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Spring 2016 | Volume 33, Number 1

Dedicated to the dissemination of practical information on evaluating machinery behavior and condition.

Turbocharger Rolling-Element
Bearing Observed During Failure
By Maryon J. Williams, Jr., Ph.D., P.E.

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org .654.2254 | information@vi-institute.June 15-17. 2016 Renaissance Asheville Hotel | 630. NC Pre-workshops | IMV Training Course | Keynote Speaker | 25 Exhibitors | Networking Reception | Giveaways & much more! Save 15% in addition to the Early Bird Discount Use Exclusive Discount Code: nc2016 vi-institute.

PCB Inc.. VI Board President By Robin Ginner Vibration Institute 2625 Butterfield Road Suite 128N Oak List of Advertisers Connection Technology Center Inc. 22 2016 Newly Certified Individuals 24 A Fond Farewell Vibration Institute Please send any correspondence regarding change of address or advertising to the Vibration Institute./IMI Sensors RBTS. Ph. By David Correlli. Materials may not be reproduced or translated without the express written permission of the Vibration Institute. Inc. Reliability Web Postmaster Send address changes to the Vibration Institute. Ustiola columns | departments Subscriptions Vibrations is sent quarterly to Institute members. P. Oak Brook. Jr. 3 Letter from the President Reprints and Back Issues To order article reprints or request reprint permission. IL 60523. Suite 128N. 8 Case History Analyzing the Start-Up Vibration of HOT PUMPS By Joppu Thomas 16 Case History Rub Identification in Hydrogen Centrifugal Compressor By Juan or call the Institute at (630) 654-2254. Technical Editor Barry T. © 2016 by the Vibration Institute. Statements of fact and opinion are the responsibility of the authors alone and do not imply an opinion on the part of the officers or members of the Vibration Institute. Cease ceasevibration@icloud. and winter by the Vibration Institute.. (Skip) Williams. please send your request in writing to information@vi-institute.D. 4 Feature Article Turbocharger Rolling-Element Bearing Observed During Failure By Maryon Editor & Advertising Nicole Casas ncasas@vi-institute. Acceptance of advertising does not imply an endorsement by the Vibration Institute.E. 2625 Butterfield Road. fall. The subscription rate is $75/year for individuals not affiliated with the Institute.SPRING 2016 Contents Volume 33. Number 1 ISSN 1066-8268 Vibrations is published quarterly in spring. All rights reserved. IL 60523 (630) 654-2254 2 VIBRATIONS SPRING 2016 . summer.

The Vibration Institute will accept current and valid certifications from Certifying Bodies that are accredited to ISO/ IEC 17024:2012 by an official Accrediting Body as partial prerequisite to take Vibration Institute exams. For other reputable non-accredited Certifying Bodies to qualify. will not be accepted as a prerequisite to take a Vibration Institute certification exam under any circumstances. accredited by the Joint Accreditation System of Australia and New Zealand (JASANZ). please feel free to contact Vibration Institute or me. please contact the Vibration Institute for an application. which is allowed by ISO. there are currently only two other organizations that meet this requirement: Mobius Institute Board of Certification (MIBoC). ISO 18436-1:2012. In addition to holding a valid certificate. this is true even if an individual holds a Vibration Institute certificate. I stated. Applications will be reviewed by the Vibration Institute. As stated in my original article. first party or self-declaration of certification. If anyone has any questions. based on inquires and the apparent confusion surrounding that article. I feel it is necessary to clarify our position. The existing certification is only a partial prerequisite for taking the next level exam. they will need to submit an application to the Vibration Institute showing that they meet several key requirements in the three governing Standards with respect to Conformity Assessment and Certification of Persons as it relates to Condition Monitoring and Diagnosis of Machines. However. 2016. V Dave Corelli VI Board President VIBRATIONS 3 . If any non-accredited certifying organization would like to apply. accredited by SPRING 2016 the United Kingdom Accreditation Service (UKAS). the Vibration Institute will accept certificates from any reputable organization as a prerequisite for taking a VI certification exam. To the best of our knowledge. in addition to the Vibration Institute.” However. current and valid certifications from that organization will be accepted as partial prerequisite. and if the requirements are met.editorial LETTER FROM THE PRESIDENT Acceptance of Certifications– Clarification I n the winter issue of Vibrations magazine. These Standards are ISO/IEC 17024:2012. “Effective January 1. Holding a certificate at a certain category does not in-and-of-itself qualify someone to take the next category exam. although the Vibration Institute may accept other qualifying organization’s certificates as partial prerequisite. accredited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). the Vibration Institute will neither recognize other certificates nor issue a Vibration Institute certificate at that category without a candidate taking and passing a VI exam. and ISO 18436-2:2014. and the British Institute of Non-Destructive Testing (BINDT). the candidate must also meet both the training and experience requirements set forth in ISO 18436-2:2014.

The vibration data at failure indicated a bearing cage problem which was later confirmed with debris in the bearing cage. BACKGROUND Figure 1: Layout of engine. Jr.Waterfall plot during failure 4 VIBRATIONS SPRING 2016 . The bearings were mounted on damped spring assemblies on the radial and axial sides meant to absorb a degree of imbalance in the rotor..” He was project leader for ANSI/ASA S2. the failure reported here occurred in mere seconds.feature article Turbocharger Rolling-Element Bearing Observed During Failure S By Maryon J.E. The expected forcing frequencies from this machine are shown in Table 1.. and after the failure. While the time from initial detection of a bearing fault until failure of the bearing can typically take months. (Skip) Williams.022:1.cacvibe.D.” ABSTRACT This article shows the failure of a rolling-element bearing in real time on the turbocharger of a ship’s Diesel engine. during. The failure was anticipated because the bearing had failed previously when the turbocharger reached a certain speed. He has conducted vibration surveys and has analyzed the data from ships for over 25 years. The propulsion system consisted of a medium speed 8-cylinder engine with a reduction gear to the propeller of ratio 5:053:1 (Figure 1). After a Figure 2: .com). Ph. He contributes to ISO/TC 108/SC 2/ WG2 “Vibration of Ships” and to ISO/TC 8/SC 8/WG12 “Ship Vibration. Also attached to the gear was a PTO generator with a step-up ratio of 2. The turbine bearing had 11 rollers in one row. The normal engine speed was a constant 595 rpm. step-up gear to generator/motor A unique situation was provided when it was known that a bearing on the main Diesel engine turbocharger of an oil tanker had failed on previous occasions. Certified Vibration Specialist IV Condition Analyzing Corporation Eatontown. P. The turbocharger bearings were proprietary anti-friction roller type lubricated with oil pumps operating on the same shaft as the turbine and compressor and mounted on the outside of the compressor and turbine wheels. meaning the thrust forward or aft was controlled by the pitch of the propeller.28-2009 “Guide for the Measurement and Evaluation of Broadband Vibration of Surface Ship Auxiliary Machinery. The compressor bearing was the thrust bearing and consisted of 11 balls in two rows. Instrumentation was prepared to take continuous samples of the data before. The propeller was controllable pitch. NJ kip Williams is Senior Engineer with Condition Analyzing Corporation (www. not by the speed and direction of the propeller.

76X -engine Teeth 19/96 (5. the turbocharger rpm increased from 10.6 seconds. The greatest vibration was found in the axial direction with radial vibration low. Measurements were set up on the turbocharger with an axially-mounted general-purpose accelerometer.042:1) Propeller 118 4X 4 blades fig. fig. On two subsequent occasions the turbocharger bearings had also failed when the rotation rate reached 13.022:1) Reduction Gears 595/118 19X. fig.6 seconds T+19. 3 4 5 6 7 8 failure of the turbine side lube oil pump.400 rpm. During the increased loading.2 seconds T+2 minutes (Maximum vibration at rotation rate) T+3 minutes VIBRATIONS 5 .000 Hz with minimal high-frequency activity. 4X.000 11X 11 full compressor vanes Step Up Gears 595/1203 91X-engine Teeth 91/184 (2.feature article Table 1: Speeds & Forcing Frequencies Component Rotation rate (rpm) Harmonics Comment Engine 595 2X. a replacement rotor was balanced and installed. Toward the end of the voyage the propeller pitch was gradually increased to 73% over a time period of half an hour.000-18.000 rpm to 13. fig. 9 TURBOCHARGER BEARING FAILURE The vessel was run at lower load than normal with a propeller pitch of 55% until the end of the voyage. Initial readings were taken at Fmax of 5.400 rpm when the turbocharger failed (Figure 2). Sampling was then taken with Fmax of 500 Hz and 800 lines with aterfall slices every 9. fig. fig. fig. With these settings up to 16 minutes could be saved in a single waterfall. 6X-engine 8 cylinders Turbocharger 8. SPRING 2016 Figure 3: Figure 4: Figure 5: Figure 6: Figure 7: Figure 8: Figure 9: T-9 minutes T-9.6 seconds Failure T+9.

When the vessel reached port. From one waterfall slice to the next.09 to 0. then a slight increase to 0.73 ips peak (Figure 8). What was observed during the load increase was a decrease in the vibration at rotation rate from 0. The bearing spring assemblies in the bearing were found broken as shown in Figure 11. The clip lodged in the bearing roller is further evidence of the failure of the bearing cage. VIBRATIONS SPRING 2016 .  ANALYSIS 6 Figure 11: Turbine bearing (left) and compressor bearing (right) The vibration at 0. .47X-rotation rate continued for only one more waterfall slice (Figure 7) and was not seen again. In other words. but more importantly a new frequency of 0. the time from detection of an abnormal spectrum until the failure was observed was less than 10 seconds or approximately 2000 rotations.47X-rotation rate. After the failure the vibration at rotation rate decreased as the pitch of the propeller was reduced to limit the vibration while the vessel proceeded into port.03 inch per second peak. The turbocharger never locked up and continued to function until the vessel got to the dock. an increase in 1X-rotation rate to 0.47X-rotation rate or FTF.47X-rotation rate in the regular spectra is the frequency expected for a Fundamental Train Frequency bearing defect (FTF). Figure 12 and Figure 13 with a spring clip lodged in a roller of the turbine bearing. The failure was preceded with no indication of abnormal parameters on the turbocharger. Vibration on a turbocharger normally consists of three compo- Figure 12: Turbine bearing with loose spring clip Figure 13: View of installed turbine bearing with spring clips in rollers. Oil pump also shown.05 ips peak. Pulses correspond to 0. vibration at 1X-rotation rate increased to 0. Vibration also appeared at the upper rotation-rate sideband at 1. The vibration at 0.47X-rotation rate (Figure 10). turbocharger lube oil pump.17 ips suddenly appeared.feature article Figure 10: Time sample of axial acceleration from one waterfall slice to the next before and after the failure. engine or gear. Over the next 2 minutes.4 milliseconds corresponding to the vibration at 0. A time sample just after the failure showed spikes at intervals of 9.47X-rotation rate also appeared (Figure 6). the turbocharger was disassembled.

or continuously with automatic shutdown of the machine? Bearing failure rates can happen in months. and (3) vibration at compressor vane-pass frequencies. The turbocharger is an axial turbine and a radial compressor meaning the exhaust gas passes through the turbine in the axial direction and the intake air passes through the compressor in the radial direction (Figure 16).5 is a close approximation. Vibration from the engine is constant with load and is sometimes associated with cracking of the turbocharger foundation. installation or clearance) might have been inadvertently corrected during the re-commissioning repair.feature article nents: (1) vibration from the engine at low-frequencies. Vibration from the engine was normal. but ISO quality grade 2. Excessive vibration transmitted from the engine 3. It is possible that one of the other factors (wrong bearing. V Figure 15: Zoom on failure event (3-minute period). This is one example when a failure could not be predicted using traditional vibration analysis techniques even 10 seconds beforehand. The balance condition is specific for each turbocharger by the manufacturer. Vibration at compressor vane-pass frequencies of 11X and 22X-rotation rate also were not seen in this case. Lube oil failure 4.000 rpm) clearly played a role. machine loading. but was not seen in this case. hours.40 ips peak for the 2nd alarm (fault). incorrect installation. The example here was one where the high machine speed (over 10. and machine speed.27 ips peak for the 1st alarm (alert) and 0. Wrong thrust bearing. or 4X-rotation rate indicates additional wear. “When is the bearing going to fail”? The same question arises when one decides how often to conduct vibration tests: should the frequency be monthly. 3X. Note only two readings at 0. Sometimes vibration at 2X.47X-rotation rate Figure 16: Turbocharge with axial flow turbine and radial flow compressor VIBRATIONS 7 . Vibration at turbocharger rotation rate is associated with imbalance in the rotor or wear in the bearings. including high-frequency algorithms. excessive axial clearance The loading on the thrust bearing decreased in the axial direction with increasing speed (Figure 14 and Figure 15). days. minutes or even seconds depending on the cause. the absence of significant vibration at 1X-rotation rate before the failure indicated that balance was not the primary cause. Imbalance in the rotor 5. no further problems occurred. (2) vibration at turbocharger rotation rate. and the question is. The manufacture’s recommended alarm level for filtered rotation rate vibration was 0. Often these techniques show a degree of bearing failure. While the conditions of this failure are unique due to the circumstances of the installation. The manufacturer reported that an incorrect balance procedure had been used to balance the rotor. When the correct procedure was used and the rotor re-installed.17 ips peak. Thrust bearing overload 2. and no lube oil failure occurred this time. weekly. The alarm levels for turbocharger rotation rate used during the this study were 0. Still. The decrease in the axial vibration with increasing load was due to compression of the axial load spring with increasing axial thrust. weeks. A major component of the axial thrust is the SPRING 2016 pull of the compressor wheel away from the turbine. there is no one way to predict the moment of bearing failure with certainty. Possible mechanisms for a bearing failure in a turbocharger: 1. Figure 14: Time course of failure: 30-minute period (10 sec intervals) CONCLUSIONS As vibration analysts we have several tools available to us to diagnose bearing failures.

it was decided to analyze the coast-down transient data to help determine the cause of high vibration. The recorded run time was barely a few seconds. The pumping temperature was 280 C (540 F). Therefore coast-down data SPRING 2016 . The pump was directly driven by a 740 KW induction motor with a rated capacity of 2.800 m3/hr with fluid specific gravity of 0. 1ST START-UP ATTEMPT The commissioning team attempted a start-up of the pump many times. 8 VIBRATIONS By Joppu Thomas INTRODUCTION T he subject of this case history was a hot service pump of center-hung configuration with a multiple volute casing. However. These systems provide comprehensive diagnostic capabilities which can be used to reduce machine downtime and provide considerable savings in maintenance costs. Due to the rapid acceleration of the pump during startup. High vibration was experienced at both the pump drive-end and non-drive-end bearings. These pumps must be handled carefully during start-up to ensure normal levels of vibration and to prevent unwanted trips. The values exceeded 150 microns (6 mills) at both ends. The pump had a fluid film bearing (plain sleeve) installed at the drive-end (DE) and a fluid film bearing/antifriction bearing combination installed on the thrust end (ODE). Since the run time of the pump was only a few seconds. This case history shows how the diagnostic capabilities of an online monitoring system were utilized by a leading refinery in the Middle East to solve a vibration problem experienced with a 740 KW Hot Pump. warm-up of these pumps are required prior to history Analyzing the Start-Up Vibration of HOT PUMPS ABSTRACT One line monitoring and diagnostic systems are widely employed by petrochemical plants and refineries worldwide for monitoring critical machinery. start up transient amplitude and phase data were not considered meaningful. the pump tripped on high vibration each time. Hot pumps are centrifugal pumps employed in services with temperatures above 150 C (300 F).

PUMP COAST-DOWN & SLOW ROLL DATA Following the first start up attempt. this radial vibration at the drive and non-drive-end was observed to be in-phase. please contact the Institute as soon as possible.4 mills) was observed at the drive end (DE) and nondrive-end (NDE) of the pump respectively at a speed ≤ 10% of operating speed (~ 300 rpm). A set point multiplier is a useful feature provided for machinery with proximity probe based monitoring systems which exhibit Certification Surveillance In order to protect the Institute members who have justly earned certification as a Vibration Analyst. Figure 2 below shows the vibration trend plots for the pump DE and NDE bearings. or other problems that are not always easy to determine without this unique data. The wear marks on SPRING 2016 the bearings also appeared normal. It was advised to the contractor to do a manual slow roll check on the pump rotor after assembly of the bearings and check for run-out. the dynamic forces due to problems such as unbalance are very low and can be reasonably discounted. Prior tests at these hot pumps had routinely measured slow-roll “vibration” at or near 10 microns (1/2 mill). BEARING INSPECTION Owing to the high vibration noticed. many of these cases go unnoticed due to absence of shaft proximity probe monitoring systems. please call or contact the Vibration Institute immediately. Failure to do so degrades the reputation of your certification and the Vibration Institute. This is mostly due to mechanical/electrical run-out of the probe target surface and some small residual bow of the rotor. the contractor decided to open the pump bearings for a quick history was recorded and analyzed. The drive-end and non-drive-end bearing clearances were checked and found to be within recommended tolerances. Slow roll data on rotating equipment is typically collected at speeds < 10% of the operating speed of the machine. the Vibration Institute wants to pursue individuals who falsify Institute certification in any manner. A slow roll vibration level of 125 microns (5 mils) and 163 microns (6.2 mills). Typically the slow roll vectors are around 5 microns (0. coastdown and slow roll data from the pump was examined. However the values measured during manual rotation were much larger around 26 microns (1 mill). At these slow speeds. If you are aware of any individual who you believe is violating basic ethics. If you are aware of any instance in which you believe an individual is falsifying his/ her certification status. EXPLORING THE REASON FOR VIBRATION Many hot pumps employed in refineries all around the world experience high levels of vibration during start-up. the “vibration” seen at these very slow speeds can be due to mechanical or electrical run-out. Both orthogonal set of probes (X & Y) installed on the pump bearings indicated high amplitudes. In VIBRATIONS 9 . (630) 654-2254 information@vi-institute. However. a physical bow or bend in the rotor.

the discharge check valve by-pass route was absent thus heating was carried out solely through the bottom casing drains. Typical warm-up arrangements for a top-suction. Arriving at a proper value and duration for a set-point multiplier involves making a database of vibration levels and their duration during multiple start-stops of machine. Pumps employed in hot service commonly experience startup vibration due to uneven expansion of the casing during warm-up. The investigation also discovered a particular hot pump which experienced high vibration during start-up until a discharge drain line was introduced. top discharge pump (center-hung configuration) normally consists of two routes of entry for the warmup fluid . Various warm-up piping arrangements are put forward by pump manufacturers. Due to the high start-up vibration experienced at the pump in question. It was noted that at a few pumps.through the discharge check valve bypass and through the warm-up line at the bottom of the pump casing. caution must be exercised before application of a multiplier. an investigation of the warm-up piping system/arrangement was carried out by the refinery engineering team. TRIP/SET POINT MULTIPLIERS enable the ALARM & TRIP values to be temporarily elevated until steady state conditions are achieved in these machines. The entry route through the discharge check valve bypass introduces fluid into the discharge volute of the pump. Since most machines are designed to start and operate below set levels of vibration. API 686 gives guidelines for warm-up piping arrangements. These “bottom warm-up only” pumps consistently experienced lower levels of vibration during start-up. poor warm-up can lead to shaft bows. Introduction of the discharge drain line was intended as a temporary measure until repairs to the check valve by-pass arrangement could be made. The introduction of fluid through the bottom of the pump casing ensures a uniform bottom-up heating of the casing and rotor. In extreme history Figure 2: Trend of pump vibration during start-up and coastdown? high levels of vibration during transient condition. The drain line from the discharge was uti- 10 VIBRATIONS SPRING 2016 .

A bowed rotor or unevenly heated casing on these machines can endure anywhere between 45 to 180 seconds before the vibration levels stabilize below alarm levels. the bearing brackets & housings might shift down at both ends of the pump (center-hung arrangement) and the rotor will bow along with them. Depending on the machine. The investigation concluded that the hot pump warm-up piping arrangements played a significant role in the start-up vibration levels experienced at the pumps. The SET POINT multiplier duration should be sufficient to overcome start-up temperature transients and stabilization. As a result. A carefully compiled data base of the vibration data for a machine during multiple start-ups is very valuable information. irrespective of their warm-up routing – the exact cause for this was not known. the engineering team concluded that heating from the pump top to bottom is an inferior practice as it results in an excessive temperature differential within the pump casing (top to bottom). this pump experienced lower levels of vibration during start-up. This temperature differential creates a very large “humping” or “bowing” tendency since the pump expands more at the top than the bottom. However. Subsequently. Also it was agreed that a controlled warm-up was required with a maximum casing top to bottom temperature differential not to exceed 50 C (122 F). TRIP/SET POINT MULTIPLER With the reason for excessive start-up vibration identified. sometimes it is advisable to apply a multiplier to a specific vibration channel. The operation team modified the warm-up procedures and piping per the findings of the investigation to ensure a bottom-up heating of SPRING 2016 VIBRATIONS 11 . it is worth mentioning that a few hot pumps of similar arrangement from a different manufacturer did not show a significant effect on start-up history lized to introduce warm-up fluid into the casing bottom. On the basis of all the above incidents. based on prior history where the other channels exhibit lower levels of vibration. CONCLUSION The pump was finally put in service with the modified warm-up arrangement and exhibited acceptable vibration levels. it was necessary to estimate and apply a suitable TRIP or SETPOINT MULTIPLER to the machines. Following the introduction of the discharge drain line. The criterion for arriving at the trip multiplier duration and set points are based on machine history. it was agreed to perform only bottom-up warm-ups of the pumps.

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A multiplier of 2 times trip value (2X) for a duration of 120 Seconds was applied which ensured temperature stabilization of the pump.Heald and David. Review of Vibration problem in power station Boiler feed Pumps by David France. Points for renewal can be earned for vibration-related activities including work experience. Bently and Charles T Hatch.Glasgow. A thermally induced bow can also occur due to a temperature differential in the mechanical seal area.Penry. The Vibration Institute Certification Committee has approved renewal requirements as follows: Category I: Category II: Category III: Category IV: 24 points (beginning January 2011) 28 points (beginning January 2011) 32 points (beginning January 2013) 36 points (beginning January 2014) Visit www. Length of time pump remained stationary (not rotating) in a hot condition. After five years. The motivation for re-certification is to ensure that the Vibration Analyst maintains the capability to function at the level certified.C . Recertification Requirements Certification as a Vibration Analyst is valid for five years from the date of current certification level. This requires scheduling an examination and securing a proctor per established Vibration Institute protocol. attending industry. and vibration-related presentations and published articles. and in compliance with ISO 18436: Part I. You may provide evidence of continuing education experience. 14 VIBRATIONS Vibration Analysts are certified on the basis of ability to function at a specified level. Fundamentals of Rotating Machinery Diagnostics by Donald E. Rotordynamics by Agnieszka Muszynska. V 1. association or chapter meetings. Subsequent bearing inspection was also done to physically verify that the applied multiplier did not exceed the bearing clearance professional development. 2. training and/or technical activity.G. Weir history Figure 4: Warm-up piping arrangement Figure 3: Pump BODE for coast-down (Pump DE) the pump. Insufficient warm-up or fast warm-ups can lead to high vibration in the pump during REFERENCES start-up due to a thermally induced bow of the rotor. The TRIP MULTIPLER setting was also judiciously applied. Casing differential temperatures. 3. certified Vibration Analysts are required to recertify. and click on Certification to learn more about earning points for re-certification! SPRING 2016 . Design and Opeartion of pumps for Hot standby services by Charles. Points toward recertification can be earned in various ways. Re-examination. 4. Recertification at the current level of certification can be achieved in one of two ways: Renewal. Some other factors which can induce a thermal bow are: 1. You may take the certification exam at the level you are currently certified.

2016. analyses. 1041 West Bridge Street Phoenixville. drive train torsional vibrations. rotor dynamics and torsional vibration modeling. Pennsylvania. 2 Unbalance Aerodynamic Loading Z Coupling Bearing No. and troubleshooting real life bearings and vibration problems encountered in rotating equipment. with emphasis on machinery rotor dynamics. and troubleshooting. 2016 Workshop May 5. rbts.RBTS’ 2 3 r d ANNUAL SEMINAR May 2-5. 2016 May 3. 2016 Seminar “FLUID-FILM BEARINGS” Seminar “ROTOR DYNAMICS” Seminar “ROLLING-ELEMENT BEARINGS” 3rd Day : Workshop Advanced Rotating Machinery Dynamics “ARMD™” software training/demonstration applied to bearings. USA     Tel: Fax: email: web: 610-415-0412 610-415-0413 seminars@rbts. 1 Rotating Machinery Dynamics Journal/Thrust Bearings Spherical Roller Bearing  For more information & seminar brochure visit our web site or contact us. diagnosis. analyses and interpretation of generated results. Pennsylvania 19460. Prepared & Presented by: RBTS. operation. Detailed coverage of the field of fluid-film / rolling-element bearings and rotor dynamics. 2016  Body Force Direction Y X Gear Loading DISC Sinusoidal force input Bearing No. and locate the rotating assembly. Rotor Bearing Technology & Software. No previous experience is required. bearing systems. Malvern. Inc. maintenance. USA 23rd Annual Seminar & Short Course On ROTOR DYNAMICS & BEARINGS TECHNOLOGIES Lateral & Torsional Vibration Analysis / Fluid-Film & Rolling-Element Bearings A 4-day seminar and workshop for engineers and technical managers involved in ROTATING MACHINERY . illustrated by the presentation of case histories and the application of advanced software for modeling. PENN STATE Great Valley. 2016 May 4. Flexible registration for any number of days 1st Day : 2nd Day : 3rd Day : May 2. and bearing systems (fluid-film & rolling-element) that support. 4th Day : May 4. Inc.

VIBRATION ANALYSIS Rubs are generally defined as contact be- Figure 1: System 1 Machinery Diagram KEYWORDS: Rub. It is driven by a steam turbine whose normal operating speed is between 8. orbit. MACHINE DESCRIPTION ABSTRACT The following case history explains how a rubbing condition was identified in a centrifugal compressor by the utilization of phase. Vibration Specialist Category III. 16 VIBRATIONS SPRING 2016 . phase. shaft centerline. (Right) Figure 2: PI software showing the sudden increase in vibration levels at the DE X & Y probes. vibration analysis. bode and orbit plots. After observing the abnormal increase in the vibration levels. bow. bode. SYMPTOMS A sudden increase in the vibration levels was observed in the DCS and PI software (Figure 2).case history Rub Identification in Hydrogen Centrifugal Compressor Juan C.500 rpm. This information was required during the troubleshooting process to analyze sudden changes observed in the vibration levels during compressor operation. The machine is monitored using X-Y proximity probe pairs on each fluid film bearing as shown in the instrumentation diagram (Figure 1) along with two axial probes and a Keyphasor. rubbing. T he machine to be analyzed is a 5-stage Hydrogen Centrifugal Compressor manufactured in 1995 by Nouvo Pignone. an immediate request was made to the vibration specialist to analyze and identify the cause of the sudden change.000 and 9. The rotating equipment group was quickly dispatched to investigate the problem. Ustiola. An abnormal increase was noticed in the control room by the night shift crew.

For example. A rub under different circumstances is manifested in different ways. where the rub looks like unbalance. VIBRATIONS 17 . In our case this conFigure 4: Waterfall spectrum showing dition did not apply since our opincrease at 1X Vibration Amplitude. with no major amplitude in harmonics and no sub-harmonic frequencies. The second is a friction rub that causes fairly constant contact between a rotating and stationary part. When rubbing occurs. and the process is repeated and repeated. if operating speed is sufficiently above the first critical speed (resonance frequency). erating speed was not far enough above the first critical speed. heating from friction is generated at certain areas of the rotor (where the rubs Figure 6: Rotor in Healthy Condition (June 2013). Our case had all the symptoms of a friction type. as shown in figure 3. where two sudden steps in phase & amplitude were observed within a period of 13 days. the amplitude and phase angle may shift over time as shown in figure 5. The first is an impact rebound type rub. These changes primarily occur due to the contact of stationary & rotating history Figure 3: Types of rubs [1] tween stationary and rotating components of a machine. Full spectrum waterfall indicates the change in the 1X vibration amplitude (Figure 4). In our situation (friction type) one of the most common effects observed in the vibration response are changes to the 1X vector due to thermal bowing of the rotor. the symptoms of many problems occur at that frequency. In turbomachinery is always important to trend the 1x value (Amplitude and Phase) since Figure 5: 1x Amplitude & Phase shift over the time at constant speed. A rub in a rotating machine usually doesn’t happen by itself. the phase angle should not change over time at a constant speed. it is usually a secondary effect of several malfunctions occurring at the same time. It is possible to sort rubbing out from a balance issue by looking at the 1x amplitude and phase over time. 1/3 X. There are certain myths about rubs and the way it is presented. If a shaft is unbalanced. However if the rotor is bowed due to a rub. in this case an impact occurs. There are two types of rubs. or 1/4 X. then a sub-synchronous frequency may be present such as 1/2 X. this was observed in this case study. sudden changes in the phase are expected at a constant speed. The vibration characteristics were high 1X vibration. In practice it has been observed that vibration due to a rub occurring at 1/2 X might take place SPRING 2016 when the running speed is above two times the first critical speed and 1/3 X when the running speed is above three times the first critical speed. and then the rotor bounces back. etc.

case history Figure 7: Rotor with Rubbing problem (May 2015). This sectional drawing will allow us to visualize the concerned areas in a better way. however. where rubbing at the inter-stage labyrinth seals (first stages) and fractures at the diaphragm were found. Several diagnostic plots are useful when diagnosing a rub. since the problem was reflected best in that area. Chief among these is the shaft orbit plot (Figure 8). [2] FINDINGS The drawing shown in figure 9 highlights the areas where the rubbing occurred in the hydrogen compressor. The following pictures provide evidence of the problems analyzed through the vibration plots. By analyzing the evidence. Bode plots revealed the change in the critical speed where the rotor stiffened due to the rub. During disassembly much damage was observed in stationary and rotary parts. In some occasions shaft orbit presentations can give quite dramatic indications of a rub as evidenced by flat spots on portions of the orbit where contact is occurring and restriction of orbital motion. The drive end probes (DE) were the key for the investigation. where our theory of rubbing was proven. we suspect that the shaft was internally misaligned & bowed during operation causing a pivoting effect in the DE side where the 18 VIBRATIONS SPRING 2016 . In some cases it can be higher than the normal critical speed. Figure 8: Orbit plots before and after the rub. most of the severe problems were noticed near the suction (non-drive end). are) which in turn results in a bowed shaft. since we are modifying the natural frequency. .2500 | crm@reliabilityweb. Nevada Quote: Eleanor Roosevelt. 1884-1962 $100 + FREE Save AppleTV Use code: VI Register by 3/31/16 reliabilityconference.Produced by names you trust Great minds discuss ideas Average minds discuss events Small minds discuss people Discover NEW Ideas The Conference Las Vegas April 11-15. 2016 South Point Hotel and Casino Las Vegas.1245 | | 888.

in thermal growth altered the internal alignment. the site inspection. Solid deposits found inside and outside the cylindrical inner bundle (cartridge casing) where rotor and stationary internals are assembled. This was observed as evidence Figure 9: Compressor sectional drawing showing key areas of trouble. VIBRATIONS SPRING 2016 . reducing clearance Damage was observed in both stationary and rotating parts during enough to generate the contact. a possible root rinth seals. seal at 1st stage impeller Cracks were found on diaphragm (top and bottom half). resulting in high vibration levels. contact between these cause of this problem could have been the continuous formation of components created a rub. which caused an upward trajectory heat from friction causing thermal growth changes. Severe rub at discharge of lab. ROOT CAUSE DETERMINATION So we knew that a significant rub had occurred but why? What caused or initiated this problem? From figure 10 below notice that the shaft centerline position had moved over time. The deposits in the compressor seals or ingress of foreign debris like contact between these stationary and rotating parts also generated pieces of the strainer found attached to the first stage impeller. Once 20 Piece of suction strainer found attached at impeller eye. Solid deposits found inside and outside the cylindrical inner bundle (cartridge casing) where rotor and stationary internals are assembled. of internal misalignment between the rotor and stationary diaphragms. diaphragms and balance drum. Damage was observed at the inter-stage labyFrom our inspections of the dismantled machine. These changes from July 2013 to February history increase of vibration levels was observed. Piece of suction strainer found attached at impeller eye.

Bently Nevada Corporation “Machinery Diagnostic Course”. Vibration Institute 2002. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Figure 10: Shaft centerline position from July 2013 to February 2015. SPRING 2016 VIBRATIONS 21 .case history accumulation of these deposits exceeded the available clearance. V REFERENCES: 1. Figure 3. Rub observed at balance drum area Piece of suction strainer lost in 2013 found trapped between case and bundle. Arthit Phuttipongsit (Principal Engineer) “The Morton Effect and Light Rubs in Rotating Machinery”. All inter-stage labyrinths have heavy contact mark Solid deposits on labyrinths seals. 2. causing an increase of the shaft surface temperature and subsequent shaft bowing.1 2007. ORBIT Vol. Eshleman “Machinery Vibration Analysis” Volume II: Analysis and Correction.27 No. a friction rub could be developed at one point of the shaft surface. Ronald L.

David Carrell Marcos. Russell Alan Davis. Carlos Miguel Tobon Plascencia. Manuel Ramirez Lucero. Pabilan Trinidad. Michael Bruno Mitrovic. Juan Carlos Duran Gastelum. Felipe Martin Arroyo. Shane Lockwood. Rogelio Diaz Ledo. Kris R. Justin Miller. Mubarak Aali Alghamdi. Mubarak Abdullah Aldossari. Donald Robb. Jerry L. 2016 Please note: Every attempt is made to alphabetize the names of individuals by surname. Enrique Velasco Montoro. Witteveen. Juan Pablo Dodero Bendana. Teboho Timmy Kutoane. Donald Nelson Moreno. Guo Long Oh. Loreto Pastor Sopelana. John Wayne Borelly.newly certified 2016 Newly Certified Individuals WELCOME TO OUR NEW COLLEAGUES CERTIFIED INDIVIDUALS November 26. Dongyang Hu. Taylor North Fry. Ali Abdullah Al Ousif. Sergi Desunvila Benaiges. Lloyd Adam Moritz. Ashleigh Brianne Gutteridge. Kaitlin Saranda Spak. Pedro Reyes Lopez. Ovalle. Fabricio Doldan Novo. Fabian De Jesus Loria. Alberto Izquierdo Leal. Julio Cesar Lopez Miranda. Sivasubramanaian Malli Sivaramaiyer Mothilal. Chase Lee Kiser. Victor Hugo Boyzo Torres. Leo Ventura Punongbayan. Ungar. Alvaro Angelo Lara. 2015 March 7. Juan Jesus Gomez Texon. Jason Christopher Stapley. Marco Antonio Izquierdo Licona. Juan Diego Ugalde. Jose Antonio Marquez Secilla. Troy E. Ivan Aliaga Dueso. Tariq Salim Al-Sultan. Mubarak Mohammed Al-Khaldi. Alberto Conde Romero. Edgar Godinez. Jose Octavio Gomez Ponce. Kendal Varela Carvajal. Kevin R. Vicente Jr. Jeremy Boyer. Imad ur Rahman Khan. If you notice a misspelling. Mauricio Ernesto Quionenz Monroy. Nathaniel Parr. Ahmad Adnan Oriol Save Sanchez. Luciano Ivan Acosta Ramirez. Jose Manuel Iglesias Garcia. James Wesley Palmer. Rafael Dekar Chavez Molano. Luis Amores Garcia. Muhammad Anas Bin Abu Bakar. Alfred William DeVaux. Jesus De La Fuente Miguel. Peter John Richards. Luis F. Bruce W. Deon Foonk. Cesar Enrique Aguirre Diaz. Olger Robles Solano. Stephen Owen. Jesus Miguel Portabales Cerezal. Craft. Jose Alberto Garcia Garrido. Randy Dinso Nakila. Docner Andrey Schorbooth Contreras. Martin. Anthony Wayne Bradford. Stephen Wayne McGinn. Angel Luis Garcia Gragera. Josep Sans Calanda. Grider. David R. Mat Rashid Rasnijeery. Michael Adam Klomp. Oscar Huber Ramirez Gomez. Selwyn Fridey. CATEGORY II William R. Blankenship. Parthiban Palaniappan. Russell Stuart Lemmens. Jeffrey Luna Galera. We apologize if any names are out of order. Jesus Gomez Calderon. Scott. Khisbullah Hudha. Uriel Rodriguez Chairez. Stuart William Hodge. Jose Maria Melion Alamo. Pedro Alberto Coronado Marquez. Sandile Ralph Mkhize. Hassan SPRING 2016 . Marco Gomez Carias. Roberto Ibanez Rico. please contact the Institute headquarters at information@ vi-institute. Christopher James Woodward. Alejandro Pastor Bellmunt. Shawn Tye Waltz. Jason R. Matthew Sean Adamchick. Ballenger. Diego Gerardo Barquero Espinoza. Wilson Alberto Martinez Vargas. Vishnu Itwaru. Joe Overbaugh. 22 VIBRATIONS CATEGORY I Ian Kendrick. Luvern Curt Andrist. Shawn Paul Morgan. Johannes William Ferreira. Jose Maria Martinez Trinidad. Trent Wesley Pol. Rey David Coronado Castillo. CW Ahmad Saiful Bin CW Zakaria. Angel Ramirez Martinez. Elmer Ulises Gonzalez Hernandez. Elmer Leonardo Arias Cantreras.

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Please contact the appropriate individual below and they will be happy to help! ELLIE MURPHY Finance Associate and Office Manager In the interim. until a replacement Director can be found.VI headquarter update The Vibration Institute staff stands at the ready to assist you with anything you may need. In the time since. It is with mixed emotions that I’ve submitted my resignation from the Vibration A fond farewell T wo and a half years ago I sat down to an interview with members of the Vibration Institute’s Executive Committee to discuss my qualifications as a Director and the challenges that lie ahead as the leader of an organization that serves the vibration community worldwide. I hope to see you on LinkedIn. and getting to know so many of you. and have had a wonderful experience in my time with the Institute. I am appreciative of the trust the Board has given me. I’ve been honored to work closely with the Board of Directors to make some good and lasting changes that will continue to benefit our members and certified analysts who call the Vibration Institute their professional DR. I have thoroughly enjoyed the time I have spent at the Vibration Institute. Wisconsin – an organization that is near and dear to my heart and played a significant part in forging my love of the outdoors in my youth. I have enjoyed my time with the DAVE CORELLI Board President and Technical Director-Certification dcorelli@vi-institute. and wish you all the best in your JENNIFER HOWSER Office Assistant VIOffice@vi-institute. February 19. or email the general inbox at information@vi-institute. I have been tapped to lead a school and nature center in my home town of Eagle River. Robin Ginner Don’t know who you should talk to? Call the Vibration Institute headquarters at 630-654-2254. RONALD ESHLEMAN Technical Director-Training reshleman@vi-institute. I trust in the skills and commitment of the Institute’s headquarters staff to be able to assist you in anything you may need. My last official day with the Vibration Institute was Friday. 2016. My only regret is that I will not have the opportunity to be part of the continued progress being enjoyed by this time-honored SUE FONCK Certification and Training Associate VICertification@vi-institute. Although just over two short PEGGY DELLARIA Membership Associate VIMembership@vi-institute. V Kindest NICOLE CASAS Marketing and Communications Associate ncasas@vi-institute. 24 VIBRATIONS SPRING 2016 .

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