Electricity

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Electricity

© All Rights Reserved

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You are on page 1of 26

Van de Graaf

1.

What is a Van de Graaff generator? Fill in each of the boxes the name of the part shown.

A device that ...................... and ........................................ at high voltage on its dome.

+

+

+

+

+

dome

+

+

+

2.

generator.

(B)

EXPLANATION

i.

When the motor of the Van de Graaff generator is switched on, it drives the rubber belt. This

cause the rubber belt to rub against the roller and hence becomes

charged. The

charge is then carried by the moving belt up to the metal

where it is collected. A

large amount of

charge is built up on the dome.

ii. The electric field around the metal dome of the generator can produced a strong force of

between the opposite charges.

will suddenly accelerate from the

finger to the dome of the generator and causes a spark.

21

iii. When the wire touches the dome, the microammeter needle is deflected. This shows that a

is flowing through the galvanometer.

2.

iv.

from earth through the

galvanometer to the metal dome to neutralize the positive charges on its surface.

v.

The metal dome can be safely touched with the finger as all the positive charges on it have

been

_.

+

+

+

+

+

+

microammeter? Explain.

There is a ................of the pointer of the

meter.

This indicates an electric current ..............

The microammeter needle is returned

to its .................................. position when the

Van de Graaf is switched off.

sphere to the charged dome.

When the discharging metal sphere is

brought near the charged dome, .................

occurs.

An electric current ....................

+

+

Electric Current

1. Electric current is defined as the ................................................................................................

2.

Q

t

where I = ...............................

Q = ...............................

t = ...............................

(ii) The SI unit of time is (minute / second / hour)

-1

-1

(iv) By rearranging the above formula, Q = ( It /

4. Example :

Charge of 1 electron = ..

Charge of 1 proton = .

5. Total Charge :

I

t

t

I )

Electric Field

a. An electric field is a ................in which an ......................... experiences a .........................

b. An electric field can be represented by a number of lines indicate both the ................ and

....................of the field.

c. The principles involved in drawing electric field lines are :

(i) electric field lines always extend from a .............................................. object to a

.........................-charged object to infinity, or from ................. to a ..................-charged object,

(ii) electric field lines never ..................... each other,

(iii) electric field lines are ...................in a ....................... electric field.

EFFECT OF AN ELECTRIC FIELD ON A PING PONG BALL

Observation:

(a) The ball will still remain ..........................

This is because the force exert on the ball by the

............................ plate is .................. to the

force exerted on it by the ........................ plate.

(a)

(b) If the ping pong ball is displaced to the right

to touch the ............................... plate, it will

then be charged with ........................... charge

and

will

be

pushed

..........................

the

.......................... plate.

(b)

(c) When the ping pong ball touches the

........................... plate, it will be charged with

........................... charge and will be pushed

........................... the ............................. plate.

This process repeats again and again, causes the

ping pong ball ............................ to and fro

(c)

Conclusion

1. Electric field is a ......................................................................................................

2. Like charges .................. each other but opposite charges ........................ each other.

3. Electric field lines are ...................... in an electric field. The direction of the field lines is

from ................... to ..........................

EXERCISE 2.1

1. 5 C of charge flows through a wire in 10 s. What is the current in the wire?

2.

A charge of 300 C flow through a bulb in every 2 minutes. What is the electric current in the

bulb?

3.

The current in a lamp is 0.2 A. Calculate the amount of electric charge that passes through

the lamp in 1 hour.

4.

If a current of 0.8 A flows in a wire, how many electrons pass through the wire in one

minute? (Given: The charge on an electron is 1.6 x 10

-19

C)

An electric current of 200 mA flows through a resistor for 3 seconds, what is the

(a)

electric charge

(b)

2.2

(a)

(b)

X

Y

P

pressure at point Q

Water will flow from .... to .....when the

valve is opened.

This due to the ............... in the pressure of

water

than the gravitational potential energy at Y.

The apple will fall from ... to ...when the apple

is released.

This due to the ................... in the gravitational

potential energy.

(c) Similarly,

Point A is connected to .............terminal

Point B is connected to ..............terminal

Electric potential at A is ......................... than the electric

potential at B.

Electric current flows from A to B, passing the bulb in

Bulb

A

B

This is due to the electric ............................... between

the two terminals.

As the charges flow from A to B, work is done when

electrical energy is transformed to ......... and .......energy.

The .................................... between two points in a

circuit is defined as the amount of work done, W when

one coulomb of charge passes from one point to the

other point in an electric field.

The potential difference,V between the two points will

be given by:

V=

W

Work

= Q

Quantityofcharge

Q is charge in Coulomb (C)

EXPERIMENT 1:

AND POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE FOR AN OHMIC CONDUCTOR.

(a)

(b)

Figure (a) and figure (b) show two electrical circuits. Why do the ammeters show different readings?

Why do the bulbs light up with different intensity?

Referring to the figure (a) and (b) complete the following table:

(a) Inference

(b) Hypothesis

(c) Aim

(d) Variables

(i) manipulated variable :

(ii) responding variable :

(iii) fixed variable :

Apparatus / materials :

Method

Tabulation of

data

Analysis of data

Current,I/A

2-9

Volt, V/V

Discussion

(a)

......................................................................................................................

(b)

.......................................................................................................................

.......................................................................................................................

2. The resistance, R, of the constantan wire used in the experiment is equal

to the gradient of the V-I graph. Determine the value of R.

......................................................................................................................

Conclusion

O hm s Law

(a)

Ohms law states

that the electric current, I flowing through a conductor is directly proportional to the

potential difference across the ends of the ohmic conductor,

V

= constant

I

210

(d) The unit of resistance is

Factors Affecting Resistance

1. The resistance of a conductor is a measure of the ability of the conductor to (resist / allow) the

flow of an electric current through it.

2. From the formula V = IR, the current I is (directly / inversely) proportional to the resistance,

R.

3. Write down the relevant hypothesis for the factors affecting the resistance in the table below.

Diagram

Hypothesis

The temperature of

of the conductor

of the conductor, A

Factors

Hence, resistance of a conductor, R

211

Graph

So

5.

i) Electric charge,

or

R=

Q = ( It /

where = resistivity of

the substance

I

t

/

)

t

I

V Q

/

)

Q V

EXERCISE 2.2

1. If a charge of 5.0 C flows through a wire and the amount of electrical energy converted into heat

is 2.5 J. Calculate the potential differences across the ends of the wire.

2.

A light bulb is switched on for a period of time. In that period of time, 5 C of charges passed

through it and 25 J of electrical energy is converted to light and heat energy. What is the potential

difference across the bulb?

3. The potential difference of 10 V is used to operate an electric motor. How much work is done in

moving 3 C of electric charge through the motor?

212

Bulb

4.

the current flow is 3 A. How much work done to

transform electrical energy to light and heat energy

in 50 s?

resistance 5 when the current that passes through it

is 0.5 A?

cells supply 2.0 V and the ammeter reading is 0.5 A?

the reading shown on the ammeter, if the dry cells

supply 3 V?

in the figure, calculate the voltage supplied by the dry

cells?

213

3A

20 V

I

5

12 V

the resistor in 30 s

(c) The amount of work done to transform the electric

energy to the heat energy in 30 s.

V/V

conductors, X and Y.

8

Y

2

0

I/A

2

-6

resistivity.

2.3

SERIES CIRCUIT

PARALLEL CIRCUIT

1. Effective Resistance:

R=

2. Current:

3. Potential Difference:

V=

1. Effective Resistance:

R=

2. Current:

3. Potential Difference:

V=

Effective resistance, R

(a)

(b)

(d)

(c)

(e)

(f)

(h)

(g)

EXERCISE 2.3

1.

respectively. If the voltage of the dry cell is 2.5 V, calculate

(a) the effective resistance, R of the circuit

(b) the main current, I in the circuit

2.

resistance of 1. If a 3V voltage causes a current of 0.5A to flow

through the circuit, calculate the resistance of R2.

A. Both bulbs have the same resistance, which is 2. Calculate

the voltage supplied.

3.

4.

have a resistance of 5 and 20. Calculate

(a) the potential difference across each resistor

217

2.4

INTERNAL RESISTANCE

Electromotive force

Figure (a)

Figure (b)

Voltmeter reading,

Voltmeter reading,

potential difference, V <

e.m.f., E

e.m.f.

R

No current

fow

Current

fowing

1. An electrical circuit is set up as shown in figure (a). A high resistance voltmeter is connected

across a dry cell which labeled 1.5 V.

a) Figure (a) is (an open circuit / a closed circuit)

b) There is (current flowing / no current flowing) in the circuit. The bulb (does not light up /

lights up)

c) The voltmeter reading shows the (amount of current flow across the dry cell / potential difference

across the dry cell)

218

a) Figure (b) is (an open circuit / a closed circuit)

b) There is (current flowing / no current flowing) in the circuit. The bulb (does not light up / lights

up)

c) The voltmeter reading is the (potential difference across the dry cell / potential difference across

the bulb / electromotive force).

d) The reading of the voltmeter when the switch is closed is (lower than/ the same as / higher than)

when the switch is open.

e) State the relationship between e.m.f , E , potential difference across the bulb, VR and drop in

potential difference due to internal resistance, Vr.

3.

a) Why is the potential difference across the resistor not the same as the e.m.f. of the battery?

The potential drops as much as

Since

=

r

Ir

EXERCISE 2.4

1

1.5 V. The voltmeter reading drops to 1.35 V when a bulb is

connected to the battery and the ammeter reading is 0.3 A. Find the

internal resistance of the battery.

2 A circuit contains a cell of e.m.f 3.0 V and internal resistance, r. If the external resistor has a

value of 10.0 and the potential difference across it is 2.5 V, find the value of the current, I in the

circuit and the internal resistance, r.

A simple circuit consisting of a 2 V dry cell with an internal resistance of 0.5. When the

switch is closed, the ammeter reading is 0.4 A.

Calculate

(a) the voltmeter reading in open circuit

resistor.

e.m.f.

A cell of e.m.f., E and internal resistor, r is connected to a rheostat. The ammeter reading, I and

the voltmeter reading, V are recorded for different resistance, R of the rheostat. The graph of V

against I is as shown.

/V

6

2

b)

/A

2.5

Electrical Energy

Electrical Energy and Electrical Power

1. Potential difference, V across two points is the energy,E dissipated or transferred by a

coulomb of charge, Q that moves across the two points.

2. Therefore,

Potential difference, V =

Charge, Q

3. Hence,

E = VQ

5. Hence,

Power, P =

Energy dissipated, E

time, t

Electrical Energy, E

Electrical Power, P

potential difference, V

energy,

; where Q = It

Hence,

; where V = IR

Hence,

; where I = V

R

SI unit :

SI unit :

1. The amount of electrical energy consumed in a given period of time can be calculated by

Energy consumed

E

Power rating

Pt

where

Time

energy, E is in Joules

power, P is in watts

time, t is in seconds

COST OF ENERGY

Appliance

Quantity

Power / W

Power / kW

Time

Energy

Consumed

(kWh)

Bulb

60

8 hours

Refrigerator

400

24 hours

Kettle

1500

3 hours

Iron

1000

2 hours

Cost

=

=

kWh

kWh x RM 0.28

= RM

EXERCISE 2.5

1. How much power dissipated in the bulb?

(a)

R = 10

5V

(b)

R = 10

R = 10

5V

2.

V= 15V

R1=2

R2=4

R3=4

Calculate :

(a) the current, I in the circuit

3. An electric motor is used to lift a load of mass 2 kg to a height 5 m in 2.5 s. If the supply voltage is

12 V and the flow of current in the motor is 5.0 A, calculate

(a) Energy input to the motor

Part A: Objective Questions

Which of the following diagrams shows

4.

5.

electric heater when it is connected to

the 240 V main supply. How much

heat is released after 2 minutes?

A

1 200 J

B

2 400 J

C

D

14 400 J

144 000 J

60W. How much energy is used by

the bulb in one minute if the bulb is

connected to a 240V power supply?

2.

6.

Diagram 1

Diagram1show a lamp connected to a

resistor and a battery.

Calculate the power used by the light bulb.

A

6W

12 W

20 W

50 W

flows in an electronic advertisement board

-5

is 3.0 x 10 A. What is the number of

electrons flowing in the advertisement

board when it is switched on for 2 hours ?

[ Charge of an electron = 1.6 x 10

A 3.84 x 10

B 1.67 x 10

11

14

18

C 1.35 x 10

-19

C]

60 J

360 J

600 J

3600 J

internal resistance connected to two

resistors

A

0.45 A

0.40 A

0.25 A

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