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Temporomandibular joint and muscle disorders, commonly called "TMD," are a group of

conditions that cause pain and dysfunction in the jaw joint and the muscles that control jaw
movement. For most people, pain in the area of the jaw joint or muscles does not signal a serious
problem. Generally, discomfort from these conditions is occasional and temporary, often
occurring in cycles. The pain eventually goes away with little or no treatment. Some people,
however, develop significant, long-term symptoms. TMJ disorders have many signs and
symptoms. It's often hard to know for sure if you have TMJ, because one or all of these
symptoms can also be present for other problems. The dentist can help make a proper diagnosis
by taking a complete medical and dental history, conducting a clinical examination and taking
appropriate X-rays.
Some of the most common TMJ symptoms include:

Headaches (often mimicking migraines), earaches, and pain and pressure behind the eyes

A clicking or popping sound when you open or close your mouth

Pain brought on by yawning, opening the mouth widely or chewing

Jaws that "get stuck," lock or go out

Tenderness of the jaw muscles

A sudden change in the way the upper and lower teeth fit together

Actually, the temporomandibular joint connects the lower jaw, called the mandible, to the
bone at the side of the head—the temporal bone. If you place your fingers just in front of your
ears and open your mouth, you can feel the joints. The TMJ is comprised of muscles, blood
vessels, nerves, and bones. You have two TMJs, one on each side of your jaw. Muscles involved
in chewing (mastication) also help us to open and close the mouth. Because these joints are
flexible, the jaw can move smoothly up and down and side to side, enabling us to talk, chew and
yawn. Muscles attached to and surrounding the jaw joint control its position and movement.
When we open our mouths, the rounded ends of the lower jaw, called condyles, glide along the

The combination of hinge and sliding motions makes this joint among the most complicated in the body. . condyle move past the posterior band of the disc. and neoplasm). Muscular / myogenic disorders include myalgia (myofacial pain. articulating disc located in the anterior and medial of condyle in the closed position. Disorders of the jaw joint and chewing muscles—and how people respond to them—vary widely. myospasm. The temporomandibular joint is different from the body’s other joints. Also. Because of its complex movement and unique makeup. a soft disc lies between the condyle and the temporal bone. the tissues that make up the temporomandibular joint differ from other load-bearing joints. This disc absorbs shocks to the jaw joint from chewing and other movements. and the second is anterior disc displacement without reduction. Myofacial pain involves discomfort or pain in the muscles that control jaw function. There are some types that often found in the clinical examination the first is anterior disc displacement with reduction. and return to the normal position (located in the intermediate zone of the disc). arthritis. because both of them are related to each other.joint socket of the temporal bone. The articular disorder is include the Internal derangement of the joint involves a displaced disc. dislocated jaw. Meanwhile. fibromyalgia). or injury to the condyle. condyle move back to the posterior and leaning on retrodiscal tissue. the jaw joint and its controlling muscles can pose a tremendous challenge to both patients and health care providers when problems arise. The classification of temporomandibular disorder consists of muscular and articular. It is very difficult to differentiate between the two. The condyles slide back to their original position when we close our mouths. and fibrosis.12) (Sigmeund. 2009). when closing the mouth. When the mouth is opened. Articular disorders include synovitis / capsulitis. Arthritis refers to a group of degenerative/inflammatory joint disorders that can affect the temporomandibular joint. To keep this motion smooth. like the knee or hip. trauma / fractures. with a disc that moves back into position displaced from the anterior and medial condyle (Figure 30. In anterior disc displacement with reduction.

while clicking at the time of closing movement (reciprocal click). due to the inability to do translation . Sounds joints (clicking) also usually heard when opening the mouth. patients are clicking. 2009) . clicking when opening the mouth related to effort disc to return to its normal position. followed by the clicking sound when opening movement (Sigmeund. In some cases. which prevents opening of the mouth and cause the maximum deviation of the mandible to the affected side. b. there is a sense of joint and muscle pain. when the condyle moves from the posterior region of the disc into the concave area that is thick in the middle of the disc. but slipped to anterior (displaced position).In anatomical. 2009). Maximal mouth opening can occur normally or slightly constrained. 2009).a. Radiographs MRI can be used to view the anterior displacement that occurred (Sigmeund. between the head of the condyle and articular eminence. The picture shown in the photo radiograph simple TMJ patients with this disorder may look normal or slightly bone abnormalities. associated circuitry failure of the disc to return to its normal position. causing condyle cannot do the full translation movement to the anterior. clicking can be heard or palpable during the closing movement. But. Crepitus can be detected and is usually the result of movement across the surface of an irregular disc (Sigmeund. In these condition. In tests done on the patient. in the anterior disc displacement without reduction the displacement of the disc cannot be reduced.

By using simple radiographs TMJ. whereas with a CT scan or MRI showed anteromedial displacement (Sigmeund. On the evaluation of radiographs. 2009). .movement condyle to the posterior part of the disc. there are similarities with anterior disc displacement with reduction. This can lead to the inability mouth opening. disorders can appear normal. deviation on the affected side and reduces lateral excursions to the contralateral side.