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# CHAPTER I

1

Laws / Axioms of Mathematics:
1) Associative law ( grouping )
a+b+c = (a+b)+c
a×b×c = (a×b)×c

= a +(b+c)
= a ×(b× c)

2) Commutative law ( order )
a+b = b+a
a×b = b×a
3) Distributive law ( expanding )
a (b + c) = ab + ac
(a + b) c = ca + cb

Properties of the number "1"
Any thing multiplied by the number 1 is equal to itself
7.4 = 1 × 7.4 = 7.4
1 × 120.53 = 120.53
Any thing divided by the number 1 is equal to itself
57.2
1

63.45
= 63.45
1

= 57.2

Any thing divided by itself is equal to "1"
51.2
51.2

=1

83.25
=1
83.25

THEREFORE: 1 can be written many different way.
352 = 1 29.45 = 1
352
29.45

619472 = 1
619472

z3w7 = 1
z3w7

This is a very important property that is utilized in conversions.

5.. Ex 2: π = 3. 3 ..3 . -2. 1. . 2. Whole Numbers Natural Numbers together with “zero”. . We call the set of natural numbers plus the number zero the whole numbers. 5. 2. 3. Natural Numbers also known as: Counting Numbers Ex: 1. At some point. Ex: . . . or sometimes the counting numbers.414213562373. Irrational Numbers Ex 1: 2 = 1. . The expanded set of numbers that we get by including negative versions of the counting numbers is called the integers. . 4. . . At first. . -3. Rational numbers include what we usually call fractions Ex: . Integers Whole numbers plus negatives numbers. we get the set of rational numbers. 2 2 Last there are Irrational Numbers. The next generalization that we can make is to include the idea of fractions. the idea of “zero” came to be considered as a number.. 3. 1. Next came the idea of the of negative numbers. 0. 1. If we add fractions to the set of integers. Ex: 0.141592653589. . As decimals they never repeat or terminate (rational numbers always do one or the other). 2. where a and b are integers (but b b cannot be zero). 3. Rational Numbers a All numbers of the form . -2. -1. . . 4. These are called the natural numbers.CHAPTER I 2 Real Numbers: The real number system evolved over time.. 0. “number” meant something you could count (like how many sheep a farmer owns). these are numbers that cannot be expressed as a ratio of integers. . . . . . 2. .-1.

-1. Whole Numbers 0. 3. considered as an object in its own right. -2. 2. - 2 π Rational Numbers 3 3 . . 1. . 2. . Sets are one of the most fundamental concepts in mathematics. 2 2 Thus: Natural Numbers is a subset of Whole Numbers. which can be written as: Rational Numbers U Irrational Numbers = REAL NUMBERS . . . which can be written as: Whole numbers ⊆ Integers Integers is a subset of Rational Numbers. Integers . 2. 3. -2. . 1. .CHAPTER I 3 Set theory: This is the branch of mathematics that studies sets. Thus from before: Universe of Real Numbers Irrational Numbers Natural Numbers 1. . . 0. . 0.-1. . . which can be written as: Integers ⊆ Rational Numbers Rational Numbers in union with Irrational Numbers make up the REAL NUMBERS. A set is a collection of distinct objects. 2. 1. . which can be written as: Natural Numbers ⊆ Whole Numbers Whole numbers is a subset of Integers. . . .

subtraction 3 .addition 2 . Multiplication & Division Next.multiplication 4 . Example: 2. Addition and Subtraction Last. do the remaining additions and subtractions from left to right. do all the multiplications and divisions from left to right.5 = 15.53 = 2. and working from the innermost parentheses out. using the standard order of operations. 4.625 Writing an expression involving two or more of these operations. a>b means that a is not greater than b and a<b means that a is not less than b . INEQUALITIES: An inequality is a statement about the relative size or order of two objects.5×2.CHAPTER I 4 Real Numbers: The five most common operations on the set of real numbers are: 1 . The notation a<b means that a is less than b and The notation a>b means that a is greater than b These relations are known as strict inequality. such as: 2(3 . When dealing with a fraction bar. Parentheses and Fraction Bars Calculate the values of all expressions inside parentheses or brackets first. 3. Exponents Next. 2. calculate the numerator and denominator separately and then do the division.(-1) Standard Order of Operations 1. raise all numbers to the indicated powers.exponentiation Exponentiation means the raising of a real number to a power.5) + 4 × 5 or 2×32–5 4 .5×2. a≥b means that a is greater than or equal to b.division 5 . in contrast a≤b means that a is less than or equal to b.

01: add . Example 1. x ≤ -11 Example 1.02: add -3x to both sides add – 6 to both sides 4x + 6 ≤ 3x .3x . A) All numbers are understood to be raised to the first power. All work with exponents will be with numbers with the same base number.CHAPTER I 5 Solving Solving linear inequalities is very similar to solving linear equations.3x . except for one detail: you flip the inequality sign whenever you multiply or divide the inequality by a negative number.3 to both sides x + 3 -3 x < 2 -3 < -1 must get x by itself Example 1. Example 1.05: number 24 may be written as 24 1 therefore 24 1 is also equal to 24 B) Multiplying a number raised to a power by itself is the same as adding the exponents.03: multiply by -1 dived by 2 -2x > 4 -1 × ( -2x > 4 ) 2x < . The second part is 4 which is called the exponent or power of the number.4 2x / 2 < . x + 6 ≤ -5 -6 -6 .06: 24 × 24 = 53 2 × 24 1 × 24 1 = 53 2 24 1+1 = 24 2 = 53 2+2 = 53 4 Therefore adding the powers is the same as multiplication .4 / 2 x < -2 must get x by itself Exponent manipulation: The number 684 is made of two parts. The easiest way to show this is with some simple examples: Example 1.5 must get x by itself . The first part is 68 which is called the base of the number.

Example 1. Example 1. Therefore you can separate any base number raised to power as long as the powers sum to the original exponents.05: Example 1.3 3 -8 56.08: 63 7 = 63 1+6 = 63 1 × 63 6 OR 63 7 = 63 2+3 = 63 2 × 63 5.3 .3 -5 × —— -8= 56.06: 1 ——5 = 45 -5 45 AND 1 ——— = 63 7 63 -7 Proof: Proof: 1 45 -5 = ——5 × 1 45 45 -5 63 7 multiply by 1 so as not to change the value 1 45 -5 = ——5 × ——— 45 45 -5 45 -5 = —————— 45 5 × 45 -5 45 -5 45 -5 45 -5 = ——5-5= —— = —— = 45-5 0 45 45 1 substitute for 1 multiply across 1 = ——-7 × 1 63 1 63 7 63 = ——-7 × ——— 63 63 7 7 63 7 = —————— 63 -7 × 63 7 637 63 7 63 7 = ——7-7= ——0 = —— = 637 1 63 63 D) Dividing a base number raised to a power is the same as subtracting the exponents. C) One (1) divided by a number raised to a power is the same as the number raised to the negative of the power.3 8 = 56.07: 38 2 × 38 3 = 38 2+3 = 38 5 OR going in the opposite direction Example 1.3 -5 × 56.3 -5 1 ——— = 56.3 -5-8 = 56. etc.09: 37 7 1 ——— = 37 7 × ——3 = 37 7 × 37 -3 = 37 7-3 = 37 4 3 37 37 56.CHAPTER I 6 Example 1.3 56.

Therefore.0340 × 10 2+1 decimal point = 3.634 × 10 4+1 48.40 × 10 1 = 30.11: a) 3034 = 3034. Thus 0 + 1 = 1 = 303.14: d) 48.0 × 10 0 = 303.8634 × 10 6 59.340 × 10 1+1 this is repeated until you have only = 30.54 × 10 7 = -7. the power of 10 becomes larger by 1. the power of 10 must increase by 1.0 × 1 = 3034. 1) As the number part becomes smaller by a factor of ten.CHAPTER I 7 E) Raising any number or expression to the zero power makes the number or expression equal to ONE.654 × 10 7+1 = -7.654 × 10 8 .340 × 10 2 one significant number in front of = 3.13: c) 592 × 10 -6 = = = = Example 1. Example 1. from one (1) to nine (9) but not zero (0). the number becomes smaller. Significant digits are the numbers.754 ) 0 = 1 0 c) bn bn × b0 —— = ——— bn bn sin ( j + t)2 dt = 1 0 1 = b0 Scientific Notation: Has one significant digit before a decimal point.8634 × 10 5+1 4.0340 × 10 3 Example 1.634 × 10 5 4.92 5.10: Proof: bn = bn+0 expand a) 10 0 = 1 bn = bn × b0 n n b =b ×b 0 divide by b b) n ( 24.12: b) 486.34 × 10 4 = = = = Example 1.2 5.2 59.0 = 3034. Example 1.92 × 10 -6+1 × 10 -5 × 10 -5+1 × 10 -4 -76.40 × 10 0+1 as the decimal point is moved over one place.

. The rad is the Radiation Absorbed Dose in matter.0459 × 10 3-1 = . the power of 10 becomes smaller by 1.0735 × 10 -5 .0735 × 10 -4-1 = = = = = Example 1. ) The electron volt (ev) is the amount of energy that an electron will gain if placed inside a potential difference of one volt (the speed that an electron will gain as it crosses a one volt potential difference). The Roentgen (R) is the amount of ionization that takes place in a known volume of air. ( Since 1983.458 of a second.000001 ----------- 106 10 3 10-2 10-3 10-6 Units: The meter (m) is the distance measured from the pole to the equator divided into 10.1 = -5 this is repeated until you have only one significant number in front of decimal point .01 .35 × 10 -7 as the decimal point is moved over one place.kilo c --.459 × 10 1 = 4.000 equal units. Therefore. Measuring the charge will give you the value of the Roentgen which is 2.00459 × 103 = .00735 × 10 -4 = .58 × 10 -4 coulombs / kilogram of air. the number becomes larger.000.000 .59 × 10 0 = 4.35 × 10 -6-1 7.001 .459 × 10 2-1 = .000.0459 × 10 2 = .15: a) . The definition of the rad is the amount of energy absorbed per gram of matter (old unit) which is 100 ergs / gram of matter.mega K --.735 × 10 -6 7. the power of 10 must decrease by 1: -4 .59 × 10 1-1 = 4.CHAPTER I 8 2 ) As the number part becomes larger by a factor of ten.000 1. Example 1.735 × 10 -5-1 .16: b) .792. the meter is defined as the distance travelled by light in vacuum in 1⁄299.59 MKS System Know ( memorize ) M --.milli μ --micro ----------- millions thousands hundredth thousandth millionth ----------- 1.59 × 1 = 4.centi m --. Each unit was then given the name meter (old definition).

Example 1. if you had two (2) pounds and converted it to ounces. which takes into account the different types of radiation. The sievert (Sv) is the new unit in radiation protection. no matter how simple or difficult. The rem is used in radiation protection. Conversions: All conversions. One gray equals 100 rads ( 1 Gy = 100 rads ). There are two possibilities from this one equation of 16oz = 1 lb.CHAPTER I 9 The gray (Gy) is the new unit of absorbed dose in matter. 16oz = 1 lb From this KNOWN information we will need to solve for the value ONE that we need. . but in some other form.17: 2 lb equals how many ounces? 1) We first need to know how many ounces in a pound. which takes into account the different types of radiation just like the rem. the weight is still the same regardless of the measuring system or units employed. are simple multiplication's by the value one (1). a) divide both sides by 16oz OR b) divide both sides by 1 lb 16oz = 1 lb 16oz = 1 lb 16oz 1 lb —— = ——— 16oz 16oz 16oz —— 1 lb 1 lb = ——— 1 lb 1 lb 1 = ——— 16oz 16oz ——— = 1 1 lb 16oz 1 = ——— 1 lb We now have two number ones (1) to choose from. It stands for radiation equivalent man. By that I mean. The reason for multiplying by one (1) is that you do not want to change the value of your information. The definition of the gray is the amount of energy absorbed per kilogram of matter which is 1 joule / kilogram of matter. It is the gray times the quality factor. It was named in honor for a Swedish scientist. One sievert equals 100 rem ( 1 Sv = 100 rem ). It is the rad times the quality factor.

1 lb 1 = ——— 16oz By a poor choice. all conversion come down to multiplying by ONE and substitution. . I mean choosing the value 1 that will not help in the conversion. "Convert 32 oz into pounds?". therefore. No matter what field of endeavor you are in. 1 lb = 2 lb × ——— 16 oz 2 lb × 1 lb = —————— 16 oz 2 lb2 = ——— 16 oz At this point we see we gained nothing. 16 oz = 2 lb × ——— 1 lb 2 lb × 16 oz = —————— 1 lb 32 lb oz = ————— 1 lb = 32 oz This appears to be a long way to do conversions. we substitute for 1 its other value. If the question was. c) again get information to be converted 2 lb d) multiply by 1 2 lb = 2 lb × 1 Again. This is for those who do not have one. but this method after much repetition becomes faster and easier. if we multiplied now we gain nothing. If you have a method for doing conversion that works.CHAPTER I 10 2) Choose one of them (we will choose poorly the first time). therefore. a) get information to be converted 2 lb b) multiply by 1 2 lb = 2 lb × 1 If we did the multiplication at this point we gain nothing. then this choice would be good. therefore. we substitute for 1 its other value. The method as outlined works with all conversions. we choose the other value for 1. use it. or are having trouble in doing conversions.