planer the work which is supported on the table reciprocates past the stationary cutting tool and feed is given by the lateral movement of the tool. A planer is very large compared to . C. PRADEEP 88 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.6 Dr. G.PLANER INTRODUCTION: The planer like shaper is a m/c tool primarily intended to produce plane and flat surfaces by a single point cutting tool.

com . Dr. The Cross rail can move up and down on the vertical housings and one or two tool heads provided can travel cross wise for tool feed across the cross rail.TYPES 1)Double housing planer (or) standard planer: Has two vertical housings connected by a cast iron member on top. PRADEEP 89 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. C. Table is mounted on the bed and can reciprocate. R. G.

PRADEEP 90 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. G. . R. C.2) Open side planer: Only one side housing and the cross rail is suspended as cantilever. Used for very wide Jobs.

G. of identical pieces on the machine. This type of planer has two tables on the bed which may be reciprocated separately together. PRADEEP TABLES 91 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. CROSS RAIL Dr. R. C. This type of design saves much of the idle time while setting large no.3) Divided Table Planer: Also called Tandem .

the column carrying the cross rail reciprocates on massive horizontal rails mounted on both sides of the table. Suitable for very large works. R. C.4) Pit planer: It is a massive construction. The table is stationary. G. Dr. PRADEEP 92 Email: .

com . G.5) Edge or plate planer: This is specially intended for squaring and beveling the edges of steel plates used for different pressure vessels and ship building works. Dr. C. PRADEEP 93 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. R. . R. of speeds and feeds available. No. Dr. angular surfaces (2) Slots and grooves. PRADEEP 94 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. Floor space reqd. of machine etc. 3. Net wt. 4. 2. C.SPECIFICATIONS AND OPERATIONS SPECIFICATIONS: 1. vertical.The size of the largest rectangular solid that can reciprocate under the tool. OPERATIONS: (1) Planning flat horizontal. . G.Dr. C. PRADEEP 95 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.

DRILLING INTRODUCTION: A drilling machine was primarily designed to originate a hole. In a drilling machine holes may be drilled quickly and at low cost. The cutting motion is provided by rotating the drill and feeding is done by giving rectilinear motion to the drill in the axial direction. but it can also perform a No. PRADEEP 96 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. of similar operations. Video 1 . R. Here the drill used has two cutting edges called lips. G. The hole is generated by the rotating edge of a cutting tool known as the drill which exerts large force on the work clamped on the table. C.

The max. .TYPES (1) Portable drilling machine: This type of D. including the motor is compact and small in size. Dr. size of the drill that can accommodate is not more than 12 to 18 mm.M.M. The entire D.M. G. R. PRADEEP 97 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. can be operated with ease anywhere in the work shop and is used for drilling holes in work pieces in any position which cannot be drilled in a standard D.

are designed to drill holes as small as 0. Dr.D. The base of the machine may be mounted on a bench or on the floor.5 mm can be used in this machine. Drills size is . R. C.M. It is a small machine designed for drilling small holes at high speed in light and small jobs. High speed and hand feed are necessary for drilling small holes.5 to 15.(2) Sensitive D. PRADEEP 98 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.M. G.M.000 rpm or above. There is no arrangement for the automatic feed of the drill spindle.35 mm and can be rotated at a speed of 20. Super sensitive D. As the operator can sense the progress of the drill it is called S.

PRADEEP 99 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. a) Round Column Section (or) Pillar D. G. R.M. It is similar to a S.M.M.D. size of the hole that can be drilled is not more than 50mm.P.(3) Upright . but is heavier and larger than S.P. Dr.: It consists of round column and a round table. C. of different heights. and is supplied with power feed arrangement.: This is designed for handling medium sized W. The table can be moved up and down on the column for accommodating W. The max. The table may be rotated 360o about its own centre.M.D.

M. Heavier W. and holes more than 50 mm dia can be drilled by it. The table is raised or lowered by an elevating screw that gives additional support to the table.P. Heavy box column gives the machine strength and rigidity. with box column section has a square table fitted on the slides at the front face of the machine column. Dr. G. PRADEEP 100 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.: The upright D.M. C.(b) Box Column Section Upright . R.

G. This can be further classified as  Dr. The column supports a radial arm which can be raised and lowered to accommodate work pieces of difference heights The arm may be swung around to any position over the work bed. R.P. It consists of a heavy. PRADEEP 101 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. round vertical column mounted on a large base.M: It is intended for drilling medium to large and heavy W.(4) Radial D. C. The drill head containing mechanism for rotating and feeding the drill is mounted on the radial arm and can be moved horizontally on the guide ways and clamped at any desired .

com . C.(a) Plain RDM. R.It has the movements explained above. PRADEEP 102 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.:. Dr. G.

P. the drill head can be swung about a horizontal axis to the arm.In addition to the above 3 movements.In addition to the above 4 movements the drill head may be rotated on a horizontal axis. G. This 4th movement of the drill head permits drilling hole at an angle to the H. (c) Universal RDM:. Dr.(b) Semi Universal RDM:. at any angle and in any plane. PRADEEP 103 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. C. R. other than normal . All these 5 movements enable it to drill on a W.

D. R. Spindle may be set up properly with difference tools for different operations. 4 to 6 spindles may be mounted side by side. work table. Video 2. The speed and feed of spindles are controlled independently.: When a No.M. A series of operations may be performed on the work by simply shifting the work from one position to the other on the work table each.D. 3 Dr. In a G. the machine is known as G.M.M. columns are placed side by side on a common base and have a common. G. of single spindle D. C. PRADEEP 104 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.M. This type of machine is specially adapted for production work.(5) Gang .

com . G. Simultaneously.(6) Multiple spindle D. of holes in a piece of work simultaneously and to reproduce the same pattern of holes in a No. The spindles are so constructed that their centre distance may be adjusted in any position as required by various jobs within the capacity of the drill head. of identical pieces in a mass production work such machines have several spindles driven by a single motor and all the spindles holding drills are fed into the work. But the feeding motion may also be secured by lowering the drill heads. Feeding motion is usually obtained by raising the work table. is to drill a No.: The function of the multiple spindle D.M. R. The spindles are connected by a number of planetary gears so that even different size drills can be loaded. For this purpose. Dr. C.M. PRADEEP 105 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. the drill spindles are connected to the main drive by universal joints.

Video 4. C.5 Dr. . R. PRADEEP 106 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.

8 Dr.7) Deep Hole Drilling machine: Special machine and drills are required for drilling deep holes in rifle barrels. long spindles. The machine may be Horizontal type (or) Vertical type. oil holes in crank . This helps in feeding the drill in a st. This process permits the chip to clear out from the work. R. The machine is operated at high speed and low feed. PRADEEP 107 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. Video 6. The drill is withdrawn automatically each time when it penetrates in to the work to a depth equal to its dia. long shafts etc.7. G. path. C. A long job is usually supported at several points to prevent any deflection. The work is usually rotated while the drill is fed into the work. .Dr. R. G. PRADEEP 108 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.

There are different types of deep hole drilling processes and are categorized by how the cutting coolant flushes heat and chips from the cutting face. C. Drilling size (dia) is 3-50 mm. Coolant is pumped through a hole in the inside of the drill. . It flows back outside the drill. R. They are: Gun drilling . bringing the chips with it. PRADEEP 109 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. G. through the flute.The cutting tool is a straight fluted solid rod that has a hole bored down the center.

Dr. PRADEEP 110 Email: . Depth to Diameter ratio is highest. Coolant is pumped around the outside of the cutting tool at heavy pressure and carries chips out through the center of the tube.The cutting tool is a tube. G. Because tubes have minimum sizes.BTA (Boring and Trepanning Association) . this is only an acceptable technology for holes of diameter over 15 mm and up to 600 mm. Very high penetration rates can be achieved with this system along with good surface finish. R. C. . R.Examples of Deep Hole Drilling Dr. G. PRADEEP 111 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.

Specifications . G. of spindle speeds and feeds available. of the machine Dr. Max. Morse taper No. No. size of drill that the machine can operate. Net wt. Floor space required 7. C. Max. R. PRADEEP 112 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. spindle travel 3. 6. of the drill spindle 5. Table diameter / size 4. 2.

5 mm) 2. Taper shank Drills (ϕ 14. PRADEEP 113 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.TERMINOLOGY Drills are manufactured as: 1.0 mm onwards) Tang Shank Neck Body Tip Dr. R. G. C. Straight shank drills (up to ϕ .

and lathe centres Drift Dr.Drilling M/c Spindle Drill Chuck with Chuck key Morse taper is provided on all drilling . inside drilling machine spindle. PRADEEP Sleeve 114 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. G. R. lathe turret. C. lathe tail stock.

PRADEEP 115 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. C. R.DRILL GEOMETRY Lip angle/ Tip Angle/ Point Angle Dr. .

G. . R.Land / Margin: It maintains the alignment of the drill so that hole is straight and to the right (correct) size. Dr. PRADEEP 116 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.

Helix angle: Angle formed b/w a plane containing drill axis and the leading edge of land. G. They provide great lifting . but are weak. Dr. Also used in horizontal applications where drill is not rotating.Used for brass. used for deep holes. PRADEEP 117 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. bronze. used for shallow holes. They provide less lifting power. C.most widely used 3) Fast/High spiral series: 34o to 38o – Used for softer ferrous and non-ferrous materials producing long string like chips (ductile materials). R. CI that produce broken chips (brittle materials). 2) Regular spiral series: 28o to 32o . but are stronger. Based on the value of the angle the drills can be classified as 1) Slow spiral series: 12o to 22o .

R. C. .Dr. PRADEEP 118 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.

C. R. Longer lip lengths reduce load per unit length of the lip and helps in resisting the wear caused by abrasive action during machining of metals like C. Dr.Lip angle: Angle formed b/w the cutting edges (lips).com . Smaller the point angle. longer the lip length. G. Higher point angles generate narrow and thick chips. PRADEEP 119 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. Smaller point angles results in lower effective rake.I. Effect of change in effective rake is negligible on drill performance. Higher point angle increases the cutting efficiency of the drill because most materials are cut efficiently in the form of thick chips. Smaller point angles generate wider and thin chips.

6) Chilled C.I.S. PRADEEP 1180 (< 180 HB) 1180 (180 .I.1) M. 5) Grey C.140o (280 – 380 HB) 900 (< 180 HB) 1180 (180 .280 HB) 1350 . 2) Steel 3) Steel 4) Grey C. R. .280 HB) 1350 – 1400 (> 350 HB) 1180 1180 1180 1110 120 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. 7) Aluminum 8) Copper 9) Bronze 10) Brass           Dr. C.I.

Dr.Clearance / Lip relief Angle: Angle formed b/w flank and a plane normal to drill axis at the tip of the drill. Small angles (60–80) are used for brittle matls. C. Large angles (80–120) are used for ductile matls. G. to compensate elastic recovery. PRADEEP 121 Email: . R.

3) Counter boring .Making a cone shaped enlargement to provide a recess for a screw head. 2) Boring – Enlarging a hole completely with an adjustable tool with only one cutting . Dr. C. R. G. PRADEEP 122 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.Enlarging one end of the hole to form a square shoulder with original hole to avoid projections in assemblies. 4) Counter sinking .OPERATIONS 1) Drilling – Process of making hole in solid body.

com . C. R. They form fine powder that will fall by gravity. Brass. Bronze. G.I. PRADEEP 123 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. a) Straight flute reamer is used for through holes in materials that do not form chips like C. Chucking (M/c) Reamer Dr. b) Left hand spiral flute reamer is used for through holes in other a) b) c) materials and is very effective as they push the chips out of the through hole. c) Right hand spiral flute reamer Manual Reamer & Wrench is used for blind holes as they pull M/c Reamers the chips out of them.5) Reaming – Sizing and finishing a small unhardened hole.

providing a way for the chips to escape and a channel for lubricant to reach the cutting edges. but merely grooves cut for the full length of the reamer body. To prevent binding they have a slight back . G. R. Dr. The cylindrical part of the reamer has no cutting edges. C.d) Rose reamers are primarily used for roughing prior to final reaming. PRADEEP 124 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. The cutting edges at the end are ground to a 450 bevel.

com . the slots in the reamer engage lugs on the arbor for driving power.e) Shell reamers are similar to cutting portion of a chucking reamer. C. G. A arbor is used in conjunction with the shell reamer. Dr. PRADEEP 125 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. R. They are supplied without a shank and has a hole through the center.

PRADEEP 126 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. Spot facing tools with pilot Dr. C. G. 7)Tapping–Process of making internal threads in small holes. Machine Tap with holder Manual Tap 8) Spot facing – Process of smoothing and squaring the surface around the hole or seat for a nut (or) head of a screw for burr removal.6) Lapping – Sizing and finishing a hole already hardened. .

G.Burr formation during drilling Dr. 127 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. R. C. PRADEEP Centre Drill used for making a centre impression on surface for locating the drill . locating the lathe & Grinding centres.

com . G. R.10. C.11 Dr. Used for producing large holes in plates.9) Trepanning – Operation of producing a hole by removing metal along the circumference of a hollow cutting tool. PRADEEP 128 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. Video 9.

V= πDN / 1000 m/min 2) Machining Time.5D / tanθ = 0.29D (For 2θ = 1180) (where. 2θ = Lip angle) L4 = Over Travel 3) Depth of cut.TIME ESTIMATION 1) Cutting speed. PRADEEP 129 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. G. d = D / 2 4) MRR = πD2fN / 4 = πD2fm / 4 Dr. T = L / (f x N) = L / fm L = L1 + L2 + L3 + L4 (Some times L= L1 + 0. . C.5D) L1 = Depth of hole L2 = Approach length L3 = Length of tip = 0.

The cutter rotates at a high speed. and because of the multiple cutting edges it removes the metal at a very fast rate. The first milling machine came into existence in about 1770 and was of French . Dr. R. G. C.MILLING INTRODUCTION: A milling machine is a machine tool that removes metal as the work is fed against a rotating multi point cutter. PRADEEP 130 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.

1. Column & knee type: Most commonly used for
general shop work. The table is mounted on the knee
casting, which in-turn is mounted on the vertical slides of
the main column. The knee is vertically adjustable on
the column, so that the table can be moved up and down
to accommodate work of various heights. The table can
be moved longitudinally and cross wise on the knee
casting. Classification of this type is based on methods of
supplying power to the table, diff. movement of the table
and diff. axis of rotation of the main spindle.




(a) Hand milling machine  Feeding is done by hand and
used for light and simple operations like slots, grooves,
keyways. This is available in both horizontal & vertical
models Table movements are as above.




(b) Plain milling
machine  This is a
milling m/c. This is
more rigid
sturdy, for heavy
work, can be fed by
hand or power.
Table can be fed as




machine  This is also a
horizontal type milling
m/c. In addition to 3
milling machine the table
has a fourth movement
i.e. it is fed at an angle to
milling cutter.
enable it to perform
helical milling.
machine can produce
spur, spiral, bevel gears,
twist drills, reamers,
milling cutters etc.



milling machine 
This is a horizontal
type milling m/c. The
extra fifth movement
is the table can be
tilted in
plane by providing a
swivel arrangement
at the knee. This
enables milling in
any plane. Taper
reamers, bevel gears
etc can be done.



(e) Vertical milling machine
Here the position of the
spindle is vertical and ┴ to
the work table. The spindle
head is clamped to the
vertical column and can be
swiveled at an angle . Also
the spindle head can be
adjusted up / down relative
movements are same as
plain milling machine.



In 5 a plano miller. Plano Miller: It resembles a planer. G. of work surfaces can be machined simultaneously. PRADEEP 137 Email: . the table has feed movement instead of reciprocation. Hence no. Dr. It has a cross rail which can be raised or lowered along with cutters. R. thereby Video reducing production time.2. C. It is having multiple spindle heads both in vertical and horizontal planes. Hence the table movement here is much slower than planning machine.

A No. R. heights relative to work so that when one cutter is roughing the other is finishing them. The face milling cutters can be mounted on two (or) more vertical spindles and can be set at . PRADEEP 138 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. Rotary table Machine  A modification of vertical milling machine adopted for machining flat surfaces. of work pieces can be mounted on a circular table which rotates about vertical axis. Continuous loading and unloading of work pieces can be done by the operator while milling is in progress. C. Dr. G.3. . R. Dr.4. This machine is particularly adopted for milling internal / external threads of different pitches.Planetary milling machine: Here the work is held stationary while the revolving cutter / cutters move in a planetary path to finish a cylindrical surface on the work either internally / externally / simultaneously.7 139 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. C. PRADEEP Video 6.

2-D models are used for engraving letters or other designs. PRADEEP 140 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. equal to or greater than the size of a template or model used for this purpose. 3-D models are used for copying any shape and contour of the work piece.5. C. . Pantograph machines are available in 2D or 3D models. Pantograph milling machine  It can duplicate a job by using a pantograph mechanism which permits the size o the work piece reproduced to be smaller than. Dr. The tracing stylus is moved manually on the contour of the model to be duplicated and the milling cutter mounted on the spindle moves in a similar path on the work piece. reproducing the shape of the model. A pantograph is a mechanism that is generally constructed of four bars or links joined in the form of parallelogram. G.

Video 8 Dr. PRADEEP 141 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. C. R. .

of table speeds and feeds 4. No. No. . Floor space required 5. R. Spindle nose taper (for vertical milling machine spindle) and taper on horizontal milling machine arbors Dr.SPECIFICATIONS 1. G. of spindle speeds. Net weight required 6. 2. 3. PRADEEP 142 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. cross and vertical travel of the table. The maximum length of longitudinal.

+ve radial rake gives better performance in peripheral .ve radial rake gives best performance. C. Axial Rake has significant effect on axial force and thrust applied to the spindle. +ve axial rake. Face cutter: Two rake angles are defined here.MILLING GEOMETRY Peripheral cutter: As the cutting edges are arranged radially on the periphery the rake angle is called radial rake which is the cutting edges angle w.t to the periphery of the cutter. Dr.t the periphery of the cutter (b) Axial rake is the cutting insert’s angle w.r. (a) Radial rake is the cutting insert’s angle w. Radial rake has major effect on tangential and radial forces. PRADEEP 143 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. R.t the central axis of the cutter. . G.

com .PERIPHERAL CUTTER Dr. PRADEEP 144 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. R. G. C.

PRADEEP 145 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. . R.FACE CUTTER Side View Bottom View Dr. G.

The quality of surface generated and the shape of the chip formed is dependent upon the rotation of the cutter relative to the direction of feed movement of the work. PRADEEP 146 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. Due to this reason. R. According to the relative movement between the tool and work.METHODS OF MILLING 1. Peripheral Milling: It is the operation performed by a milling cutter to produce a machined surface parallel to the axis of rotation of the cutter. Here the cutting force is not uniform throughout the length of cut by each tooth. a shock is developed in the mechanism of the machine that leads to a vibration. G. the peripheral milling is classified into two types: . C.

com .Dr. R. C. G. PRADEEP 147 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. . spoiling the work surface. and may be carried over with the cutter. It generates a poor finish. G. This is used for roughing operations. at the beginning of cut max.P. Cutting force and power are more.(a) Up milling / Conventional milling: The metal is removed by the cutter which is rotated against the travel of the W. The chips accumulate at the cutting zone. when the cut terminates. The thickness of the chip is min. The cutting force is directed up wards and this tends to lift the work from the fixtures. R. Dr. PRADEEP 148 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.

Hence this operation should be performed on rigid machines provided with back last eliminator. when the tooth leave the . PRADEEP 149 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. R. This is used for finishing operations. The chips are also disposed off easily and do not interfere with the cutting. Hence fixture design is easier. This results in improved surface finish. G. The thickness of the chip is max. Cutting force and power are less. This operation cannot be used on old machine as the back lash error present in the screw elements that may cause vibration and damages the work surface considerably.(b) Down milling/ Climb milling: The metal is removed by the cutter which is rotated in the same direction of travel of the W. Dr.P. C. when the tooth begins its cut and it reduces to the min. The cutting force is directed down wards and this tends seat the work firmly in the work holding devices.

The nuts engage common crown gear which meshes with rack. C. R. Turning the knob forces the nuts to move along lead screw in opposite directions. G. Dr. The axial movement of rack is controlled by the backlash eliminator. engaging a knob on front of . Two independent nuts are mounted on lead screw.BACKLASH ELIMINATOR: This eliminates the backlash (play) between nut and table lead screw. PRADEEP 150 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.

The chip thickness is min. and it is max. The surface generated in face milling is characterized by the tooth circular marks of the cutter. when the work passes through the centre line of cutter. Dr. G.2. When the cutter rotates through half of the revolution the direction of movement of the cutter tooth is opposite to the direction of feed and the condition reverse when the cutter rotates through other half of revolution. C. In this operation both up milling and down milling may be considered to be performed simultaneously on the work surface. Face Milling: This is performed to produce a flat machined surface to the axis of rotation of the cutter. PRADEEP 151 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. R. Face milling gives superior finish than peripheral . at the beginning and at the end of the cut.

C. R. PRADEEP 152 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. G.Draw Bolt Spindle Cutter Holder Spindle Nose Taper .

The cutting characteristics may be of peripheral or face milling type according to the particular cutter surface used. C. G.3. The cutter has cutting edges both on the end face and on the periphery. When end cutting edges are only used to remove metal. PRADEEP 153 Email: . When peripheral cutting edges are used. End Milling: It is a combination of peripheral and face milling operations. Dr. R. the direction of rotation of the cutter and direction of helix of the cutter should be same. the direction of rotation of the cutter and direction of helix of the cutter must be opposite to each other.

R. G. . PRADEEP 154 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.Draw Bolt Collet Holder Collet Wrench Collet End Mill Dr.

arbors of horizontal machines. G. C. This is used in European and Asian Countries Dr. R. inside of vertical machine spindles and on grinding machine spindles.5” per foot is made standard taper in all milling machines built in . Brown and Sharpe Taper of 0. PRADEEP 155 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.S.TAPER USED IN MILLING MACHINES American Standard Taper of 3.5” per foot is also widely used on collets.

OPERATIONS 1. flat horizontal . PRADEEP 156 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. R. Dr. 2. Side Milling: Producing flat vertical surface on the side of a work piece by using side milling cutter. G. Plain Milling: Producing plain. C. This is called slab milling if performed with a peripheral cutter and called face Milling if a face milling cutter is used.

3. Gang Milling: Machining several surfaces simultaneously using a No. Straddle Milling: Producing flat vertical surfaces on both sides of the work piece by using two side milling cutter mounted on the same arbor. of cutters of same or diff. diameters mounted on the arbor of the machine. R. . The distance between the two cutter can be adjusted by using spacing collars. G. Video 9 4. PRADEEP 157 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. used widely for repetitive work Dr.

horizontal or at an angle in reference to the table surface like slots. PRADEEP 158 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. key ways.5. grooves. Dr. End milling: Producing flat surfaces which may be . R. Form Milling: Producing irregular contours using form cutters like concave. G. C. convex or any other shape. Convex Cutter Concave Milling Convex Milling Concave Cutter 6. steps etc. A vertical milling machine is most suitable for end milling. . PRADEEP 159 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. It can also be performed for complete parting off operation. G. Saw milling: Producing narrow slots or grooves using saw milling cutter. 10. R. 9. Gear cutting: By using form relieved cutter having the same profile of the tooth space of the gear. 9. Note: 8. C.7. above can be done in indexing. Cam Milling: Producing cams by using universal dividing head and a vertical milling attachment. 10. Dr. Helical Milling: Producing helical flutes or grooves around the periphery of a cylindrical or conical work piece.

of equal parts. Indexing is accomplished by using a special attachment known as dividing head or Index head. taps and reamers. There are several methods of indexing. They are of 3 types  1) Plain / Simple dividing head 2) Universal Dividing head 3) Optical Dividing head Using these dividing heads.INDEXING It is the operation of dividing the periphery of a piece of work into any No. The choice of any one method depends upon the No. the work can be set in vertical. This is adopted for producing hexagonal and square headed bolts cutting splines on shafts. G. PRADEEP 160 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. R. Dr. of divisions required and the type of dividing head used. cutting of Gears. flutes in milling cutters. cams etc. . horizontal or in inclined positions relative to the table surface. C.


when the plate is turned throughout the required part o a revolution. it is again locked by pin. While indexing. G. The required No. The plate has 24 equally spaced holes. the dividing head spindle and the work are also turned through the same part of the revolution. C. of divisions on the work is obtained by means of the rapid index plate generally fitted to the front end of the spindle nose.METHODS OF INDEXING 1) Direct Indexing: Also called rapid indexing. the pin is first taken out and then the spindle is rotated by hand. R. and after the required position is reached. The spindle and index crank are connected by bevel gears. PRADEEP 162 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. This can be performed in both plain and universal dividing head. Dr. is used making small . into any one of which a spring loaded in is pushed to lock the spindle with the frame. of divisions.

12.8. PRADEEP 163 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. G. of holes to be moved = 24/6 = 4 After machining one side of the bolt the index plate will have to be moved by 4 holes for 5 times to machining the remaining 5 faces of the bolt.6. C. it is possible to divided the work into equal divisions of all factors of 24 i.3. 2. of holes in the direct index plate No. Ans.e. of holes to be moved = No.24 Video 10 Rule: .With a rapid index plate having 24 holes. of divisions required Q) Find out the index movement required to mill a hexagonal bolt by direct indexing. No. R. Dr.4.

com . 40 turns of crank are necessary to rotate the spindle thro' one revolution. The bevel gears are replaced by a worm and worm wheel. R. Dr.e one complete turn of the index crank will cause the worm wheel to make 1/40 of a revolution. C. various index plates are used. The shaft carrying the crank has a single threaded worm and it meshes with the worm wheel on spindle having 40 teeth. PRADEEP 164 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. G. For indexing fractions of a turn.2) Simple Indexing: Also called plain indexing. i. is more accurate and suitable for numbers beyond the range of rapid indexing.

the numerator and denominator of the fraction are multiplied by a suitable common No. 21 hole circles etc. PRADEEP 165 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.12. the index crank should be rotated equal to the whole No. which will make the denominator of the fraction equal to No. of holes to be moved by index crank in the hole circle derived from denominator. If the crank movement obtained from the above formula is a whole No. Dr. 16. 14. R. and a fraction then. derived. If the crank movement obtained from the formula is a whole No. of holes in the index plate. where N = No. of divisions required. Eg: Index plates. The new numerator now stands for the No. in addition to the complete turns of crank. G. .Rule: Index crank movement = 40/N. C.

one complete turn and 7 holes in 21 hole circle of the index plate will have to be moved by the index . Use 21 hole index plate. This can also be performed with 18 hole plate [ ] or 24 hole plate [ ] also. 11 Index crank movement = 40/30 = = = Thus for indexing. C. if 21 hole plate is selected. Dr.Q) Set the dividing head to mill 30 teeth on a spur wheel blank. Video Ans. PRADEEP 166 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. R. G.

PRADEEP 167 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. C. R.The indexing method is called compound due to the two separate movement of the index crank in two diff. Video 12 Dr. G. Here the Index crank is connected to milling machine feed rod through a set of gears to get continuous rotation for spindle for making helical grooves as shown. hole circles of one (same) index plate to obtain a crank movement not obtainable by plain indexing.3) Compound . 4) Differential Indexing: The differential indexing may be considered as an automatic method (mechanization) of performing compound indexing.

R. G. C.Setting of universal dividing head for spiral or helical grooves Dr. PRADEEP 168 Email: .

PRADEEP 169 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. Z = No. D = Cutter Diameter 4.P . R. G. MRR = Wdfm .TIME ESTIMATION 1. of cuts(or) Indexing 3. a) For Peripheral / Slab Cutters / Side and Face Cutters ∆ = Clearance at entry /exit Dr. Feed per tooth. ATT = Added Table Travel . Cutting speed. of teeth 5. V = πDN / 1000. ft = f / Z = fm / NZ. Total Milling time= Time per cut x No. Time required per cut = L / (f x N) = L / fm L = L1+ ATT L1=Length of W. C. d = depth of cut. W= Width of WP Calculation of ATT: Operations performed on the milling machines are done by peripheral cutters / slab cutters/ side and face cutters (Horizontal M/c) and face cutters or end mills (Vertical M/c).

PRADEEP 170 Email: . G.General Case FRONT VIEW FRONT VIEW ATT calculation neglecting clearance Dr. C. R.

com .(v) Maximum uncut chip thickness = (vi) Average uncut chip thickness = (vii) Peak to valley height for surface roughness = (viii) Effective no. of teeth cutting at same time = (ix) Mean Tangential Force =Fmt = K d fm W / πDN K = Material Constant (x) Mean Cutting Power = Fmt V Dr. R. G. C. PRADEEP 171 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.

Finishing Pass – requires “Full Wiping ” (Single pass feed) iii) Tool not fully engaged with W<D/2. C. Dr. Roughing Pass – doesn’t require “Full Wipe” General Case Special Cases ii) Tool fully engaged. . PRADEEP 172 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. G.b) For Face Cutters/End Mills i) Tool fully engaged. Offset Cases iv) Tool not fully engaged but W ≥ D/2.

5 cm VIEW L1 W W/2 L = L1 + AL + OT + D Dr. PRADEEP 173 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.OT L = L1 + OT L1 (i) W O TOP VIEW A B W/2 C A (ii) AL = 0. G.5 cm TOP OT = . R. C.

PRADEEP 174 TOP VIEW Email: .(iii) L1 AL W A B TOP VIEW O (iv) OT AL L1 OT W AL = OT = D/2 Dr. G. C. R.

Internal broaching is done by either pulling (or) pushing the broach through a hole drilled in the work piece. where as the feed is obtained by placing the teeth progressively deeper. grooves.BROACHING Broach is bar type cutter with series of cutting edges gradually increasing in size to remove all materials in one stroke. Video 1 Dr.e. Pulling is highly preferred to facilitate alignment and avoid buckling. PRADEEP 175 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. G. the primary cutting motion is provided by the machine. non-circular holes. Since there is no feed motion. C. . R. In broaching there is only one motion. Broach is used to produce internal forms like spline holes. slots. the shape of the broach determines the shape of the machined part. gears etc.

The broach is stationary but the W. Here the broach is made in segments and fixed inside a fixture called pot fixture. .Similar external forms can also be produced by using pot broach. is pulled / pushed through it. C. G. PRADEEP 176 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.P. Pot broach Internal broaches Dr.

PRADEEP 177 Email: . diamond. Natural abrasives available in nature include sand stone (natural silica).GRINDING Introduction: Grinding is the process of removing excess material by the abrasive action of a rotating wheel on the surface of the work piece. Dr. They include Al2O3. It is basically a finishing process employed to produce high accuracy and surface finish. CBN etc. R. The grinding wheel consists of sharp crystals called abrasives held together by suitable bonding. Artificial abrasives are free from impurities and possess better performance properties. G. SiC. corundum and emery (natural alumina). C.

R. . C. PRADEEP SiC 178 Emery CBN Email: grcpradeep@gmail.Natural Silica Corundum White Al Oxide Dr.

This is the strongest bond of all and is not effected by water/oils/acids. PRADEEP 179 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. This bond is also not recommended for very high speed grinding because of possible breakage of the bond under centrifugal force. b) Resinoid bond (B) – It is a synthetic thermosetting resin (phenolic resins) that becomes hard after heating. Dr. R. C. It cannot be used where mechanical impact or thermal variations are likely to occur.The various bonding materials used are: a) Vitrified bond (V) – It is made of clay and feldspar (rock forming mineral in earth’s crust). This occupies next place to Vitrified bond. Vitrified bond is suitable for high stock removal even at dry condition. . Conventional abrasive resin bonded wheels are widely used for heavy duty grinding because of their ability to withstand shock load.

Rubber bond was once popular for finish grinding on bearings and cutting tools. This not suitable for heavy duty . PRADEEP 180 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. G. They are denser than resinoid bonds but are less heat resistant. d) Rubber bond (R) – It is made of synthetic or natural rubber. Dr. e) Shellac bond (E) – This is also an organic bond and has considerable strength. R.c) Silicate bond (S) – It is made of sodium silicate and is used for operations that generate less heat. They are also used for making regulating wheels in centreless grinding. At present use of shellac bond is limited to grinding wheels engaged in fine finish of rolls. At one time this bond was used for flexible cut off wheels. C. Its principal use is in thin wheels for wet cut-off operation.

com . PRADEEP 181 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. C.Vitrified Bond Resinoid Bond Silicate Bond Rubber Bond Parting Wheels Rubber Bond Regulating Wheels Shellac Bond Dr. G. R.

B – CBN. D – Diamond 60 – Average grit size or Mesh Size . 220-600 – Very fine K – Hardness of wheel (Bonding Strength) → A – Softest to Z – Hardest 5 – Porosity of wheel → 1 to 15/20 1.Specification of Grinding Wheel Eg: 51 A 60 K 5 V 05 51 – Manufacturer’s identification no. C.High porosity / Open structure / Less denser V – Bonding material 05 – Wheel manufacturer’s identifier Dr. C – SiC. PRADEEP 182 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.8-24 – Coarse. 30-60 – . R.Low porosity / Closed structure / More denser 15/20. for exact kind of abrasive used A – Type of abrasive A – Al2O3. G. 80-180 – Fine.

com . PRADEEP 183 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. C. R.Classification of Grinding Machines Video 1.2 Surface Grinding M/c: Similar to Milling a) Horizontal Machine b) Vertical Machine Dr. G.

Can perform both External and Internal . G. PRADEEP 184 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. Video 3 Dr.Cylindrical Grinding M/c: Similar to lathe. R. C.

PRADEEP 185 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. .Dr. R. G.

R.Centerless Grinding M/c: . G. C. PRADEEP 186 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.

EXTERNAL CENTRELESS GRINDING Dr. PRADEEP 187 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. R. G. .

PRADEEP 188 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.INTERNAL CENTRELESS GRINDING Dr. . R. G.

C. cam shafts. 3) End feed is for tapered components. G.Feeding System in External Machine 1) Through feed is for step less small components like piston pins. rollers of roller bearings. Video 4. dowel . valve tappets etc. 2) In feed / Plunge feed is for stepped components like Bolts. PRADEEP 189 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. R. Stopper is provided. Here the grinding wheel and regulating wheel are profiled to get the taper.5 Dr. Here the regulating wheel rpm is less and also inclined.

PRADEEP 190 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. .Special Grinding M/c a) Tool & Cutter grinder b) Thread Grinder Video 6. R. G.7 Dr.

R.Different Dressers Radius & Angular Dressing Attachment . PRADEEP 191 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. G. C.

Glazing: Glazing of the wheel is nothing but abrasive particles getting blunt. Truing: Truing is the act of regenerating the required geometry on the wheel. Dressing will remove the blunt layer.Dressing: Dressing is the conditioning of the wheel surface which ensures that grit cutting edges are exposed from the bond and thus will be able to penetrate into the work piece material and substantially influence the condition of the grinding wheel.r. R. G.t the spindle axis. Truing is required whenever a new wheel is loaded to ensure concentricity with machine spindle. . C. It is done with a diamond truing tool (dressing tool) by removing the outer layer and creating a concentric layer w. PRADEEP 192 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.

Loading / Clogging: It is the condition when pores of the grinding wheel get filled/clogged with chips. G. This can occur due to grinding of soft materials or by improper selection of grinding wheels or improper process parameters or improper cutting fluids. . Dr. R. Dressing will remove the clogged layer. PRADEEP 193 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.

3. The negative rake increases the cutting forces and promote rubbing action affecting the cutting action. The Grinding wheels have random geometry. G. PRADEEP 194 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. R. This is because of the large contact area between the wheel and the work resulting due to the large no.e < 1). Hard wheels are used for soft materials as wear out is less and they retain the grains for more time. Soft wheels are used for hard materials as they break easily to release worn out grains (High self sharpening capability).com . The rake angle varies from +450 to -600 and more.The specific energy requirement in Grinding (50 J/mm3)is more than that required in turning (2 . This is opposite in turning (i. The ratio of thrust force to cutting force in Grinding is > 1. Hence high rotational speeds are used for minimizing the effect of negative rake.5 J/mm3). 2. C. Dr. 4.Note: 1. of cutting edges.

oxide is the preferred abrasive compared to SiC to grind high tensile strength material like steel as Al. G. Also Al. • As the wheel loses material it must be reset to maintain the required work piece size. C. oxide is tougher than SiC. Dr. • In conventional grinding it is 20:1 to 80:1 • It is a measure of grinding production and reflects the amount of work a wheel can do during its useful life. PRADEEP 195 Email: .5. GRINDING RATIO: • Grinding Ratio or G Ratio is the cubic mm of stock removed divided by the cubic mm of wheel lost. R. Al. oxide shows higher chemical inertness towards steel giving more wear resistance during grinding. 6.

Open and soft wheels are used to accommodate large volume of chips generated.Creep feed Grinding: It is different from conventional grinding. C. .025 m/min are used. High depth of cuts of order 1 to 30 mm with low speeds of 1 to 0.005 mm). Dr. This is mainly used for grinding work pieces made out of hard materials with deep slots or complex profiles and also for removing large amounts of material. R. The cutting fluids are oil based due to low grinding speeds. PRADEEP 196 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.Wheel wear rate is more. Here the entire depth of cut is completed in one pass only using very small feed rates (0. Cutting forces and power required are more.

com .05 to 25 : Machining Process Milling : 0.SUPER FINISHING PROCESSES The surface finish produced by various processes are: PROCESS: SURFACE FINISH (µm) : TYPE OF PROCESS Turning.01 to 0. PRADEEP 197 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.5 to 6.025 to 1. boring : 0.025 to 6. G. Broaching : 0. R.375 to 25 : Machining Process Drilling : 0.25 to 25 : Machining Process Planning.5 : Machining Process Reaming.5 : Super Finishing Process Lapping : 0.25 : Super Finishing Process Polishing & Buffing: : Super Finishing Process Dr.75 to 12.75: Super Finishing Process Burnishing : 0.25 : Finishing Process Honing : 0.25 : Machining Process Grinding : 0.013 to 0. C. shaping : 0.

Honing can also be used for finishing gears where tool is made in plastic or any bonding material impregnated with abrasives. Special cutting fluids like sulphurised oils are used. The grit size is b/w 80 to 600 mesh size. . It can also be used for finishing external surfaces. R. PRADEEP 198 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. hydraulic cylinders. Dr. C. Here abrasives are in the form of sticks which are mounted on a mandrel which is given a reciprocating motion along the hole axis super imposed on a uniform rotary motion. Honing finds special application for cylinder bores as it produces a cross hatched pattern useful for lubrication.Honing This is used for finishing the inside surface of a hole. and gun barrels. Other examples include bearings.

G. PRADEEP 199 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. . C.Video 1 Dr.

Lapping A lap is generally made of material softer than work and has the same shape of the opposed mating part. G. Straight narrow grooves are cut at 90o on the lap surface and abrasive powder is sprinkled on the surface. Cr and diamond etc. measuring wires. R. Si. The grit size is b/w 120 to 1200 mesh . To carry out the process. is the mostly used lap material. other materials are soft steel Cu. Brass. C. C. (unrepeated paths) subjecting all portions of the surface to the same action. threads. the lap is pressed against the work and moved back and forth over the surface in a figure-eight or other motion pattern. A suitable fluid (carriers) is also applied like M/C oil. grease etc.I. Dr. Lapping is performed by hand or machines. lenses. m/c Spindles. Abrasives are oxides of Al. bearing races etc. PRADEEP 200 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. hardwood etc. gears. This process has wide applications like gauges.

com . C. PRADEEP 201 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.3 Dr.Video 2. G. R.

Eg: Burnishing of shafts. G.P. R. projections . PRADEEP 202 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.Burnishing It consists of pressing hardened steel balls or rolls on to the surface of W. and also imparting feed motion to the same so that it causes plastic flow of minute irregularities like dents. Shaft burnished on lathe Video 4 Hydraulic cylinders roller burnished on lathe Dr. C.

cookware. kitchenware. C. G. and architectural metal. PRADEEP 203 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. Polishing may be used to enhance and restore the looks of certain metal parts or object on cars and other vehicles. R.Polishing Polishing is a finishing operation to improve the surface finish by means of a polishing wheel made of fabrics or leather and rotating at high speed. Dr. handrails. The abrasive grains are glued to the outside periphery of the polishing . Polishing is used to remove scratches and burrs and to smoothen the rough surfaces.

PRADEEP 204 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. Dr.Buffing Buffing is a finishing operation similar to . Buffing is also used in manufacture light reflectors. dairy. R. C. in which abrasive grains are not glued to the wheel but are contained in a buffing compound that is pressed into the outside surface of the buffing wheel while it rotates. G. pipes are buffed to help prevent corrosion and to eliminate locations where bacteria or mold may reside. In applications such as pharmaceutical. and specialty plumbing. Buffing is used to provide attractive surfaces with high lustre.

They are used as fasteners to transmit power / motion. type writers etc. Threads made by die casting are very accurate and of high .THREAD MANUFACTURING Threads are of prime importance to Engg. G. C. PRADEEP 205 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. spun cast iron pipes etc. Dr. except some times in vices and rough machinery like construction equipment. Casting Methods: Threads made by sand casting are rough and not used much. The following are the methods of thread mfg. toys. But as they can be made with low melting point non ferrous metals. mouth of glass bottles. R. they are not fit for repeated use and hence used in sewing machines.

This is the fastest method of producing threads at a rate of 200 to 1000 pieces / min. This is limited to external threads only (up to dia. thread is rolled between hardened steel rolling dies having the thread profile.2 Forming Methods: Thread Rolling is a cold working process in which a blank of dia. Being chip less forming there is lot of material saving.1. C. Dr. approximately equal to pitch dia (or) effective dia of reqd. . This is widely used for mass production of fasteners like bolts. PRADEEP 206 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.Video . screws etc. 25 mm). R.

com . Used for coarse threads. PRADEEP 207 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. trapezoidal threads etc.Machining Methods: Thread cutting on lathe by a single point tool is a slow process but produces very accurate threads. G. Threads are cut in milling (internal & external) by a form cutter having the thread profile. C.3 productivity thread chasing has been developed with a little compromise on quality where a partly cut thread using a single point tool (one or two cuts) is finished by a multi point tool called thread chaser in one cut. Dr. R. when large amount of metal is to be removed. Hence to increase Video . Special purpose machines are also available. It is more efficient and productive than lathe.

C. Miscellaneous Methods: Taps are used for cutting internal threads in small holes. PRADEEP 208 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. Dr. lead screws. for which other methods are not possible. thread milling cutters etc. G. is similar to that of a cylindrical grinding m/c. Dies are used for cutting external threads on pipes and small parts. The principle of thread grinding is same as thread milling. thread gauges. A thread grinding m/c. micro meter screws. This is employed to cut threads on hardened materials.Finishing Methods: Thread Grinding is used for producing very accurate . This is used to cut threads on taps. R.

com . G. Spiral Bevel. C. Dr. Double Helical. Hypoid Bevel. Straight Bevel. Helical. PRADEEP 209 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. Worm and Spiral gears.GEAR MANUFACTURING Gears are classified according to the shape of the tooth pair and disposition into Spur. R.

and railways to aircrafts. Helical gears are used for parallel shaft drives. Their efficiency is slightly lower than spur gears. Thus. Hence. they find wide applications right from clocks. their teeth are longer than spur gears and have higher load carrying capacity. these gears find wide applications in automotive gearboxes. G. motor cycles. Their precision rating is good. They are used in high speed and high load application in all types of trains and a wide range of velocity ratios. Hence for the same width. Dr. automobiles. They are recommended for very high speeds and loads. They have teeth inclined to the axis. They operate smoother and quieter than spur gears.Spur gears have their teeth parallel to the axis and are used for transmitting power between two parallel shafts. R. They have highest efficiency and excellent precision rating. household gadgets. C. PRADEEP 210 Email: .

R. Their applications are limited to high capacity reduction drives like that of cement mills and . This type of gearing is used for converting rotary motion into translatory motion or vice versa. G. PRADEEP 211 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. The tooth can be spur or helical.Double helical or Herringbone gears used for transmitting power between two parallel shafts. They have opposing helical teeth and their load capacity is very high and are costly. C. Rack is a segment of a gear of infinite diameter. Dr.

right angle drives of blenders and conveyors. Usage is in automobile differentials. G. PRADEEP 212 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. This permits the lowering of the pinion axis which is an added advantage in automobile drives. Hypoid bevel gears are also used for right angle drive in which the axes do not intersect. Usage is in current day automobile drives. Wide application of the straight bevel drives is in automotive differentials.Straight bevel gears are used for transmitting power between intersecting shafts. but their efficiency is slightly lower. Spiral bevel gears are also used for transmitting power between intersecting shafts. Their efficiency is lower than other two types of bevel gears. They can operate under high speeds and high loads. C. Dr. The teeth contact length is more and they operate smoother than straight bevel gears. They have higher load capacity. Their precision rating is fair to . R.

In these gears. Spiral gears are also known as crossed helical gears. Efficiency of these gears is low. They have high helix angle and transmit power between two nonintersecting non-parallel shafts.Worm and worm gear pair consists of a worm. Dr. Their precision rating is fair to good. machine tools. High reduction ratios are possible. sewing machine. which is very similar to a screw and a worm gear. G. the engagement occurs without any shock resulting in quieter operation. textile machinery etc. R. C. Worm gearing finds wide application in material handling and transportation . They are used in right-angle skew shafts. They are used for light load and low speed application such as instruments. which is a helical gear. PRADEEP 213 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. automobiles etc. The drives are very compact. Their precision rating is poor.

Dr. C. hoist gear box of dam gate lifting etc. G. Bronzes. cast .The following are manufacturing methods. R. Casting Methods: Sand casting is used for large size gears used in farm machinery and Hand operated devices like cement mixer barrels. brass and ceramics. The materials that can be sand cast are CI. PRADEEP 214 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.

toys etc. G. aluminium and brass.Die Casting is used for making large quantity of small gears used in lawn . cameras. Materials used to manufacture die casted gears are zinc. instruments. Dr. Semi Centrifugal casting is used for making Gear blanks. Centrifugal casting is used for making phosphor bronze (as it is resistant to sliding loads) worm wheel rims. C. R. PRADEEP 215 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.

PRADEEP 216 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. monel. beryllium copper are the materials that can be investment casted for . Dr. G. Tool steel. C. Critical gear set Casting with pattern used in the surface-toWheel Gear used in air missile petroleum machinery system. nitriding steel. The process is used only if no other process is suitable since production cost is high. The process is useful if the gear is integral with some complicated shape that is very difficult to produce by machining. R.Investment casting process is used for making complicated shapes economically.

polystyrene. etc. Dr. The materials for injection molding components are Nylon. C. Washing m/c. Xerox m/c. R. polyimide. Wind shield wipers. cellulose acetate. PRADEEP 217 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. G.Injection moulding is used for making light gears of thermo plastics and used in . phenolics. projectors. Speedo meters.

architect-ural bronze and phosphor bronze are the materials that are commonly extruded Dr. toys etc.Video 1 Forming methods: Roll forming is the method where the gear blank is mounted on a shaft and is pressed in hard rolling . naval brass. R. C. typewriters. After extrusion. Aluminum. copper. G. Operations like piercing. hole upsetting are needed after parting and used in clocks. of gears can be parted from extruded rod of gear. Both spur and helical gears can be made. Extrusion is used for small sized gears. PRADEEP 218 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. a no.

S. railroad. truck. S. off-highway. Dr. PRADEEP 219 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. closed die forging and hot upset forging. aerospace. agriculture.Forging has long been used in the manufacture of gears. helical and spiral-bevel gears can also be forged if their configurations permit ejection of the gear from the die cavity. Gear blanks can be produced by open-die forging. brass. and some of the heat -resistant alloys. C. Precision-forged gears requiring little or no finish machining are commonly used in the . and material handling industries. Gears can be forged from low-alloy steel. Although spur gears are the easiest to forge. Al alloys. R. G. titanium. as well as the energy and mining fields.

motor driven window lift and seat adjustors. Sheet metal blanking is used for producing thin metallic gears form sheet metal to be used in wrist watches. Economical for large lot sizes only. PRADEEP 220 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. hand operated machine gears for slow speed mechanisms etc. electricity & water meters. R. Dr. toys. different types of gears that can be combined with built in keyways etc. G.Powder Metallurgy techniques also are used for making of balancer gears and oil pump gears in automotives. Typically suited for small size gears. gear motors for household . crane drives. Accuracy is similar to die-cast gears. cluster gears. C.

R. Dr. Gear cut by broaching are very accurate and used for large qty production but has same disadvantages except accuracy. C. is changed. bevel and racks and has the same disadvantages. It is used for spur. Disadvantages are low . G.Machining methods: a) Form cutter methods: They use a form tool having the shape of teeth space. helical. This method is economical only for large qty production. Gear can be cut in shaper by a single point form tool. high tooling cost as they need a change in tool if no. less accurate. Gear can be cut by milling using rotating form cutter. of teeth or pitch dia. To increase productivity a shear speed process called shear speed gear shaper was developed which uses a ring of single point form tools arranged radially to cut all teeth simultaneously. PRADEEP 221 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.

com . then the teeth on the blank are developed / generated by : a) The relative rolling and reciprocation motion of the cutter and the blank (for Planing and Shaping) b) Rotation of hob and blank. of teeth). R.b) Gear Generating method: The process is based on the principle that any two gears of same module will mesh together properly (module = pitch dia / no. If one of the gears is made into a cutter by proper sharpening and it meshes with the gear blank. and the process is called Gear Hobbing. it is called Gear Shaping. Dr. feeding of hob and tilting of hob at the helix angle (for Hobbing). G. PRADEEP 222 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. If the generating tool is a rack it is called Gear Planing. If the generating tool is threaded and gashed (like worm) it is called hob. C. If the generating tool is a pinion.

[(iii) and (iv)] The major advantage of generating is that same cutter of particular module can cut gears of different no. PRADEEP 223 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. Dr. . G. C. Gear Hobbing is highly productive and highly accurate among all generation methods. [(i) and (ii)] Gear Shaping can be used for both external and internal gears. R.Gear planning is less accurate than other generating methods but more accurate than form cutting methods. Gear planning and Gear Hobbing are limited to external gears only.

G. PRADEEP 224 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. . C.Gear Planing Gear Shaping Video 2 Dr. .Video 3 Gear Hobbing Dr. R. PRADEEP 225 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. G.

PRADEEP 226 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. Common finishing methods that are employed after machining are: (a) For soft & unhardened gears → 1. etc when meshed with machined gears. G. and good performance. correct profile errors. R. Gear shaving: Shaving cutters perform minute cutting of flash or . the gears should be accurate.Finishing methods: Video – 4 For smooth running. C. Dr.

R. Gear burnishing: Gears are rolled under pressure with hardened gears to cause plastic flow of minute irregularities like dents. C. cutter marks etc and also work hardens the surface creating beneficial compressive residual stresses. Grinding using form wheels Dr. (b)For hard & hardened gears → 1. PRADEEP 227 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. . projections.

com .2. C. R. Lapping Dr. Honing 3. G. PRADEEP 228 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.

C.It is a device which holds and positions the work with the help of locating pins and clamps and locates (or) guides the cutting tool relative to the work. counter boring etc. It is of lighter construction and is usually not fixed to the m/c.JIGS AND FIXTURES Jig:. PRADEEP Locating pins: These are inserted in the body of Jigs and fixture to establish the desired relationship between work and jig or . tapping. G. R. They are used for drilling and related operations like reaming. Dr. 229 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.

shaping. R. 230 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. They are used in turning. milling. C. Machine Vice Dr. PRADEEP Clamps: These are used to hold the work piece opposite to the action of cutting forces when ever fixtures are unable to do . G. grinding etc. It is of heavy construction and is usually fixed to the machine.Fixture: It is a device which only holds and positions the works but does not itself locate (or) guide the cutting tool.

C. G. R.3-2-1 Principle of pin location Dr. PRADEEP 231 Email: .

Thus to arrest these clamping devices are . For anybody in free space there are 6 translatory moments and 6 rotary moments about x-y-z axis hence these 12 degrees of freedom (dof) are to be arrested for performing the machining operation. B & C will not allow rotation about X & Y axis and also downward movement restricting 5 dof. The pin F will not allow backward moment and hence arresting 1 more dof. The pins D & E will not allow rotation about Z-axis and also leftward moment arresting 3 dof. To arrest the remaining 3 dof. The figure shows how six pins can be used to arrest 9 dof. The pins A. C.Also called 6 . G. 3 more pins will be required but this will enclose the work completely and makes loading (or) unloading of work piece impossible.Point location principle. PRADEEP 232 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. R. Dr.

3) Principle of mutually ┴ planes: The work should be located such that the planes in which it is located are mutually ┴. of locating pins used must be as min as possible. G. C. PRADEEP 233 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.Other Principles of pin location: 1) Principle of minimum locating pins: The no. . 2) Principle of extreme positions: The locating pins must be placed as far as possible from each other to achieve greatest degree of accuracy in location. Dr.

C. a) Conical pins – Provide line contact and used for light jobs. Also can accommodate work pieces with varying hole sizes. They can not accommodate work pieces with varying hole sizes. b) Cylindrical / Round pins – Provide surface contact and used for heavy . Provides uniform all around sliding clearance when work piece sits on it. PRADEEP 234 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. Dr. G. R.Classification of locating pins 1) Locating pins: These are used when work pieces are having holes in them and are used for location purpose.

G. PRADEEP 235 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. They provide more lateral clearance and will take care of pitch distance variation in work pieces.c) Diamond pins – To be used in combination with round pins. Dr. . R.

2) Support pins: These are used when work pieces are not having holes in them. PRADEEP 236 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. (Fixed Distance) b) Adjustable Type – When piece is having non-uniform dimensions. R. (Adjustable Distance) Dr. C. a) b) a) Fixed Type – When work piece is having uniform . G.

PRADEEP 237 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. G. .3) Jack Pins: – Used to accommodate different work pieces with different sizes and also in press tools for sheet metal location V-Locators: – Used for locating circular or semi-circular work pieces. R. C.

com . R. If not the clamping force may distort the work piece. The clamping should be simple. G. C. 4. otherwise the work may lift from the support. The clamping pressure applied must counteract with the tool forces. 3. Dr. quick and foolproof. PRADEEP 238 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. The clamping pressure should not deform the work piece.Principles of clamping 1. 5) Clamp should be arranged above the point of support. The clamping pressure must be directed towards the point of support. 2.

G. PRADEEP b) Hook Bolt Clamp 239 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. R.TYPES OF CLAMPS 1. . Light Clamping: a) Clamping Screws Dr.

Rigid Clamping – Lever type clamps: b) Swinging Latch Clamp a) Bridge Clamp c) Heel / Dog Clamp . C. R.2. PRADEEP d) Hinged Clamp 240 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. G.

com . G.3) Quick Clamping: a) Quick Acting Nut WP c) Cam operated clamp b) C-Clamp Dr. R. C. PRADEEP 241 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.

Spherical Washers: They accommodate misalignment between clamp surface and clamping nut due to inclination of the strap. PRADEEP 242 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. e Dr. G. This can be done by using a pair of spherical washers (male and female) instead of using a plain washer. C. .

PRADEEP 243 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. C. Here it is not possible to vary the size of the drill.Types of Drill Jigs 1)Template Jigs:. R.A template jig consists of a hardened template with holes in required position to guide the drill. Hence the same plate can be used for different size of the drill by replacing the jig bush provided the configuration of work piece is not changed.It is similar to the above and is provided with Jig bushes instead of simple holes. . 2) Plate type jig:. Dr. .This is used when holes are to be drilled in more than one plane. Email: grcpradeep@gmail. PRADEEP 244 4) Swinging leaf Jig :. R.3) Box-type Jig :. C.This will help easy loading and unloading of work piece. G.

vices. But for drilling related operations like . Face plates. Counter boring etc. R. Mandrels – (external grinding) Chucks. Setting blocks. G.Note: Jigs can be made for drilling when large qty work pieces are required. 4) Surface grinding fixtures: Magnetic chucks (Ferrous metals). Face plates – (internal grinding) Dr. face plates. otherwise it can be managed by marking and centre punching. C. PRADEEP 245 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. Vaccum chucks (Non-Ferrous metals) 5) Cylindrical grinding fixtures: Chucks. 2) Shaper fixtures: M/c Vice 3) Milling fixtures: Milling m/c. it is compulsory irrespective of qty of production. Tapping. mandrels. Types of fixtures: 1) Turning fixtures: Chucks.

R. PRADEEP 246 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. .Setting Blocks – Used to set the work in relation to cutters for mass production Dr. C.

com . 2) The jig / fixture must be as open as possible to enable the operator to remove the chips during operation. PRADEEP 247 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. C. 3) Enough clearance must be provided to allow for variation in components sizes. G. 5) Ejector devices must be used to force the work out of the Jig (or) fixture due to : a) Work piece is heavy b) Use of cutting fluids creates a film b/w surfaces which causes the work piece stick to the surface Dr. 4) The Jig & fixture must be as rigid as possible.Design principles common to jigs & Fixtures 1) The methods of location and clamping should be such that less time is consumed. R.

R.NON-TRADITIONAL M/C ING PROCESS Abrasive Jet Machining (AJM): . C. PRADEEP 248 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. G.

Mass flow rate of abrasives – 2 to 20 gm/min Flow rate of air / gas – 5 to 30 lit/min Stand-off Distance (SOD) or Nozzle tip distance – 0. G. R. PRADEEP 249 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.2 to 1mm). Best cutting is achieved if size is b/w 15 µm to 20 µm. glass powder.This involves use of a high speed stream of abrasive particles (100 to 300m/s) carried by a high pressure (2 to 10 bar) gas (Co2. pantographs (or) other mechanisms. SiC. Sapphire (Gem Stone) is 300 hrs.5to5 mm Mixing ratio – Mass flow ratio of Abrasives to Gas / Air Dr. Nozzle life for WC is 30hrs. . The size and shape of the cut is controlled by moving the nozzle / work piece by cams. C.N2) / air on the work surface through a nozzle (ID = 0. The metal removal occurs through erosion caused by abrasive particles impacting the surface at high speed. General Abrasive size is 10-50µm. The abrasives generally used are Al2O3.

mica. Germanium. Ceramic Matrix . cleaning. textile and leather industry. PRADEEP 250 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.3 WJM: Here a high force Jet of water can be used for cutting thin plates and foils of soft materials. Dr. Gallium. Al. cutting frozen meat. Metal Matrix Composites. Video 1 AWJM: Here a high force jet of water with abrasives can be used for cutting thick plates of steel. paint removal. deburring etc. silicon. Video 2. Fibre Reinforced Plastics etc. cleaning and polishing of plastics/Nylon/Teflon components. heat sensitive materials like glass. G. ceramics. C. quartz. R. fragile materials like Ag.Applications: Producing different shapes/cavities in hard/brittle materials.

com . MRR for Brittle WP = MaVa3/2 / ρg1/4σw3/4 Va = Velocity of abrasive jet Ma = Mass flow rate of Abrasives σw = Flow strength of WP 5. G.1. MRR = Volume of the material removed x (Mass flow rate of abrasives / Mass of abrasive grit) 2. R. PRADEEP 251 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. C. Volume of material removed = 2πr3 / 3 r = radius of indentation = √(dg δ) dg = Diameter of abrasive particle δ = Depth of indentation 3. δ = Va dg √(ρg/6σw) Dr. MRR for Ductile WP = MaVa2 / 2σw 6. Mass of abrasive grit = πdg3ρg / 6 ρg = Density of abrasive particle 4.

com . The tool is made of low carbon and other ductile metal alloys. tungsten. G. interface. Applications: Mainly used for brittle materials that have poor electrical conductivity and can not be machined by ECM/EDM. Dr. forging dies. ceramic. gems.Ultrasonic Machining (USM): Ultrasonic is vibratory wave of frequency > 16 KHz. PRADEEP 252 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. C. An abrasive slurry is made to flow under pressure through tool – W.P. extrusion dies etc. making tungsten carbide and diamond wire drawing dies.01 to 0. Here a tool having the same shape of the cavity to be machined which is vibrating at 20 to 30 KHZ with amplitude between 0. Machining of glass. R. This causes metal removal by abrasion.06mm is pressed on to the work with a light force.

PRADEEP 253 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. . R.Video 4 Dr. G.

PRADEEP 254 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. R. Application: Weight reduction by removing unwanted material from skin of . Areas where material is not removed is protected by an etchant resistant material known as Maskant. C. Rockets. a) Chemical Milling: Also called contour machining (or) etching is used for producing shapes by removing material from large surface areas. G. Dr.Chemical Machining (CHM): This is the stock removal process for producing desired shapes by removal of material by controlled chemical attack with acids/ alkalis (Etchant solution). Space crafts etc.

Dr. G. C. PRADEEP 255 Email: . R.

under vaccum pressure and then exposed to U. The U. Application: Printed circuit cards. .P. The maskant is sensitive to ultraviolet light which is applied on W. PRADEEP 256 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. intricate burr free stampings c) Chemical Engraving: Similar to above to create irregular shapes (narrow) on forgings. G. exposing the areas to be machined.V.b) Chemical Blanking: Also called photo forming / photo etching where material is completely removed by chemical action.V. light hardens the selective areas of resist which gets washed away in further developing. light. C. Etchant solution will now remove the material from W. extrusions etc. castings. It is placed on the coated W. thus.P.P. A negative is first developed having the contour from the photograph of an enlarged drawing of the complex profile. Dr. .Video 5 Dr. G. PRADEEP 257 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. C.

com . G. complex profiles like turbine blades. The tool advances towards the anode through the electrolyte and metal is removed from work through electrical action. This process is used for machining any conducting material. R. MRR depends on Atomic weight and Valency. Dr. The tool is cathode and work is anode.Electro – Chemical Machining (ECM): This is the process of metal removal by controlled dissolution of the anode of an electrolytic cell. The electrolyte is pumped at high pr. C. die sinking etc. through the gap to conduct current and carry heat. drilling holes. Practically there is no tool wear. Electrolyte is so chosen that only anode is dissolved but no deposition takes place on cathode. PRADEEP 258 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. Strength and thermal properties. Brass. MRR is independent of work hardness. complex cavities in high strength materials. nozzles. Steel. The tool is made of Cu.

C. PRADEEP 259 Email: . In water (20% NaCl) HCl (or) mixture of brine & H2SO4 10% HF+ 10% HCl + 10% HNO3 NaCl Strong alkaline solution Dr.Alloy machined Iron based Ni based Ti based Co-Cr-W-based WC based Electrolyte Chloride Sol. G. R.

F = Faraday = 96500 Coulombs 2.FORMULAE: 1. Let % P in AlloyPQ = .cm y = Inter electrode gap in cm. G. R. V = Supply voltage 3. Current density in the gap = J = K(V-∆V) / y = KV/y ∆V = Over voltage (extra voltage) required for ion transfer 1/K = Specific resistance of electrolyte in Ω. ρ = Density of the anode (g/cm3) Z = Valence of the cation. Q = AI/ρZF cm3/sec A = Gram Atomic weight of the metallic ion I = Current (Amp).A 4. Electrode feed rate = (MRR / Surface area) cm/sec Dr. Current passing through electrodes = I = J x S. Metal Removal Rate. 5. PRADEEP 260 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. C. % Q in AlloyPQ = (100-X)% ϵ = Gram equivalent weight of the metal = A/Z As 100 % of Alloy = X % of P + (100-X) % of Q Hence.

187 x SA x ρe x Cpe x (θB­ θA) x b] Resistance of electrolyte.6. Velocity of flow of electrolyte = U = q / by (cm/sec) Cross section of electrode = SA = b x l U= [I2 x (1/K)] / [4. Re = (1/K) y / A If V = Applied Voltage. C. Cpe = Specific heat of electrolyte θB = Boiling temp of electrolyte. G.187 x (1/K) x y2 x ρe x Cpe x (θB­ θA)] Dr. Electrolyte Flow rate = q (cm3/sec) = [I2 x (1/K) x y] / [4. R. θA = Ambient temp 7.187 x SA x ρe x Cpe x (θB­ θA)] ρe = Density of electrolyte. then V = I Re . U = [V2 x l] / [4. PRADEEP 261 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.

C. PRADEEP 262 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. When these cells come into contact with work the current flows from wheel to work causing electro chemical decomposition of work. Wheel will have shape of work. The electrolyte entrapped in small cavities of semi conductive oxide between projecting nonconducting abrasives form electrolytic cells. Dr. Around 90% of the metal is removed by electrolysis action and only 10% is due to the abrasive action of grinding wheel. diamond etc set in the conducting material like copper. The electrolyte is carried past the work surface at high speed by rotary action of grinding wheel.Electro-chemical grinding (ECG): This is modification of ECM and Grinding. Metallic grinding wheels embedded with non. G. The work is Anode. and nickel are used.conductive abrasive particles such as aluminium oxide. brass. R. The grinding wheel is made .

Super alloy turbine blades. R. Aerospace materials. PRADEEP 263 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. Inconel.• Video 6 Applications: Tungsten carbide inserts. Burr free sharpening of syringe needles. C. Dr. Super alloys – Haste alloy. Rene alloy etc. .

. In EDM it insulates. Dr. of order 10000oC which melts a small amount of material. A dielectric is passed at the interface like Transformer Oil. Paraffin Oil. conveys Spark. C. cools the electrode & W. . flushes the removed metal. PRADEEP 264 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. At a suitable range of voltage the dielectric breaks down and electrons are emitted ionizing the gap. A spark gap is maintain between tool and work. Dielectrics is a fluid that does not conduct current under normal circumstances.P. which creates compression shock waves developing a localized temp.Electric Discharge Machining (EDM): Spark Erosion is metal removal process by an interrupted electric spark discharge between tool (cathode) and work (anode). Lubricant Oil etc which have high flash point. Kerosene. R.

Very fine surface finish values should not be specified. R. jet engine blade slots. wire drawing and extrusion dies. mould cooling slots. Work should have low specific heat for better MRR. Application: Stamping tools. C. Dr. PRADEEP 265 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. forging dies. (It is the heat required to raise the temp of material by 10C). mould cavities. die sinking . In EDM process.Tool should have High electrical and thermal conductivities and high density. collets. G. slots and ribs. fine openings and deeper slots need to be avoided.




Wire EDM is a variant in EDM process. It is a CNC machine.
A part program is prepared according to the complex profile
to be cut. Wire is a tool. Brass wire (60% Cu, 40% Zn) is
used for quick cutting applications. Molybdenum wires are
used for more accurate applications. Deionised water is the
dielectric because it has low conductivity levels.
Application: Wire EDM is used in Aerospace, Medical,
Electronics and Semiconductor applications. It is mainly used
for Tool & Die making industries, for cutting the hard
Extrusion Dies, in making Fixtures, Gauges & Cams, Cutting
of Gears, Strippers, Punches and Dies, Manufacturing hard
Electrodes, Honey comb structures etc.







Spark EDM:
1. MRR = 40 I / Tm1.23 (cm3/min)
Where, I is the current amp,
Tm is the melting temperature of work piece in 0C
2.Idle Time = RC ln [Vs / (Vs – Vc)] sec
R = Charging resistance, C = Charging capacitance
Vs = Supply Voltage or Open circuit voltage
Vc = Charging Voltage
3. Average power Input
= Total energy consumed per cycle / Cycle time
4.Total energy consumed per cycle (or) Spark Energy =
0.5CVc2 (J/cycle)



5. On Time or Discharge Time = RmC ln [Vc / Vd]
Vd = Discharge Voltage
Rm = Machine Resistance
6. For RC type generator to get maximum power dissipation
during charging Vc = Vs x 0.716
7. Cycle Time = Idle Time + Discharge Time
Wire EDM:
7. MRR = (CSA of cut x Wire feed) mm3 /sec
CSA of cut = Width of cut x thickness of WP
Width of cut = Wire Diameter + Spark gap around wire




Electron Beam Machining (EBM):
This is metal removal process by high velocity focussed
stream of electrons which heats, melts and vapourises metal
at point of bombardment. A beam of electrons is emitted
from the electrode gun (Tungsten or Tantalum filament) is
directed electro magnetically (deflecting coils) on to the
work. The gun is supplied with electric current from a high
voltage dc source. The kinetic energy of high velocity
electrons is converted into thermal energy vaporizing the
material. However hole made by this process will have taper
of 20 – 40 when sheet thickness exceeds 0.1mm.
Application: Fine gas orifices less than 0.002mm in space
nuclear reactors, holes in injector nozzles in diesel engines,
turbine blades for supersonic aero engines, contours in sheets,
narrow slots etc.



PRADEEP 272 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. . C. R.

R. .Video 9 Dr. PRADEEP 273 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. C.

However taper is observed in the holes up to 10 – 20 when thickness exceeds 0. fuel filters. C. R.Laser Beam Machining (LBM) : Laser is electromagnetic radiation hence a laser beam is focused on the spot to be machined. Syringe needles. PRADEEP 274 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. Dr. Holes in lock nuts for safety wires etc. carburetor nozzles. Jet engine blade cooling holes. We can focus the laser on a spot 1/100 of a square mm in size. The laser provides enough heat to melt and vapourise the . G.25 mm Application: Extremely small holes in hard materials (micro machining production).

Video 10 Dr. . G. PRADEEP 275 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. C.

. . Tantalum. Gas like H2 / N2/ O2 is passed through a small chamber in which a high frequency spark (Arc) is maintained (Electrode is Copper electrode with tungsten tip and ceramic nozzle). PRADEEP 276 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. G. The temperature is 11000oC to 30000oC.Plasma Arc Machining (PAM): When a flowing gas is heated to sufficiently high temperature to become partially ionized. R. Application: Profile cutting of S. alloys. C. Zirconium and other very difficult to m/c materials.S. This spark ionizes the gas atoms liberating large amounts of thermal energy which further vapourises the metal. Al. it is known as plasma.

G. C.• Video 11 Dr. PRADEEP 277 Email: . R.

fine wire drawing dies. machining and polishing of optical components. G. The bombarding ions dislodge the surface atoms of work by transferring the kinetic energy to them. . It consists of an electron gun which discharges free electrons into a chamber filled with Argon gas. The gas is ionized by the electrons. preparation of materials for various investigations such as the thinning of samples for transmission electron microscopy or for structuring surfaces in the semi conductor industry etc. PRADEEP 278 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. R. The work piece is then bombarded with this ion-beam.Ion Beam Machining (IBM): Here the process does not depend on heating of work to point of evaporation. Dr. Application: Micro Machining of computer parts.

• Video 12 Dr. G. . PRADEEP 279 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. R.

Mechanism of Energy type Energy source Process material removal 1) Mechanical Erosion Mechanical/Fluid .ion displacement and mechanical chemical motion 4) Chemical Corrosive reaction Corrosive agent CHM 5) Electro thermal Fusion. Vaporization Electric spark EDM Dr. R. PRADEEP 280 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. C. motion USM 2) Electro Chemical Ion displacement Electric current ECM 3) Mechanical Plastic shear and Electric current ECG and Electro. G.

C. Vaporization High electrons speed EBM 7) Electro Thermal Fusion. R. . PRADEEP 281 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. Vaporization Powerful radiation LBM 8) Electro Thermal Fusion. Vaporization Ionized substance PAM 9) Electro Thermal Fusion Ionized substance IBM Dr.Mechanism of Energy type Energy source Process material removal 6) Electro Thermal Fusion.

3 ± 0.6 ± 0.4 – 6.2 – 1.005 0. C.0001 EDM 0. PRADEEP 282 0.0 PAM 2–4 ± 0.0125 AJM 0.001 ECM .4 0.005 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.125 0.015 to ± 0. R. G.0001 EBM 25 – 35 ± 0.5 Dr.3 to ± 0.005 to ± 0.2 – 1.05 – 12.10 LBM 0.125 1.3 ± 0.5 ± 0.5 ± 0.25 1.3 – 2.002 to ± 0.005 to ± 0.Surface Finish Process (µm) Tolerance (mm) MRR (cm3/ sec) USM 0.125 0.

PRADEEP 283 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.NC. Dr. There are eight tracks. EIA system (Electronics Industry Association) follows Odd parity and stops the machine in event of finding even no. Track 5 is used to punch extra hole to convert to odd (or) even system accordingly. . NC PART PROGRAMING Numerical control: An NC system consists of 3 basic components a) Program of Instructions: Detailed step by step directions which tells the machine tool what to do and is given by punched tape of paper / plastic. G. ISO system (International Organization for Standardization) follows even parity. of holes. C. Two systems are used in preparation of tape. CNC. R.

5  Parity check – Check for errors in hole punching. PRADEEP 284 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. R. speeds etc. c) Machine tool  Which performs the operation. decoding circuits etc. Dr. (ii) Control loop unit  Consisting of position control loops. velocity control loops. G. reading circuits. coolant on / . spindle on / off functions etc.Track No.: 1 to 4  Numerical values for dimensions. C. 6 & 7  Alphabets – To identify various operations 8 End of block instruction b) Machine Control Unit  Which has 2 modules (i) Data processing unit  Consisting of a tape reader.

G.Dr. R. C. PRADEEP 285 Email: .

DNC has a central computer. of M/Cs are controlled by a computer through direct connection. and the computer performs the remaining control functions. G. where as CNC systems are based on soft wired based controllers. . the hardware components perform fns. In a Hybrid CNC. circular interpolation etc. In a straight CNC all the NC functions are performed by computer. Direct Numerical Control: It is a manufacturing system in which No. C. like feed rate generation. NC systems are based on hard wired based controllers. telecommunication lines and M/C/T. bulk memory to store NC part programs. The DNC computer provides instructions to each M/C/T on demand. PRADEEP 286 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. Dr.Computer Numerical control: CNC is a NC system that utilizes a computer to perform the basic NC functions.

and then the motor rotates the given angle.04 x 1. of parts known as “step”.com . In these motors the rotation of the shaft is divided into no. AC or DC or servo motors are used. C. a 1.80) = 73.Stepper motors: For operation of main spindle.8o ± 4% of step accuracy which is 0.07o (0. Stepper motors are used for rotary table control. tool (or) work positioning etc and are used without need for feedback system. Eg: For 41 pulses. R. Servo motors have feedback sensors to give feed back to the controller.80 stepper motor (360/200) rotate precisely by (= 41 x 1. G.8) Dr. Distances are converted to pulses and are fed to the stepper motor. PRADEEP 287 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.

001”.115 / 0.BLU (Basic Length Unit): BLU represents the accuracy or resolution of the Machine Tool. which is defined as the minimum distance the machine tool slide can move. system. But the values given in a programme are to be whole numbers (integers) only. The units of measurement of coordinates can be given inches (or) mm in any NC system.001 = 1115 BLU Dr. Eg. it can be written as = 1. R. those values are divided by the resolution of the N. PRADEEP 288 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.C.115” in a NC M/C having resolution of 0. . Hence to represent the fractional dimensions. G. To represent a displacement of 1.

N = . n = No . C. R. PRADEEP 289 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. Speed of movement of table or m/c slide on lead screw = Distance travelled for one rotation / Time for one rotation 3. of revolutions/step 2. If speed of movement has to be increased. Any applied voltage will cause the table or m/c slide to move at a particular speed. voltage supplied has to be increased. G. 1 Pulse will cause rotation of stepper motor by 1 step 6.FORMULAE: 1.of starts of lead screw P = Pitch of lead screw.BLU = U x n x P x N U = Gear ratio. Distance moved per pulse = BLU 5. Dr. Frequency of pulses generated (Pulses /sec or Hz) = Speed of the table or m/c slide / Distance moved per pulse 4.

the m/c. R. 2. C. Point – to . line as in case of milling and turning operation at controlled or programmed feed rate. punch .Point Control: In this system. tool slide reaching a particular fixed coordinate point in the shortest possible path at rapid feed. P P4 P5 5 P1 P3 P4 P3 P3 P2 P1 (1) Dr.Part programming Types of control systems: 1. G. with a provision for machining along a st. reaming. tapping. This is suitable for drilling. Straight line control: This is an extension of point to point system. PRADEEP (2) 290 P2 P1 P2 (3) Email: grcpradeep@gmail. Jig boring etc.

com . line including taper and circular interpolation enables machining circles and arcs. arc radius etc. contours and curved surfaces. R. Three types of interpolation are used – linear. circular and parabolic. have to be mentioned. C. Continuous path (or) contouring control: This system enables machining of profiles. In linear interpolation. Dr. G. the coordinates of the end point of line act as the beginning of next line. In circular interpolation also. PRADEEP 291 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. Only few systems use parabolic interpolation.3. The method by which continuous path system moves from one point to another point is called interpolation. Linear interpolation enables machining along st. the current point acts as the starting point and hence the end point of arc.

2) P2 (2. 2) (1. R. 3) (-1. G. 2) P4 (1. C. Error correction is easy as any mistake made effects only that value. 0) P1 1 P2 2 3 . -1) Email: grcpradeep@gmail. 4) (0. PRADEEP 4 292 POINT ABSOLUTE INCREMENTAL P1 (1. 4 + P3 P4 3 - + 2 1 (0. 2) (1. (ii) Incremental coordinate system: Here the coordinates of any point are calculated with reference to the previous point. 0) P3 (2.Methods of listing coordinates of points: (i) Absolute coordinate system: Here the coordinates of a point are always referred with reference to the same datum. Error correction is difficult as any mistake made effects all successive values also.

If the word remaining same in succeeding block. C. including those which remain unchanged from the preceding block. the word need not be repeated but TAB (>) is required to maintain the sequence of words . . R. Fixed Block Format: Here the instructions are always given in the same sequence.Programming formats: Format is the method of writing the words in a block of instruction. G. Three program formats are used. Tab Sequential Format: Here the instructions a block are always given in the same sequence as in case of fixed block format and each word is separated by the TAB character (>). All instructions must be given in every block. PRADEEP 293 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.

com . it need not be repeated in next blocks.0200500EOB N X Y F S EOB 001 15.0 >>>>EOB Word Address Format N001 X15. Here there is no fixed sequence.0 >200 >500>EOB 002 > 75.020.0 F200 S500 EOB N002 X75. Example: Fixed block format 00115.0 >20.0 20. If word is unchanged. R. G.0 Y20. C.Word address Format: Here each word is preceded and identified by its address letter.0 20.0 200 500 EOB TAB sequential format N X Y F S EOB 001 > 15.0 EOB Dr. PRADEEP 294 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.0 200 500 EOB 002 75.

1. R. Spindle speed (S – Word) . Coordinate value – absolute (or) incremental 3. Dr. C. G. Tool Number ( T – word) 5. PRADEEP 295 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. Feed function (F – Word) – (mm/min or mm/rev) Each block is terminated by typing EOB character.N) 2. Dimensional units – inches or metric 4. Block Number (Sequence number .Writing a part program: The first instruction in any part program is to inform the control system about the various set-up conditions for the machining task to be taken up and should specify the following.

Point to point positioning.W. R. rapid traverse G01 .Dimensioning in metric units G90 .Absolute dimensions G91 .Linear interpolation G02 .com . PRADEEP 296 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. C.Dimensioning in inch units G71 .Circular Interpolation C. G.Zero preset [Presetting the origin (changing the starting point) to any point other than (0.Some codes: a) Preparatory function (or) operation code ‘G’ G00 .W. G04 .Incremental dimensions G92 .Dwell G70 .Circular Interpolation C. G03 .0)] G94 Feed rate mm/ min G95 Feed rate mm/rev Dr.C.

Y. M05  Spindle OFF M06  Tool change M07.W.Z  Primary set of axes c) Miscellaneous functions. M04  Spindle C.b) Dimensional words  X. M  M00  Program stop M01  Optional stop M02  End of program M03  Spindle C. R.W. C. G. PRADEEP 297 Email: . M08  Coolant ON M09  Coolant OFF Dr.C.

com . 1. PRADEEP 298 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. C. G. Drill Cycle: (G81) When used the tool movements are (i) Rapid in X and / or Y to reach location (ii) Rapid in Z-axis to gauge height (iii) At a programmed feed in Z-axis to the depth (iv) Rapid retract to gauge height If used these 4 steps are automatically executed in same order every time G81 is used. R. Dr.CANNED CYCLES / FIXED CYCLES: These are use for reducing length of part program so that the need to write repetitive instructions is avoided and less memory required.

com . C. Mill Cycle: (G78. G. in case of multiple operations. PRADEEP 299 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.2. Dr. G78 & G79 can be alternately used when moving in different planes for next cuts. R. Cancel cycle: (G80) must be used to cancel the previous fixed cycle in the program to start another fixed cycle. G79) when used the table movements are (i) Rapid in X and / or Y to reach location (ii) Rapid in Z-axis to gauge height (iii) At a programmed feed in Z-axis to the depth (iv) Movement to remaining position if further programmed. 3.

APT can be used to control up to 5 –axis. They require less No. C. ADAPT. In APT it is assumed that W. AUTOMAP. The syntax rules of APT are very near to FORTRAN language. Computer Aided Part Programming (CAPP) offers solution to these type of complex programs through programming languages like APT. However. PRADEEP 300 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. Dr.APT (Automatically Programmed Tools): The parts discussed previously are not so complex. EXAPT etc. is stationary and tool does all the moving. The field length of each word is limited to 6 characters. . of instructions. R. most of the parts machined on NC M/C are more complex and hence the manual part programs become lengthy and very tedious in terms of defining parameters.

L2 (c) P1 By centre of circle P1 = POINT / CENTER. C1 Dr. G.5. R.4 L1 P1 (b) By intersection of two lines L1 P1 = POINT / INTOF. L1.5.Part Geometric definitions: Defining a point: Point is the smallest and basic element required to define a geometry. C. P1 (6.4) (a) Cartesian coordinates P1 = POINT / 6. PRADEEP 301 Email: C1 .

PRADEEP 302 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. L2 P1 L1 L2 Dr. PARLEL. L2 (c) By a point and a perpendicular line L1 = LINE / P1. G. R.(2) (a) Defining a Line: L1 P1 By joining two points P2 L1 = LINE / P1. P2 (b) By a point and parallel line P1 L1 L2 L1 = LINE / . PERPTO. C.

20 Dr. . C. G. TANTO. TANTO. PRADEEP 303 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. C1 C1 L1 C1 P1 L1 = LINE / P1. C1 L1 P1 3) DEFINING A CIRCLE: C1 20 (a) By centre point and radius P1 C1 = CIRCLE / CENTER. P1. R.(d) By a point and tangent to circle L1 = LINE / P1 . RADIUS. RIGHT.

R. L1 Dr. TANTO. . G.(b) By Centre point and a point on circumference P2 C1 = CIRCLE / P1. P1. L1 P1 P1 C1 = CIRCLE / CENTER. LEFT. C. TANTO. P2 C1 P1 (c) Centre point and tangent line C1 = CIRCLE / CENTER. PRADEEP 304 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. RIGHT.

PRADEEP 305 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. PL1. P2. ZLARGE. G. Dr. .4) (a) DEFINING A PLANE: By 3 points P3 P1 PL = PLANE / P1. 30 Note: ZLARGE & ZSMALL can be used for telling the computer to use the largest (or) smallest values for Z. P3 P2 (b) By a parallel plane which is at a distance PL1 Z = 30 PL2 PL2 = PLANE / PARLEL. C.

c) Tool Change LOADTL /1 Note: LOADTL also unloads the previous tool and replaces it in the tool magazine. MMPR  MMPR – mm / rev. PRADEEP 306 Email: grcpradeep@gmail.MMPM  MMPM – mm / min.MISCELLANEOUS STATEMENTS: a) Spindle speed SPINDL / . C. Dr.1. CCLW SPINDL / OFF b) Feed Rate FEDRAT / 2. d) Tool definitions CUTTER / 10  Cutter of dia 10 mm. FEDRAT / 0. R. G. CLW SPINDL / 2000.

PRADEEP 307 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. L1. G. R. C2  Tool moves touching surface of line L1 and moves towards circle C2 Dr. GODLTA / 0. TO.4  FROM / P1  FROM / SETPT   Reference point Predefined point Starting point (or) (or) (ii) Point to point motion : GOTO / P1 To position cutter above the required location. Note: GODLTA is useful in drilling and related operations. iii) Contouring motion statements: GO/TO.10  Incremental instruction to move .e) Motion statement of Tool (i) Initial position: FROM / 6.5. C.0.

R. C. PRADEEP 308 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. G.iv) Intermediate movement commands GOLFT  Leftward GORGT  Rightward GOFWD  Forward GOBACK  Backward BACK GOUP  Upward GODOWN  Downward UP LFT FWD RGT DOWN TO These six commands are Used with one of the four ON Modifiers to define the surfaces. SURFACE TO  Just touching the surface PAST ON  On the surface PAST  Touching the surface on the far side TANTO  Used mostly for circles .

PRADEEP 309 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. G. C.  Guides the tool point (or) tool bottom  Stops the tool indicating the end of motion. CS PS DS Dr.The surfaces defined are: (a) Drive surface (DS) (b) Part surface (PS) (c) Check surface (CS)  Guides the tool for producing desired shape of . R.

R. PRADEEP 310 Email: grcpradeep@gmail. (b) COOLNT / ON  Coolant on COOLNT / OFF  Coolant off (c) FINI  Program is terminated (d) END  Shuts down the NC including the MCU Dr. G.Auxiliary and post processor statements: (a) MACHIN / UNIV  For defining name of . C.