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# Spatial variability

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. • A unique character exhibited by soil and rock • Characterized by autocorrelation distance. • The common use of mean and point variance of a set of measurements for design ignores this aspect. the distance upto which the correlation of soil properties deemed to be appropriate.Spatial variability • Measured soil properties can exhibit considerable spatial variation even within relatively homogeneous deposits • They exhibit similar values at neighbouring locations than that at locations far away.

Spatial variability • Useful in random field modeling • Useful in the evaluation of variance reduction • Enables to critically assess and compare various site investigation and testing programs. and also to evaluate their effectiveness. .

coefficient of variation and scale of fluctuation are essential. • Scale of fluctuation of a soil property is closely related to the average distance between intersections of soil property and its mean. • Small values of scale of fluctuation imply rapid fluctuations about the mean. from point to point. its mean. • Large values suggest a slowly varying property. • The distance within which the soil property exhibits relatively strong or significant correlation. . with respect to the average.Spatial variability • In order to completely describe a soil property stochastically.

• Autocorrelation coefficient at a lag. • Autocorrelation function is a plot of autocorrelation coefficients at various lags. is the ratio of autocovariance at that lag (ck) and the variance of the data (c0). . autocorrelation function is first obtained for the data under consideration. k.Spatial variability • For getting autocorrelation or scale of fluctuation of a soil property.

is called sample autocorrelation function. the correlation coefficients are obtained from sample. . The autocorrelation function. represented as rk. thus obtained.Spatial variability • Since we always play with limited dataset in geotechnical engineering.

1996).(Auto)correlation distance • Autocorrelation function is used to estimate the autocorrelation distance. • Scale of fluctuation is numerically related to autocorrelation distance. • The distance at which autocorrelation coefficient corresponds to 1/e (i. 37%). • Mathematically. is termed as autocorrelation distance (DeGroot. autocorrelation distance (or correlation length) is defined as the area under the autocorrelation function. and its value depends on the shape of the autocorrelation function.e. .

Scale of fluctuation .

Scale of fluctuation (Spry et al. 1988) ..

Correlation distance • Commonly used analytical models to fit sample autocorrelation functions: .

Observed scales of fluctuation (Phoon et al. 1995) ..

Spatial variability – Keswick Clay – Adelaide University. Australia Jaksa et al. (1999) .

How to estimate autocorrelation distance? where. . If correlation distance is to be finite then r(t) must decrease sufficiently quickly to zero as t increases. and r(t) is the autocorrelation function. theta is autocorrelation distance (or correlation length) .

Vertical Spatial variability (C8 profile) – Dasaka (2005) .

Vertical Spatial variability (C8 profile) – Dasaka (2005) .

Vertical Spatial variability (C8 profile) – Dasaka (2005) .

Vertical Scale of fluctuation (C8 profile) – Dasaka (2005) .

39 m. 2005) Autocorrelation distance and scale of fluctuation of vertical qc are 0.22 and 0. respectively. .Spatial variability analysis at a power plant site in India (Dasaka.

Variance reduction function (Babu et al. 2006) ..

Spatial variability – Keswick Clay – Adelaide University. Australia Jaksa et al. (1999) .

Vertical Spatial variability (C8 profile) – Dasaka (2005) .

Vertical Spatial variability (C8 profile) – Dasaka (2005) .

Vertical Spatial variability (C8 profile) – Dasaka (2005) .

Vertical Scale of fluctuation (C8 profile) – Dasaka (2005) .

Spatial variability analysis at a power plant site in India (Dasaka.39 m. respectively.22 and 0. . 2005) Autocorrelation distance and scale of fluctuation of vertical qc are 0.

2006) ..Variance reduction function (Babu et al.

Assessing SPT-based probabilistic models for liquefaction potential evaluation: a 10-year update. Load and resistance factor design (LRFD) calibration for steel grid reinforced soil walls. 2013.Important topics • 1. Georisk . Issue 3. Volume 7. Issue 3-4. 2011.Volume 5. Juang et al. Bathurst et al. Georisk • 2.

Hata et al. Georisk • 4. Reliability of shallow foundations designed to Eurocode 7. 2010. Issue 4. 2001. pages 73-88 . Forrest et al. A probabilistic evaluation of the size of earthquake induced slope failure for an embankment.Important topics • 3.Volume 4.

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Important topics • 6. United Arab Emirates. Aldama-Bustos et al. pages 1-29. Reliability analysis of strength of cement treated soils. Dubai and Ra's Al Khaymah. Georisk • 7. Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis for rock sites in the cities of Abu Dhabi. 2009. Sivakumar Babu et al. 2010. Georisk . pages 157-162.

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