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INTERNATIONAL HOUSE CERTIFICATE IN TEACHING LANGUAGES

Reading
written by Gareth Davies – Freelance
Trainer’s Notes
List of contents of this sessions
Overview of the session and its main aims
Session outline

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Page 2

Stages
Notes to tutor for stage 1
Materials for stage 1
Answer key for stage 1

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Notes to tutor for stage 2
Materials for stage 2

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Notes to tutor for stage 3
Materials for Stage 3

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Notes to tutor for stage 4

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Notes to tutor for stage 5

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Session handouts

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Overview of the session and its main aims
By the end of the session the trainees will:
• have clear models to follow when planning receptive skills lessons
• understand the importance of preparing students to read/listen and of
activating the students’ schematic knowledge of the topic
• be able to differentiate between ‘top-down’ and bottom-up’ approaches
• be able to differentiate between different types of reading / listening
skills, e.g. gist, skimming, scanning, extensive, intensive.
Further reading:
Learning and teaching English A course for Teachers Cora Lindsay with
Paul Knight. Unit 6 Reading, a good introduction to teaching reading in a EFL
classroom.
Teaching Reading Skills in a Foreign Language Christine Nuttall. Unit 1
and 2.
Developing Reading Skills Francoise Grellet. Introduction
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The International House World Organisation – www.ihworld,com

15mins Stage 2: A model for a typical reading lesson a. Trainees explore how different reading strategies are employed.ihworld. Trainees work in groups to look at course book material and apply the theory from the session !2 The International House World Organisation – www. Trainees review reading skills terminology c. A typical reading lesson c.com .40mins Stage 3: Identifying the main stages in a reading lesson a. Trainees look at the main and stage aims of a lesson b. c. X mins a. Trainees examine the reading lesson and decide what the teacher’s roles are c.! Session Outline Stage 1: What do we read a. 15mins Stage 5: Practice (optional) c.20 mins Stage 4: The role of teacher in a reading lesson a.

4. Do one as an example. So maybe this session should be called. After a few minutes.com . Teaching reading strategies in a foreign language. After one or two minutes get one or two trainees to share 3. Tell them to discuss what they would expect to see and why and how they would read them. reading a small bit and then stopping to look up words they don’t understand putting the meaning together word by word (bottom up processing) instead of activating their prior world knowledge and processing the texts from the top down. They can read in their own language but what they don’t do is transfer their reading strategies from their own language into a foreign language. 2.ihworld. is it the same? Do they use the same strategies? (the answer is probably no). !3 The International House World Organisation – www. why do they need to be taught how to read. This session is called teaching reading. Ask trainees to consider the different reading texts in handout one (this can be an OHT or powerpoint slide if you wish. bring the group back together and get answers from trainees. Ask the trainees to consider what they have read recently. Use this to ask if they think trainees think English Language students read a text in the same way as they do and then explain that learners of a language tend to read the language like it is a contract. but surely our students can read already in their own language. Then give the trainees time to complete the charts. Reveal the answer on the slide or on the PowerPoint as your students give you them using the answer key.! NOTES TO TUTOR FOR STAGE 1 Main aims of this stage: • To explore the reason we read things and the different ways we read things in our own languages Time: 15-20 minutes Materials: Materials for stage 1 . Round of this session with a summary. and why they read it. 5. Did they read everything in the same way? Ask them to discuss with their partner to see if they have read similar things. firstly ask trainees read in a foreign language.Sheets 1-2 and the Answer Key for stage 1 Procedure: 1.

! MATERIALS FOR STAGE 1 – Sheet 1 What Expectations How Why A pizza menu A novel A newspaper article A contract !4 The International House World Organisation – www.ihworld.com .

! A T.V.com .ihworld. guide !5 The International House World Organisation – www.

A T.V. Hungry. Receptive reading A newspaper article The headline and your knowledge of what is going on in the world will give you a certain expectation Usually quite To get quickly. every word but not enjoyment. To make sure you know what you are agree to or signing for. Like a menu Scan reading To find out what’s on TV. guide TV programs words like comedy. A novel You know what to expect. I the undersigned… You would expect to read this very carefully making sure there are no hidden surprises. a Grisham novel will have law terms. For leisure and probably reading relaxation. necessarily needing to understand every word. every word just trying to build up a general understanding of the text. non chronologically. !6 The International House World Organisation – www. Not banana. want something to eat. This is called bottom up or intensive reading.com . a Rowling novel will be all about public school boys.ihworld.! MATERIALS FOR STAGE 1 – Answer Key What Expectations How Why A pizza menu You would expect topping such as ham. Gist reading A contract You would expect law terms and formal language. want to find out about the price etc. news sport films etc. Chronologically. reading for specific information. not information about worrying about the world. strawberry etc Scan reading. mushrooms etc.

com/pdf/ elt/teachersclub/busresult/upintreadingfile2.oup. Make sure you. http://fds. Also point out you will do a full lesson in about 30 minutes. please go to the following website for the materials. Teach the lesson as laid out in the lesson plan below.oup. 2. Ask them to think of what they would expect to see in a reading lesson based on the answers to stage 1. !7 The International House World Organisation – www. 3. Feel free to use your own reading task but try to follow the same procedure and if you do use your own you will need to adjust the lesson plan accordingly. Point out it is an hour lesson for Upper Intermediate class / B2 (you might need to check that trainees understand what this means).com/www.com .ihworld. (The lesson plan is based on a reading from the OUP website. • set clear tasks before the students read • set a clear time limit • give instructions that help the students decide which strategy to choose.pdf) To get this text you need to be a member of the OUP teachers club which is free to join but does take a few minutes to register.! NOTES TO TUTOR FOR STAGE 2 Main aims of this stage: • To provide a model for a typical reading lesson Time: 40 minutes Materials: There are materials suggested below so you will either need to download and copy for the trainees or find your own text for use Procedure: 1. After a few minutes get some ideas and maybe put them on the board. Tell trainees that you are going to demonstrate a reading lesson. NB: You may not have time to do the final three tasks. but set them up as you would in a class but then don’t actually carry out the task.

After about three minutes get their answers to discuss in pairs. Tell the students to read the text again this time more carefully.com . Monitor to check they are getting the correct answers. Give students the true or false questions and ask them to read again and try to find the answers. Tell them they have a little longer this time but not too long. you can guide and help at this point. Get feedback using the ideas on the board. Give them 2-3 minutes to discuss and then get some examples in feedback. Give them longer for this but again after the time is up put them in pairs to discuss their answers. Monitor to check they are getting the correct answers. !8 The International House World Organisation – www.! Lesson Plan Stage Aim Procedure To create interest and personal the lesson. To provide gist reading practice. Monitor to hear if they have a good general understanding of the text. To provide intensive reading practice. Get feedback as a class. To provide scan reading practice. you can guide and help at this point. Tell them to read it quickly not worrying about any words they are not sure of. Ask students to answer the three questions in section 1. When the 2 minutes in up tell them to stop reading and compare their answers with their partner.ihworld. Tell students that they are going to read an article about what motivates people to go to work. They have 2 minutes to read it. Advise them not to read the whole article but to read the questions first and then look for the parts of the text that will answer the question. Get feedback as a class. It is a good idea to board the answers. Tell them to see if any of their ideas are in the text. ask them to try to answer the questions in their own words.

com . Use the aim to elicit what the terms mean Key Skimming – reading a text quickly in order to get the main idea e. To provide follow up practice/ ! Ask trainees to find the words in the text and read around them and work out their meaning. Note: Trainees might not have now the words skim. !9 The International House World Organisation – www. reading a restaurant review to see if it is recommended or not.g. Scanning – reading a text (usually quickly) for specific information e. elicit some answers.To provide intensive and scan reading practice. Change the groups and get students to share answers. you can guide and help at this point. 2. After a couple of minutes of pairwork. scan and intensive reading skills. NOTES TO TUTOR FOR STAGE 3 Main aims of this stage: • To identify the main stages in a typical reading lesson Time: Materials: 20 minutes Materials for stage 3 Sheet 3 and sheet 4 Procedure: 1.ihworld. Ask the trainees to reflect on the lesson and think about what they think the main aim of the lesson. reading a train timetable to find out what time the next train leaves. scan and intensive reading so in the pair work stage you could decide to feed in these terms if you think they are struggling.g. Intensive reading – aka detailed reading. Key By the end of the lesson the students will have practised skim. Reading a text to get as much information as possible from it Also: gist – a term for reading quickly to get the main points. Before moving on to the stage aims. Get feedback as a class. Get students in pairs to think of new ways to motivate employees. now is probably a good time to clarify the key reading strategy terms from the main aim. Work in pairs Monitor to check they are getting the correct answers.

Give them about five minutes to answer this. you can guide and help at this point. When the 2 minutes in up tell them to stop reading and compare their answers with their partner. MATERIALS FOR STAGE 3 – Sheet 3 Overall Aim ➔ Stage Aim ! Procedure Ask students to answer the three questions in section 1. (the stage aim). They have 2 minutes to read it.! 3. Get feedback as a class. Ask them to consider the way they had to read to do each task. Advise them not to read the whole article but to read the questions first and then look for the parts of the text that will answer the question. It is a good idea to board the answers. Tell them to read it quickly not worrying about any words they are not sure of. Now give out sheet 3 and ask the trainees to think about the reasons for each stage. Get feedback using the ideas on the board. Give them 2-3 minutes to discuss and then get some examples in feedback. !10 The International House World Organisation – www. Give students the true or false questions and ask them to read again and try to find the answers. Monitor to hear if they have a good general understanding of the text. Tell students that they are going to read an article about what motivates people to go to work. Tell them they have a little longer this time but not too long. After about three minutes get their answers to discuss in pairs. Tell them to see if any of their ideas are in the text. Monitor to check they are getting the correct answers.com . For feedback talk through the main stages but don’t go into too much detail at this stage.ihworld. before giving out sheet 4 and asking them to check their answers.

They have 2 minutes to read it.! Tell the students to read the text again this time more carefully. Tell students that they are going to read an article about what motivates people to go to work. Stage Aim ! Procedure To create interest and personal the lesson. ask them to try to answer the questions in their own words. It is a good idea to board the answers. Work in pairs Monitor to check they are getting the correct answers. you can guide and help at this point. To provide gist reading practice. Get feedback using the ideas on the board. MATERIALS FOR STAGE 3 – Sheet 4 Overall Aim By the end of the lesson the students will have practised skim.com . Get students in pairs to think of new ways to motivate employees. They will have processed information in different ways. you can guide and help at this point. Get feedback as a class. Tell them to read it quickly not worrying about any words they are not sure of. Change the groups and get students to share answers. Monitor to hear if they have a good general understanding of the text. Ask trainees to find the words in the text and read around them and work out their meaning. Get feedback as a class. When the 2 minutes in up tell them to stop reading and compare their answers with their partner. Tell them to see if any of their ideas are in the text. !11 The International House World Organisation – www. Monitor to check they are getting the correct answers. Give them longer for this but again after the time is up put them in pairs to discuss their answers. Give them 2-3 minutes to discuss and then get some examples in feedback. scan and intensive reading skills. Ask students to answer the three questions in section 1.ihworld.

you can guide and help at this point. Time: Materials: 15 minutes See Sheet 4 Procedure: 1. Ask trainees to find the words in the text and read around them and work out their meaning. To provide intensive and scan reading practice.To provide scan reading practice. Work in pairs Monitor to check they are getting the correct answers. Give them longer for this but again after the time is up put them in pairs to discuss their answers. After about three minutes get their answers to discuss in pairs. NOTES TO TUTOR FOR STAGE 4 Main aims of this stage: • To get trainees to consider the role of the teacher in setting up a reading lesson and why the teacher does what they do. ask them to try to answer the questions in their own words. Get feedback as a class. Tell the students to read the text again this time more carefully. Either dictate or display the questions below: a. To provide intensive reading practice. ! Give students the true or false questions and ask them to read again and try to find the answers. To provide follow up practice/ Get students in pairs to think of new ways to motivate employees. Monitor to check they are getting the correct answers.ihworld. Get feedback as a class. Get feedback as a class. Why was there a speaking task before the students started reading? What other ways could we start a reading lesson? b. Change the groups and get students to share answers.com . Tell them they have a little longer this time but not too long. Why were the reading tasks set before the students started reading? !12 The International House World Organisation – www. Advise them not to read the whole article but to read the questions first and then look for the parts of the text that will answer the question. Monitor to check they are getting the correct answers. Why did we have pairwork after each reading stage? c. you can guide and help at this point. you can guide and help at thispoint. Tell the trainees they are going to consider some important aspects of the teacher’s role.

Why was there a follow up task? 2. What instructions were given before the reading tasks? How did they differ? Why? e. • Other ways could be a brainstorm of vocabulary the students might expect in the text.a time limit . • What instructions were given before the reading tasks? How did they differ? Why? • The teacher should always give instructions that guide the reading process. • Why did we have pairwork after each reading stage? • We get the students to work in pairs because it gives them confidence before feedback because they can check their answers with a partner.com . it is a natural thing to do.ihworld. 3.so the students know how long they have and do not try to process the text from the bottom up !13 The International House World Organisation – www. .! d. . we often talk about something we read to someone else. If the task is set afterwards it becomes a memory test. A speaking task before we start the students reading will help them to prepare an expectation of what the text will be about and get them to think about words and phrases that might appear. Ask the trainees to work in pairs to think about the questions. When everyone has finished then bring the class back together to get some feedback to each answer. responding to a picture that accompanies the text. After all this is not a test. filling in any gaps in knowledge. • Why were the reading tasks set before the students started reading? • The task is always set before the reading because the students need to know what they are looking for in the text and the task will help them. They should include. Secondly. predicting the story from a series of pictures or the headline. It might be an idea to point out that we usually know what we are looking for when we read a text in our own language. Key: • Why was there a speaking task before the students started reading? What other ways could we start a reading lesson? • We usually have an idea of what we are going to read before we read it. etc. we all tend to glean different things when we read something so this allows students to help each other.

Why was there a follow up task? • This is a natural thing to do in our own language.com .ihworld.. We often talk about things we have read to someone else we suspect has read it or might be interested in it. don’t worry about words you don’t understand. guidance e.g. Main aims of this stage: • To look at course book material and apply the theory from the session Time: Materials: 15 minutes Readings from course books of your choice. read quickly.g.this puts students minds at rest and encourages students to read in the manner you want them too. Note using the coursebooks that the trainees are using !14 The International House World Organisation – www.- - • ! a clear task – so the students know exactly what they are looking for.. advice e.. Also it demonstrates to the students that they have processed the information sufficiently to be able to respond to it. just look for the parts that will help you answer the question – this helps the students develop the reading skill the teacher want them to. read the questions first. Put the trainees into small groups and give out the coursebook material. Procedure: 1. NOTES TO TUTOR FOR STAGE 5 Note: This is an optional stage if you have enough time.

Checklist Stages for a reading skills lesson Create an interest (pre-reading tasks) Try to create an interest/motivation to read.What instructions they would have to give to get students reading in the correct way. simply gather ideas. For feedback. 2. Round off the session by clarifying any points that come up. . Does this stage get them thinking about the topic – what they know/expect about it / predicting what they might read about? Reading for gist Does this allow them to get a general understanding of the text and do they have a clear task which does this? Have I considered which particular reading sub-skill it encourages (e.How much the lesson conforms to the plan from stage 3.How they could create interest in the text.com .What reading skills the students will have to use to do the reading tasks .! for teaching practice could be used but bear in mind this may give some trainees an advantage if material they are to teach is explored.g. Ask the trainees to look at the course book and choose a reading text Ask trainees to discuss: . skimming. trainees do not have to plan the lesson. 3. Give them a few minutes to discuss. .ihworld. scanning) !15 The International House World Organisation – www. 4. regroup the groups and get them to share ideas.

Other points Make sure you have established the task clearly BEFORE they read. *Language review – reading and listening texts provide ideal contexts for analysing grammar or focusing on vocabulary (during the course. scanning for specific info. When should I pre-teach it and how? Although students can’t physically read together.com . or at least to compare answers. Make sure you are aware of what your partner is teaching and how the lesson fits together).ihworld. or focus them on specific information within the text? Am I aware of which reading sub-skill it employs (could be skimming again. !16 The International House World Organisation – www. Remember TASK BEFORE TEXT Do I need to pre-teach any vocabulary prior to them reading? This should be based on whether it is difficult AND related to their task. Get them to compare in pairs before you get feedback. they can work together to discuss questions. reading for inference) Is it necessary to have two readings? (it is usual to do so but not always necessary) Post reading task Discussion of the topic Continue the story (what happens next) Role play of the characters involved Etc. for example. It may be that you have to prompt them with where to look in the text to find the answers. detailed reading. it may be that one trainee focuses on a reading/listening text and another trainee deals with a grammar point based on that text.! Main reading task Does this further their understanding of the text. this allows you to monitor and identify and help with problems.

g. soap opera. if the reader wanted to watch a film. As long as they get the overall understanding of a text or extract the required information from a text. For example. reading a TV guide. which we need to use accordingly to make us more effective readers. a solicitor studying the precise wording of a legal document. In other words they have a background knowledge of the topic or prior experience of the topic. • Intensive reading – looking carefully and analytically at a text (e.g. a shop’s opening time. • Skim reading – to get a global impression of the content of the text (e. which helps the reader to form assumptions which help to interpret the text. with the TV guide. reading a short story or a newspaper editorial). etc.com .! Reading Skills – some key considerations According to Greenall and Swan (1986). one would expect to find programme names and the genre (news.ihworld. a student looking at the grammar of a sentence). This means the reader needs to focus on the part(s) of the text likely to contain the information they are looking for (this is their purpose for reading) and needs to be able to ignore information which is superfluous to their purpose. !17 The International House World Organisation – www. It is unlikely that he/she would need or want to read all the information about the soap operas/documentaries etc.g. • Scanning – searching rapidly through a text to find a specific piece of information (e. etc. Students can easily lose their focus by being too concerned and panicking if they meet an unfamiliar word. their reading was successful. film.g. when picking up a TV guide. documentary. a student finding true/false answers. Difficult vocabulary can be dealt with later (see below) although it is necessary sometimes to deal with difficult vocabulary related to their reading purpose.) and a brief description of the programme. skimming through a magazine article to see if it looks interesting enough to read more thoroughly). For example. • Receptive reading – for enjoyment (e. Such knowledge of what to expect is an example of the reader’s schema (plural = schemata) regarding the topic.). effective reading is “understanding as much of a text as one needs in order to achieve one’s purpose”. There are different sub-skills of reading. Grellet (1981) points out that by reading all texts in the same way “students would waste time and fail to remember points of importance to them because they would absorb too much non-essential information”. he/she would scan quickly to find a listed film and then read more carefully to find out what it’s about. Most readers will have some kind of expectation about a written text and will have an idea about what information it might contain and this influences how we read.

Often the two work hand-in-hand. which uses a bottom-up process. Therefore. morphological. Bottom-up processing might involve analysing. M. Authentic texts difficult for low level students: Yes. Problems and how to deal with them: Students expect to read thoroughly and. our schematic knowledge and subsequent expectations from a text is key to how we approach reading a text and means we tend to adopt a topdown process to reading. It is the task that should be graded. lexical aspects of a text step-by-step so that it ‘builds up’ into a complete unit of meaningful text. References: Greenall. Cambridge Grellet. We usually employ a top-down approach to reading but when students are faced with a language problem related to their purpose form reading. Problems with vocabulary: Pre-teach it if relevant to the task. the meaning/message of a section of the text) as opposed to concentrating on linguistic elements of the text. but this does not mean that authentic texts can only be used with higher levels. therefore. Top-down processing means that the reader is concerned with the global meaning of the text (this could be the text as a whole. or. Otherwise.ihworld. in the case of scanning.! Grellet points out that this ‘expectation’ is inherent in the process of reading and provides a permanent interrelationship between the reader and the text. (1981) Developing Reading Skills Cambridge University Press. Cambridge !18 The International House World Organisation – www.com . not necessarily the text. reinforce this with a time limit and asking the students how they will read. it could be dealt with later. the syntactical. Difficult vocab in a text provides an ideal opportunity for students to deduce meaning for from context. slowly: Make sure the task is clear. (1986) Effective Reading (Teacher’s Book) Cambridge University Press. S & Swan. F. for example. they will employ a bottom-up approach to extract the meaning.