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Donny Achiruddin
Darma Persada University, Indonesia

Since Indonesia is a vast archipelago country (> 18,000
islands), ocean energy technologies should play an
important role in the future

One such technology is Ocean Thermal Energy
Conversion (OTEC)
The tropical oceans, approximately defined by latitudes
less than 20 degrees, as enormous passive solar


Indonesia, a country of 1.9 million km stretching from
latitudes 6"08'N to 11°15'S and longitudes 94°45'E to
141°05'E, globally has excellent and potentially significant
OTEC resources
The amount of available OTEC energy has often been
evaluated on the basis of how much solar radiation is
absorbed by the upper layer of the ocean. Temperature of
upper layer of Indonesia ocean, all year mostly 30°C

The absence of typhoons in Indonesia is a very positive point
to laid offshore OTEC plants

℃ ℃ ℃ ℃ ℃ Temperature Difference between Surface and 1000m Depth .

A MAP OF THE OTEC RESOURCE (Nihous. 2010. G. JRSE.C.. from NODC WOA05 database) . 043104. 2.


OTEC POTENTIAL IN INDONESIA Surface Temperature of Indonesian Sea Water .

Average Temperature Difference (20 m and 1000 m) .

555 TWh of electricity .Estimation of potential of OTEC in Indonesia Length of coastline of Indonesia Potential OTEC about 70% of coastline of Indonesia Distance between 100 MW OTEC plant : 95.627 km : 30 km Estimation OTEC potential in Indonesia { 66.555.181 km : 0.089 MW = 222 GW of electricity 0.181 = 66.776 GWh or 1.8 x 24 x 365 x 222 GW = 1.7 x 95.627 / 30 } x 100 MW = 222.

a command-and-control available for remote islands and touristic resorts as niche markets .OTEC PARADOX Most of OTEC resources lain in developing countries such as Indonesia Main target of OTEC plan could produce electricity 50 – 100 MW. due to significant expected economies of scale The capital-intensive OTEC technology has failed to attract investors for the smaller commercial plants that are nevertheless necessary as stepping stones toward a mature stage A command-and-control have to available. or the commercial development of OTEC requires the identification of niche markets where small OTEC plants could compete In case of Indonesia.


600 . n= 30 years and d= 10% . CF .000 US$/kW. Indonesian electric company (PLN) buy electricity from investors electric plant 7 – 9 c$/kWh . especially for Indonesia Today. CF= 80%.20% p = 30 to 60 c$/kWh p is clearly too high in a broad-market. f p= 87. RP CC = Capital Intensive d f = 1- d = discount rate 1 (1+d) RP = Rate Power n n = Project life = 30 years With CC/RP = 20.ESTIMATION OF PRODUCTION COST OF ELECTRICITY (p) by SMALL OTEC PLANT CC .

Honolulu.000 0. $/kW Cost of Electricity (CEO).100 0. Km Capital Cost.200 0. Vega. $/kWh 10 4. A. of Pacific International Center for High Technology Research (PICHTR).10 200 8.Based on estimation cost by L.13 Estimation of Unit Cost of Electricity from OTEC in India (1999) by Saga University .07 50 5. Ph.D.08 100 6.000 0. Hawaii Cost estimates for 100 MW CC-OTEC Plantship (CEO for 10% fixed rate and 20 years) Offshore Distance.

we can write: N = Log {1-CC(d-i)/A}/Log{(1 + i)/(1 + d)} [year] CC : Capital Investment With the present state-of-knowledge.000/kW for 50-100 MW OTEC plan CC = US$ 700.PAYBACK TIME100 MW It is useful to consider here the cost payback time N for a 100 MW OTEC plant. A : Revenue from electricity sales at the end of the first year of the project With CF 80% and electricity price 10 c/kWh. favorable compares with the projected life OTEC plan.000. which may represent a targeted technological limit for OTEC Adopting a formula based on zero net present value.000. A = $ 70.000. typically 20 – 30 years . d : Discount rate = 10% (Indonesia d = 20%) i : Inflation = 10% N = 11 years.000. US$ 7.

to boost the cost effectiveness of OTEC The most popular DOWAs are: . it is surmised could provide such niche market : 1. Touristic resorts The idea of combining OTEC with other Deep Ocean Water Applications (DOWAs).Aquaculture .Deep-seawater air-conditioning (A/C) . Small remote islands communities Compare to production cost of electricity by small diesel generators 2.Desalinated water .STRATEGY TO DEVELOP SMALL OTEC PLANTS IN INDONESIA In case of Indonesia.

To defend of territorial waters of Indonesia could become a commandand-control is available for small OTEC plants . consists of small remote island communities Main needs of small islands communities are electricity and fresh water Indonesia has 92 small islands as border of Indonesia authorities.SMALL REMOTE ISLANDS Specific conditions could make small OTEC plants competitive.

Name of island 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Sabang Simeulue Nias Siberut Pagai Enggano Bali Lombok Sumbawa Flores Sumba West Timor Ambon Seram Buru Morotai Ternate Miangas Sangir Sapiori Province Distance from shore to Depth 1.000 m (km) Aceh Sumatra Utara Sumatra Utara Sumatra Barat Sumatra Barat Bengkulu Bali Nusa Tenggara Barat Nusa Tenggara Barat Central Nusa Tenggara Nusa Tenggara Timur Nusa Tenggara Timur Maluku Tengah Maluku Tengah Maluku Tengah Maluku Utara Maluku Utara Sulawesi Utara Sulawesi Utara Papua 3– 5 5 – 15 5 – 15 5 – 15 5 – 15 5 – 15 3– 5 5 – 10 5 – 10 5 – 10 5 – 10 5 – 10 3 – 10 5 – 10 5 – 10 3 – 10 3 – 10 1– 5 3– 5 5 – 10 .

RESORTS Combining OTEC with other Deep Water Applications (DOWAs).000 hotel rooms. would result in energy savings larger than 800 kW The following question. what A/C load (Z) would make the combined value of p competitive. to boost the cost effectiveness of OTEC The most popular DOWAs are combination of desalinated water and deep-seawater air-conditioning (A/C) Typically.000 tons. using deep cold seawater for an A/C load of 1. roughly equivalent to the cooling needs of 1. for a developmental land-based OTEC plant .

i) 0% 5% 10% 10% 6.760 9.2 MW. and if s = 10 c$/kWh.74 x 10 G) Where G = 1– (d – i) i n i = inflation G = Present worth factor (1 + d) (n.450 5. drawing 3. project life n= 30 years.d.000 kg/s of deep cold seawater.016 + 7.2 MW OTEC COMBINED WITH A/C Land-based OTEC 1.660 2.760 970 20% 14.1. ( 371 f – 7.475 d Z = (1 + i) f d = discount rate .2 G ) Z= -3 (-0.

BALI AND LOMBOK ISLANDS Bali and Lombok Islands has good OTEC resources Major hotels in Bali roughly from three clusters around Denpasar.200) and Sanur (1. Lombok Island as one of the best resort in Bali eastern neighbor . (correspond to approximately overall hotel room numbers): Kuta (2. Nusa Dua (1.000 rooms available in near Senggigi. more than 1.000) Currently.500 rooms).

080 RP(Z)[¢/kWh] .S(1.)]/{70. …..OTEC and DOWA’s OTEC & DOWA’s Electricity Desalinated Water Aquaculture Cool Green House Plant Local Area Chilling System Lithium Hydrogen Small Remote Islands Resorts Commercial Plants v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v v p = [CC(Z) f . 2. 3.

GLOBAL WARMING AND OTEC For the past decade. such as carbon dioxide (CO2) OTEC offers one of the most benign power production technologies. the issue of global warming has received considerable attention in the world What has been recently established is the reality of a greenhouse effect induce by human atmospheric emissions of some gases.0 g-C/kWh OTEC power plant producing 70 MW of net electricity would save about 120.000 t-C/year when compared to coal-fired units . since derived a very small carbon release of 5.

6% Toncarbon (T-c) 1990 2008 2012 Illustration Carbon Trading for Japan .STRATEGY FOR JAPAN TO REDUCE CARBON EMISSIONS BY DEVELOPING OTEC PLANTS IN INDONESIA The Kyoto Protocol calls for Japan to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 6 percent from 1990 levels by 2008 to 2012 Japanese carbon emissions 1.155 million tones Carbon Trading With Developing Nations .

the proposed policy is a tie-in strategy. as a privileged Asian economic partner. it is hereby proposed that Japan should undertake the development of Indonesia's OTEC resources Most importantly.CORRELATION JAPAN AND INDONESIA Since of the exceptional importance of Indonesia. or in simpler words. a "win-win" option This mechanism would provide Indonesia with a fund for introducing technologies they want (OTEC). while Japan could be allowed to adopt options in implementing emissions reduction .

the order of magnitude of the necessary Indonesian OTEC installed capacity would be 10 GW.000 t-C/year. that the OTEC resources of Indonesia be developed jointly with Japan 70 MW OTEC plant would correspond to avoided carbon emissions of about 120.6 x 10° t-C If only a deployment of the OTEC technology in Indonesia was contemplated to allow Japan a stabilization of carbon emissions at the 1990 level over the next 30 years.Policy evaluation with respect to Japanese atmospheric carbon emissions The proposed long-term policy. or about 100 to 150 large OTEC plants Physically. Over n = 30 years. the deployment of as many OTEC plants as 100 would not be limited by a lack of easily accessible resource in Indonesia . such a plant would reduce emissions by 3. under a JI agreement.

and that proportion has been steadily climbing Aside from relative emission benefits with natural gas instead of oil or coal.Policy evaluation with respect to Japanese Natural Gas imports from Indonesia Currently. one could wonder what extent of OTEC development in Indonesia would offset the carbon emissions in Japan induced by the yearly import of 20 million tones of natural gas . Japan uses vast amounts of natural gas for both electricity generation and direct domestic use (city gas) In 1994. about one half of the approximately 40 million tones of Japan's natural gas imports came from Indonesia.


WIN-WIN POLICY INDONESIA JAPAN GLOBAL WARMING Official Development Assistance (ODA) or Champion Regional Government PERSADA Darma Persada University OTEC Plants SAGA University .

Conclusions Indonesia has excellent ocean thermal energy conversion technology resources. especially along southern Sumatra. Java. Bali. Nusa Tenggara archipelago and in eastern Indonesia Since OTEC appears to be potentially cost-effective at-large for power outputs of 50 to 100 MW. the financing of smaller experimental plants is an extremely difficult hurdle .

and touristic resorts like those in Bali and Lombok. In the latter case. since OTEC is a renewable and virtually carbon-free electricity generation technology . significant electricity savings from deep seawater A/C would contribute to the cost effectiveness of the project The present study also has attempted to define a policy that could have bilateral benefits for Japan and Indonesia in the context of mitigating the threat of global warming The proposed option is for Japan to help Indonesia develop its vast OTEC resources over the next five decades.Conclusions Two types of niche markets were examined here: small remote islands.

Feasibility Study on Establishment Ocean Energy Center in Indonesia for ASEAN Regional 6. Brunei and Philippine . A Proposal for Japan to Reduce Global Carbon Emissions by Supporting Technology and Fund to Develop OTEC Plants in Indonesia 5. Feasibility Study and Estimation Unit Cost on Decided Specific Area in Indonesia 3. Malaysia. Feasibility Study on Possibility to Deliver Electricity from Indonesia to Singapore. Proposal for Indonesian Government to Develop OTEC Plants on Decided Specific Area 4. Mapping of Indonesia OTEC Resources for Pilot Project 5 MW 2.CONTINUATION RESEARCH / ACTIVITIES 1.