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Policy and Procedures: BIOSAFETY

Purpose: To minimize the risk of introducing an infectious disease, or any other biohazard, into the
animal population at the zoo.
File Number: 08
Last Reviewed: September 26, 2008
Pertains To: All employees, part time and temporary staff, contract workers, volunteers, interns and coop students (collectively referred to as “STAFF”)
Note: The following information focuses on the issue of biologically hazardous conditions that can exist
between animals. Disease transmission between humans and animals is outlined under Jungle Cat
World’s ZOONOTIC DISEASES Policy and Procedures.
GENERAL PRINCIPLES
Biosafety is defined here as the application of knowledge, techniques and equipment to prevent animal
and environmental exposure to potentially infectious agents or biohazards. A biological hazard
(biohazard) is any microorganism, cell culture or endoparasite (such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa,
fungi, etc.) that can cause infection, allergy and toxicity or otherwise, create a hazard to animal health.
Pathogen transmission can occur directly into a living body via skin contact (absorption), inhalation, cuts,
puncture wounds or indirectly through ingestion of contaminated materials, food or drink. Such infections
and diseases can be minimized with appropriate recognition of the problem and training of personnel to
limit the spread of infectious organisms.
Jungle Cat World recognizes that to establish biosecurity for the animals at the zoo involves:


General safety of the animals in our care, including managing unknown animals entering the
grounds.
Cleanliness and proper disinfection of personnel and equipment to prevent spread of
possible infectious agents to other areas and other animals.
Careful quarantining (isolation) of newly acquired and/or sick animals from all other
individuals in the zoo.

HYGIENE AND DISEASE CONTROL
Staff are the primary defense against disease transmission and should receive sufficient training for this
role. They should assume that all cages are infected and that pathogens are readily transmissible
between enclosures. Following a few simple routines on a daily basis can go a long way in preventing
disease transfer.
Certain precautions should be taken to reduce the risk of spreading diseases. Disease can
be transferred from different sites through several vectors including footwear, equipment,
vehicles, and specimens. Hygiene and disease control are controlled to a large extent by
proper cleaning, disinfecting, and/or sterilizing.

3667 Concession 6, Orono, Ontario, L0B 1M0, Canada
(ph) 905-983-5015 • (fax) 905-983-9858
www.junglecatworld.com • info@junglecatworld.com

junglecatworld. but it is a necessary step that allows the disinfecting agent to come into direct contact with pathogens on the actual surfaces of an item. DISINFECTION The principal means for disinfecting hands is by washing with soap and water. Ontario. 3667 Concession 6. 1:10 bleach solution is caustic. 1 litre) to nine volumes of clean water (e. 9 litres).5% chlorine concentration). and freshly diluted solutions must therefore be prepared daily. Disinfecting an item by washing it with a proper chemical agent will reduce the bacteria load or pathogens to a point where they will not serve as a source of infection. Sodium Hypochlorite is required for thorough disinfection.Cleaning involves the physical removal of organic and inorganic debris from items. This is a strong disinfectant that is used to disinfect:     Excreta Bodies Spills of blood/body fluids Vehicles and tires To prepare 1:10 bleach solution add one volume of household bleach (e. However.g. lipids and fatty acids associated with the cell membrane and destroys the cellular activity of structural and functional proteins. but will continue to persist at low levels on the item. Prepare them in a well ventilated area. in most cases. Orono. There are two different dilutions of bleach used for disinfection: 1:10 Bleach Solution (which contains 0. L0B 1M0. disease-causing bacteria. Use plastic containers for mixing and storing bleach solutions as metal containers are corroded rapidly and also affect the bleach. use 1:10 chlorine solution to inactivate pathogens before soaking up the fluid with absorbent materials. Cleaning is important before disinfecting or sterilizing because most agents are inactivated by organic debris. Canada (ph) 905-983-5015 • (fax) 905-983-9858 www. Bacteria and viruses generally do not become resistant to the powerful oxidizing action of bleach when used at recommended dilutions. chemicals. viruses. or radiation will remove all life from an item.com • info@junglecatworld. Sodium Hypochlorite (bleach) kills most pathogens. A strong oxidizer.g. These absorbent materials must then be incinerated. Bleach solutions give off chlorine. Sterilization through the use of heat. bleach damages nucleic acids (DNA/RNA).com . Cleaning will not remove pathogens from the items. Clear water should be used because organic matter destroys chlorine. Avoid direct contact with skin and eyes. and fungi. For spills (the decontamination of blood or body fluid). When preparing bleach solutions for use note that:      Bleach solutions gradually lose strength.

Signs of illness that would require an assessment of health by a veterinarian includes:  Obviously poor and/or deteriorating coat/skin condition  Abnormal posture  Lethargy  Ocular discharge/eyes closed  Diarrhea  Obvious weight loss or dehydration  Inability to eat or drink  Dyspnea  Bleeding from gastrointestinal or respiratory tract  Neurological signs. Apply or soak for 1 minute. Salmonella have been known to survive for 7 years at –23°C in ice cream and Campylobacter can survive freezing if the initial contamination levels are high.g. This solution is used to disinfect:     Surfaces Medical equipment Bedding Reusable protective clothing before it is laundered To prepare 1:100 bleach solution add one volume of 1:10 bleach solution (e. as it is caustic and may damage equipment. the animal’s enclosure must be cleaned and disinfected immediately. QUARANTINE Animals acquired by the zoo that are staying either temporarily (such as a breeding loan) or permanently (such as an animal that will be on display for educational purposes only) must be kept in the zoo’s designated quarantine area for a minimum of 30 days. spores) and up to 70% may ‘come back to life’ again as the item begins to thaw. Orono. certain species can survive the freezing process by going into ‘hibernation’ or forming resistant cells (eg.junglecatworld.1:100 Bleach Solution (which contains 0. seizures Animals already living at the zoo that display any of the above symptoms require immediate examination by a veterinarian.com • info@junglecatworld. whom will determine whether or not the animal needs to be quarantined. Also. partial paresis. staff will monitor the animal’s health on a daily basis. Freezing is not an effective way to kill microbes. freezing does not affect toxins left by certain bacteria (eg. L0B 1M0.05% chlorine concentration). More diluted solutions are not effective. During this period. yeasts and moulds. 9 litres). including bacteria. head tilt.com . The solution must subsequently be removed. Although pathogens don’t multiply in the freezer. 1 litre) to nine volumes of clean water (e. Canada (ph) 905-983-5015 • (fax) 905-983-9858 www. Ontario. 3667 Concession 6. staphylococcal enterotoxin and botulinum toxins). such as circling. If it is necessary for the animal to be moved into isolation.g. Daily monitoring of any other individuals that were cohabitating with the sick animal is required for a 30-day period. This may be done by wiping the disinfected item with clean water.

etc) must be disinfected before being used again elsewhere. no other animals are allowed to come into close contact with the program animals from the zoo. ANIMAL FOOD AND WATER HYGIENE The following protocols are necessary to manage the possible risks of the animals ingesting potentially harmful contaminated food or water:  The commissary area must be kept cleaned and food preparation areas disinfected.junglecatworld. require individual scrub brushes. scrub brush. Any equipment used in the care of the animals (ie. that can vouch for its good health and behaviour.chicken. When a brush is not available at an enclosure.com • info@junglecatworld. require full and complete vaccinations. including on-site activities and outreach.) must be confined to the large walk-in freezer and the meat preparation area. such as fruits and vegetables. such as the large drinking bowls for the large felids. another brush can be used after it has been disinfected with a 1:100 bleach solution. Meat is not be stored with other food items. such animals will be granted access into the zoo under the following conditions:  That the owner can show proof that the animal has been fully and completely vaccinated or show proof of affiliation with a credible organization that supplied or trained the animal. If the presentation is for an event where other animals will be present. deer. such as the small refrigerated room in the commissary area. the organizer must guarantee that they have a policy in place that requires all participating animals to be vaccinated and free of any transmittable diseases. such as a dog show.  Food that is not consumed by one animal cannot be removed and then fed to another animal. PROGRAM ANIMALS Any animal being used for hands-on educational purposes.  Water dishes that cannot be removed from an enclosure and cleaned thoroughly in the commissary. WORKING ANIMALS WITH VISITORS Recognizing the importance and need of working animals for disabled persons.Due to the isolation of many of the enclosures in the zoo. such as the CNIB (Canadian National Institute for the Blind).com . Ontario. etc. rake. L0B 1M0. Orono.  The storage and processing of meat (eg. or prepared in any area where such food items are processed. Any food that is not eaten and/or expired must be composted. 3667 Concession 6. these enclosures may be deemed as suitable quarantine sites. During outreach presentations. Canada (ph) 905-983-5015 • (fax) 905-983-9858 www. Using a single brush to clean numerous dishes is not acceptable.

 Alternate clothing and footwear. HANDLING WILD ANIMALS Jungle Cat World’s education program. The animal is kept on a tether of some sort. such as a leash or harness. encourages participants to search for and study wild animals in their natural habitat. Orono. It is thus absolutely necessary that:  Dog owners must show proof that their pet has been vaccinated  Enclosures housing zoo animals in the building must be cleaned with different equipment than that used for the dog kennels. they must be kept at all times in a completely enclosed container or sealed plastic bag. must be labelled accordingly. When dead animals arrive to be interred. Some of the zoo animals. Canvas or leather boots/shoes are more difficult to disinfect completely and should only be worn when rubber boots are unavailable. even when found at the zoo. than that used to clean the dog kennels. must be worn.junglecatworld. like the squeegee. due to the ease of cleaning and disinfecting. such as the primates. Rubber boots should be used when possible. Though discouraged. precautions should be taken to minimize the risk of spreading pathogens.com • info@junglecatworld. Safari Zoo Camp. Though they are kept separated by a wall. L0B 1M0. Hands should be thoroughly washed before working with any animals in the zoo. 3667 Concession 6. The cemetery has its own tools. When handling herps in the field. some animals such as frogs and snakes may be handled for close examination. HAVELBERG PET CEMETERY Though located on the same property as the zoo. Access is restricted to visitors that have their animals buried there. BEHAVIOURAL ENRICHMENT The Animal Care Committee must approve any behavioural enrichment activities to ensure that novel objects introduced into an enclosure is safe and appropriate. These tools. including shovels and a wheelbarrow. in particular. Jungle Cat World recognizes that the regular movement of domestic dogs in and out of the zoo increases the risk of the zoo animals contracting a disease.com . HAVELBERG DOG ACADEMY The movement of zoo animals in and out of the facility is carefully planned and monitored. Ontario. the pet cemetery is fenced off and gated. The exception is the dog kennel on the premises that offers canine obedience and boarding services for the public. Canada (ph) 905-983-5015 • (fax) 905-983-9858 www. Zoo equipment should never be used. These items should be labelled accordingly. share the same building.

com • info@junglecatworld.com/  World Health Organization: Collecting. Avoid any exposure.Biologic Hazards http://www. nose or mouth.1: Hygiene and Disease Control: Field and Captivity (A publication of AZA’s Amphibian Taxon Advisory Group. Signs of illness can include apparent neurological disorder.doc  The Facts About Bleach http://www.com/rabiesvector.com/rimsat/WP2_Resources/Bio_hazards.arkofva.govt.gov/publications/amphibian_research_procedures/specimen_collection.int/entity/csr/resources/publications/surveillance/Annex7.nwhc. in your eyes. L0B 1M0. Director. Edition 1.Particular caution should be taken when dealing with mammals. groundhogs. Ontario.jsp  New Zealand Food Safety Authority http://www. Canada (ph) 905-983-5015 • (fax) 905-983-9858 www. 2008) http://www. Wear and use protective equipment.P10_1410  RIMSAT (Remote Intelligent Management Support and Training). dragging rear legs.org/ConScience/Documents/Chapter2_Hygiene_DiseaseControl. preserving and shipping specimens for the diagnosis of avian influenza A(H5N1) virus infection. skunks.factsaboutbleach. Wild foxes. and bats are rabies vector species and can carry the virus without showing any of the typical symptoms.nzfsa.Disinfection http://www. Orono. such as coming into contact with the animal's saliva from a bite or handling a dead specimen and getting bodily fluid in any open wounds. raccoons.who.htm .aza. Safari Zoo Camp Amphibian Husbandry Resource Guide. excessive drooling. scruffy fur and/or any discharge from the eyes and nose.pdf  Areas Rehabbers Klub http://www.usgs.pdf 3667 Concession 6.Guide for field operations.junglecatworld. These symptoms could also be signs of parvovirus or distemper in raccoons and foxes.com .html  National Wildlife Health Center: Collection. Preservation and Mailing of Amphibians for Diagnostic Examinations http://www. REFERENCES   Peter Klose.rimsat.nz/consumers/food-safety-topics/foodborne-illnesses/freezing-thawing/fact-sheetfrozen-foods4_6.