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2.

CHARGE AND ELECTRIC CURRENT

Van de Graaf
1.

What is a Van de Graaff generator? Fill in each of the boxes the name of the part shown.
A device that ...................... and ........................................ at high voltage on its dome.
+

+
+
+
+

dome

+
+
+

2.

You will feel a brief


generator.

(B)

EXPLANATION
i.

shock when your finger is brought close to the dome of the

When the motor of the Van de Graaff generator is switched on, it drives the rubber belt. This
cause the rubber belt to rub against the roller and hence becomes
charged. The
charge is then carried by the moving belt up to the metal
where it is collected. A
large amount of
charge is built up on the dome.

ii. The electric field around the metal dome of the generator can produced a strong force of
between the opposite charges.
will suddenly accelerate from the
finger to the dome of the generator and causes a spark.
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iii. When the wire touches the dome, the microammeter needle is deflected. This shows that a
is flowing through the galvanometer.

2.

iv.

The electric current is produced by the flow of


from earth through the
galvanometer to the metal dome to neutralize the positive charges on its surface.

v.

The metal dome can be safely touched with the finger as all the positive charges on it have
been
_.

What will happen if the charged dome of the

+
+
+
+
+
+

Van de Graaff is connected to the earth via a


microammeter? Explain.
There is a ................of the pointer of the
meter.
This indicates an electric current ..............
The microammeter needle is returned
to its .................................. position when the
Van de Graaf is switched off.

3. Predict what will happen if a discharging metal


sphere to the charged dome.
When the discharging metal sphere is
brought near the charged dome, .................
occurs.
An electric current ....................

+
+

4. The flow of electrical charges produces .........................................

Electric Current
1. Electric current is defined as the ................................................................................................
2.

In symbols, it is given as:

Q
t

where I = ...............................
Q = ...............................
t = ...............................

(i) The SI unit of charge is (Ampere / Coulomb / Volt)


(ii) The SI unit of time is (minute / second / hour)
-1

-1

(iii) The SI unit of current is (Ampere / Coulomb / Volt) is equivalent to (Cs // C s // Cs )


(iv) By rearranging the above formula, Q = ( It /

3. 1 Coulomb (C) = 1 Ampere Second (As)


4. Example :
Charge of 1 electron = ..
Charge of 1 proton = .
5. Total Charge :

I
t

t
I )

Electric Field
a. An electric field is a ................in which an ......................... experiences a .........................
b. An electric field can be represented by a number of lines indicate both the ................ and
....................of the field.
c. The principles involved in drawing electric field lines are :
(i) electric field lines always extend from a .............................................. object to a
.........................-charged object to infinity, or from ................. to a ..................-charged object,
(ii) electric field lines never ..................... each other,
(iii) electric field lines are ...................in a ....................... electric field.
EFFECT OF AN ELECTRIC FIELD ON A PING PONG BALL
Observation:
(a) The ball will still remain ..........................
This is because the force exert on the ball by the
............................ plate is .................. to the
force exerted on it by the ........................ plate.

(a)
(b) If the ping pong ball is displaced to the right
to touch the ............................... plate, it will
then be charged with ........................... charge
and

will

be

pushed

..........................

the

.......................... plate.

(b)
(c) When the ping pong ball touches the
........................... plate, it will be charged with
........................... charge and will be pushed
........................... the ............................. plate.
This process repeats again and again, causes the
ping pong ball ............................ to and fro
(c)

continuously between the two plates.

Conclusion
1. Electric field is a ......................................................................................................
2. Like charges .................. each other but opposite charges ........................ each other.
3. Electric field lines are ...................... in an electric field. The direction of the field lines is
from ................... to ..........................

EXERCISE 2.1
1. 5 C of charge flows through a wire in 10 s. What is the current in the wire?

2.

A charge of 300 C flow through a bulb in every 2 minutes. What is the electric current in the
bulb?

3.

The current in a lamp is 0.2 A. Calculate the amount of electric charge that passes through
the lamp in 1 hour.

4.

If a current of 0.8 A flows in a wire, how many electrons pass through the wire in one
minute? (Given: The charge on an electron is 1.6 x 10

-19

C)

An electric current of 200 mA flows through a resistor for 3 seconds, what is the
(a)

electric charge

(b)

the number of electrons which flow through the resistor?

2.2

IDEAS OF POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE

(a)

(b)
X

Y
P

Pressure at point P is ................... than the


pressure at point Q
Water will flow from .... to .....when the
valve is opened.
This due to the ............... in the pressure of
water

Gravitational potential energy at X is ........


than the gravitational potential energy at Y.
The apple will fall from ... to ...when the apple
is released.
This due to the ................... in the gravitational
potential energy.

(c) Similarly,
Point A is connected to .............terminal
Point B is connected to ..............terminal
Electric potential at A is ......................... than the electric
potential at B.
Electric current flows from A to B, passing the bulb in

Bulb
A
B

the circuit and .........................the bulb.


This is due to the electric ............................... between
the two terminals.
As the charges flow from A to B, work is done when
electrical energy is transformed to ......... and .......energy.
The .................................... between two points in a
circuit is defined as the amount of work done, W when
one coulomb of charge passes from one point to the
other point in an electric field.
The potential difference,V between the two points will
be given by:
V=

W
Work
= Q
Quantityofcharge

where W is work or energy in Joule (J)


Q is charge in Coulomb (C)

EXPERIMENT 1:

TO INVESTIGATE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CURRENT


AND POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE FOR AN OHMIC CONDUCTOR.

(a)

(b)

Figure (a) and figure (b) show two electrical circuits. Why do the ammeters show different readings?
Why do the bulbs light up with different intensity?
Referring to the figure (a) and (b) complete the following table:
(a) Inference
(b) Hypothesis
(c) Aim
(d) Variables
(i) manipulated variable :
(ii) responding variable :
(iii) fixed variable :
Apparatus / materials :

Method

Tabulation of
data

Analysis of data

Current,I/A

Draw a graph of V against I .

2-9

Volt, V/V

Discussion

1. From the graph plotted.


(a)

What is the shape of the V-I graph?

......................................................................................................................
(b)

What is the relationship between V and I?

.......................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................
2. The resistance, R, of the constantan wire used in the experiment is equal
to the gradient of the V-I graph. Determine the value of R.

3. What is the function of the rheostat in the circuit?


......................................................................................................................
Conclusion

O hm s Law
(a)
Ohms law states

that the electric current, I flowing through a conductor is directly proportional to the
potential difference across the ends of the ohmic conductor,

if temperature and other physical conditions remain constant

(b) By Ohms law: V

V
= constant
I

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(c) The constant is known as .................................... of the conductor.


(d) The unit of resistance is
Factors Affecting Resistance
1. The resistance of a conductor is a measure of the ability of the conductor to (resist / allow) the
flow of an electric current through it.
2. From the formula V = IR, the current I is (directly / inversely) proportional to the resistance,
R.
3. Write down the relevant hypothesis for the factors affecting the resistance in the table below.
Diagram

Hypothesis

The temperature of

The type of the material The cross-sectional area


of the conductor
of the conductor, A

conductor, l Length of the

Factors

4. From, the following can be stated:


Hence, resistance of a conductor, R

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Graph

So

5.

i) Electric charge,

or

R=

Q = ( It /

ii) Work done, W = (QV /

where = resistivity of
the substance

I
t
/
)
t
I

V Q
/
)
Q V

EXERCISE 2.2
1. If a charge of 5.0 C flows through a wire and the amount of electrical energy converted into heat
is 2.5 J. Calculate the potential differences across the ends of the wire.

2.

A light bulb is switched on for a period of time. In that period of time, 5 C of charges passed
through it and 25 J of electrical energy is converted to light and heat energy. What is the potential
difference across the bulb?

3. The potential difference of 10 V is used to operate an electric motor. How much work is done in
moving 3 C of electric charge through the motor?

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Bulb

4.

When the potential difference across a bulb is 20 V,


the current flow is 3 A. How much work done to
transform electrical energy to light and heat energy
in 50 s?

5. What is the potential difference across a light bulb of


resistance 5 when the current that passes through it
is 0.5 A?

6. What is the value of the resistor in the figure, if the dry


cells supply 2.0 V and the ammeter reading is 0.5 A?

7. If the bulb in the figure has a resistance of 6 , what is


the reading shown on the ammeter, if the dry cells
supply 3 V?

8. If a current of 0.5 A flows through the resistor of 3


in the figure, calculate the voltage supplied by the dry
cells?

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3A
20 V

9. Referring to the diagram on the right, calculate


I

(a) The current flowing through the resistor.

5
12 V

(b) The amount of electric charge that passes through


the resistor in 30 s
(c) The amount of work done to transform the electric
energy to the heat energy in 30 s.

10. The graph shows the relationship between the potential

V/V

difference, V and current, I flowing through two

conductors, X and Y.
8

a) Calculate the resistance of conductor X.

Y
2
0

I/A

b) Calculate the resistance of conductor Y.

c) If the cross sectional area of X is 5.0 x 10


2

-6

m , and the length of X is 1.2 m, calculate its


resistivity.

2.3

SERIES AND PARALLEL CIRCUITS

Current Flow and Potential Difference in Series and Parallel Circuit


SERIES CIRCUIT

PARALLEL CIRCUIT

1. Effective Resistance:
R=
2. Current:
3. Potential Difference:
V=

1. Effective Resistance:
R=
2. Current:
3. Potential Difference:
V=

Effective resistance, R

(a)
(b)

(d)

(c)

(e)

(f)

(h)
(g)

EXERCISE 2.3
1.

The two bulbs in the figure have a resistance of 2 and 3


respectively. If the voltage of the dry cell is 2.5 V, calculate
(a) the effective resistance, R of the circuit
(b) the main current, I in the circuit

(c) the potential difference across each bulb.

2.

There are two resistors in the circuit shown. Resistor R1 has a


resistance of 1. If a 3V voltage causes a current of 0.5A to flow
through the circuit, calculate the resistance of R2.

The electrical current flowing through each branch, I1 and I2, is 5


A. Both bulbs have the same resistance, which is 2. Calculate
the voltage supplied.

3.

4.

The voltage supplied to the parallel is 3 V. R1 and R2


have a resistance of 5 and 20. Calculate
(a) the potential difference across each resistor

(b) the effective resistance, R of the circuit

(c) the main current, I in the circuit

(d) the current passing through each resistor

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2.4

ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE AND


INTERNAL RESISTANCE

Electromotive force
Figure (a)

Figure (b)

Voltmeter reading,

Voltmeter reading,
potential difference, V <
e.m.f., E

e.m.f.

R
No current
fow

Current
fowing

1. An electrical circuit is set up as shown in figure (a). A high resistance voltmeter is connected
across a dry cell which labeled 1.5 V.
a) Figure (a) is (an open circuit / a closed circuit)
b) There is (current flowing / no current flowing) in the circuit. The bulb (does not light up /
lights up)
c) The voltmeter reading shows the (amount of current flow across the dry cell / potential difference
across the dry cell)

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2. The switch is then closed as shown in figure (b).


a) Figure (b) is (an open circuit / a closed circuit)
b) There is (current flowing / no current flowing) in the circuit. The bulb (does not light up / lights
up)
c) The voltmeter reading is the (potential difference across the dry cell / potential difference across
the bulb / electromotive force).
d) The reading of the voltmeter when the switch is closed is (lower than/ the same as / higher than)
when the switch is open.
e) State the relationship between e.m.f , E , potential difference across the bulb, VR and drop in
potential difference due to internal resistance, Vr.

3.

a) Why is the potential difference across the resistor not the same as the e.m.f. of the battery?
The potential drops as much as

V across the internal resistance

b) Determine the value of the internal resistance.

Since

=
r

Ir

Therefore, the value of the internal resistance is

EXERCISE 2.4
1

A voltmeter connected directly across a battery gives a reading of


1.5 V. The voltmeter reading drops to 1.35 V when a bulb is
connected to the battery and the ammeter reading is 0.3 A. Find the
internal resistance of the battery.

2 A circuit contains a cell of e.m.f 3.0 V and internal resistance, r. If the external resistor has a
value of 10.0 and the potential difference across it is 2.5 V, find the value of the current, I in the
circuit and the internal resistance, r.

A simple circuit consisting of a 2 V dry cell with an internal resistance of 0.5. When the
switch is closed, the ammeter reading is 0.4 A.
Calculate
(a) the voltmeter reading in open circuit

(b) the resistance, R

(c) the voltmeter reading in closed circuit

Find the voltmeter reading and the resistance, R of the


resistor.

e.m.f.

A cell of e.m.f., E and internal resistor, r is connected to a rheostat. The ammeter reading, I and
the voltmeter reading, V are recorded for different resistance, R of the rheostat. The graph of V
against I is as shown.

/V

From the graph, determine


6

a) the electromotive force, e.m.f., E


2

b)

b) the internal resistor, r of the cell

/A

2.5

ELECTRICAL ENERGY AND POWER

Electrical Energy
Electrical Energy and Electrical Power
1. Potential difference, V across two points is the energy,E dissipated or transferred by a
coulomb of charge, Q that moves across the two points.
2. Therefore,

Electrical energy dissipated, E

Potential difference, V =

Charge, Q
3. Hence,

E = VQ

4. Power is defined as the rate of energy dissipated or transferred.


5. Hence,

Power, P =

Energy dissipated, E
time, t

Electrical Energy, E

Electrical Power, P

From the definition of

Power is the rate of transfer of electrical

potential difference, V

energy,

Electrical energy converted, E


; where Q = It

Hence,

; where V = IR

Hence,

; where I = V
R

SI unit :

SI unit :

Power Rating and Energy Consumption of Various Electrical Appliances


1. The amount of electrical energy consumed in a given period of time can be calculated by
Energy consumed
E

Power rating

Pt

where

Time
energy, E is in Joules
power, P is in watts
time, t is in seconds

COST OF ENERGY

Appliance

Quantity

Power / W

Power / kW

Time

Energy
Consumed
(kWh)

Bulb

60

8 hours

Refrigerator

400

24 hours

Kettle

1500

3 hours

Iron

1000

2 hours

Total energy consumed, E

Cost

=
=

kWh

kWh x RM 0.28

= RM

EXERCISE 2.5
1. How much power dissipated in the bulb?
(a)

R = 10

5V

(b)

R = 10
R = 10
5V

2.

V= 15V

R1=2

R2=4

R3=4

Calculate :
(a) the current, I in the circuit

(b) the energy released in R 1 in 10 s.

(b) the electrical energy supplied by the battery in 10 s.

3. An electric motor is used to lift a load of mass 2 kg to a height 5 m in 2.5 s. If the supply voltage is
12 V and the flow of current in the motor is 5.0 A, calculate
(a) Energy input to the motor

(b) Useful energy output of the motor

(c) Efficiency of the motor

REINFORCEMENT EXERCISE CHAPTER 2


Part A: Objective Questions
Which of the following diagrams shows

4.

the correct electric field?

5.

A current of 5 A flows through an


electric heater when it is connected to
the 240 V main supply. How much
heat is released after 2 minutes?
A
1 200 J
B

2 400 J

C
D

14 400 J
144 000 J

An electric bulb is labeled 240V,


60W. How much energy is used by
the bulb in one minute if the bulb is
connected to a 240V power supply?

2.

6.

Diagram 1
Diagram1show a lamp connected to a
resistor and a battery.
Calculate the power used by the light bulb.
A

6W

12 W

20 W

50 W

3. When the switch is on, the current that


flows in an electronic advertisement board
-5
is 3.0 x 10 A. What is the number of
electrons flowing in the advertisement
board when it is switched on for 2 hours ?
[ Charge of an electron = 1.6 x 10

A 3.84 x 10
B 1.67 x 10

11

14

18

C 1.35 x 10

-19

C]

60 J

360 J

600 J

3600 J

The diagram shows a cell of negligible


internal resistance connected to two
resistors

What is the value of current, I?


A

0.45 A

0.40 A

0.25 A