You are on page 1of 126

Community coach manual

Contents
Contents

i

1

The Red Cross system

1

2

Your role as a community coach

2

3

Skills you should master

4

4

5

3.1
Investigation skills
3.1.1
Interviewing
3.1.2
Informal information gathering
3.1.3
Structured observations
3.1.4
Developing an investigation
3.1.5
Structuring and use of information obtained through investigations

4
4
5
6
6
6

3.2

7

3.3
Facilitation skills
3.3.1
Facilitation of open and informal group discussions
3.3.2
Facilitation of focus group discussions
3.3.3
Community meetings
3.3.4
Workshop

7
7
8
11
13

3.4

13

Coaching skills

Program preparations

14

4.1

Your tasks to inform communities about the program

14

4.2

Your tasks when you receive requests from communities

16

Participatory Rural Appraisal
5.1

6

Health awareness creation skills

17

Your tasks to prepare for a PRA

17

5.2
Your tasks during the PRA
5.2.1
Controlls just before the start of the PRA
5.2.2
Introduction
5.2.3
Community history and community mapping
5.2.4
Problem ranking
5.2.5
Explanation about your organization and what it can do for the community
5.2.6
Election of the Red Cross Committee
5.2.7
Closing the meeting
5.2.8
Focus group discussion

18
18
18
19
21
23
25
26
26

5.3

27

Your tasks to finalize the PRA

Household survey

28

6.1

Your tasks to prepare for the household surveys

28

6.2

Your tasks in case you act as a surveyor

28

i

ii

Contents

6.3
7

Your tasks in case you act as a supervisor

Other investigations
7.1

8

Your tasks during other investigations

The Community Development Plan
8.1

29
30
30
31
31

8.2
Your tasks during the CDP meeting
8.2.1
Preparations
8.2.2
Introduction
8.2.3
Filling in the Community Development Plan Forms
8.2.4
Formulation of Community Development Plan Regulations
8.2.5
Finalizing the Community Development Plan Meeting

32
32
32
33
35
35

8.3

Your tasks during the Community meeting

36

8.4

Your tasks during the implementation of the Community Development Plan

36

9

What you need to know before facilitating a CDP meeting

Selection and training of Community Red Cross Volunteers
9.1

37

Your tasks to facilitate the selection of CRCV’s

37

9.2
Your tasks in the ARCHI Toolkit introduction training
9.2.1
Preparations
9.2.2
The first day of the training course
9.2.3
The second day of the training course

39
39
39
40

9.3

41

Your tasks to train the CRCV’s in Community Based First Aid (CBFA)

10

PHAST

42

11

Coaching the Community

44

11.1

Your tasks to coach the RCC

11.2 Your tasks to coach the CRCV´s
11.2.1
Facilitate the review and planning meeting
11.2.2
Facilitate the development of a health promotion plan by the CRCV´s
11.2.3
Other activities to coach the CRCV´s
12

Vulnerability Assessment

44
44
44
45
47
48

12.1

Preparations

48

12.2

Village walk

48

12.3

Focus group discussions

48

12.4

Taking up vulnerability reduction plans in the CDP

48

13

Leadership workshops

49

14

Micro projects

50

15

Other tasks of the coach

51

Annex 1 Request form
Annex 2 PRA report
A2.1 PRA data
A2.2 History of the involved communities

52
55
55
55

Contents

A2.3 Map of the community
A2.4 Problem priorities
A2.5 Red Cross Committee
A2.6 Focus group discussion results
Annex 3 The household survey form
A3.1 Explanation of the household survey form
A3.1.1 General points
A3.1.2 Family details
A3.1.3 Drinking water, health and hygiene
A3.1.4 Belongings and economic aspects
Annex 4 The community Development Plan Form
A4.1 Examples of filled Community Development Plan Forms
A4.1.1 Example - Spring protection plan
A4.1.2 Example - Health promotion plan
A4.2 Examples of introductory letters to be sent together with the CDP
Annex 5 Training course/workshop evaluation form
Annex 6 Training course/workshop evaluation report
Annex 7 The community coach monthly planning form
A7.1 How to use the community coach monthly planning form
A7.2 Example of a partly filled community coach monthly planning form
Annex 8 The community overview form
A8.1 Explanations with the community overview form
A8.2 Example of a partly filled community overview form
Annex 9 Review and planning report
A9.1 Explanations with the review and planning report
Annex 10 PHAST monitoring form
Annex 11 Summary charts

iii

57
58
59
60
63
73
73
73
74
75
76
77
77
78
81
82
84
87
88
89
91
92
93
94
97
102
102

The ICRC is an independent organisation that acts as a neutral intermediary during international conflicts. Your National Society is part of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement worldwide. 3. cooperation and lasting peace amongst all peoples.  Voluntary Service. It also advises and encourages the creation of new National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. In order to continue to enjoy the confidence of all. welfare and safety programs. He Movement. In wartime they help care for the wounded and sick.  Universality. The Fundamental principles of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement are:  Humanity. must always maintain their autonomy so that they may be able at all times to act in accordance with the principles of the Movement. racial.  Unity. The Movement is independent. 1 . while auxiliaries in the humanitarian services of their governments and subject to the laws of their respective countries.  Neutrality. is worldwide. The National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. It endeavours to relieve the suffering of individuals. The Principles will be your inspiration in good and difficult times as you carry out your role as a Red Cross or Red Crescent Community Coach. and to give priority to the most urgent cases of distress. and aid prisoners. All national Societies follow the “Fundamental principles” (see below). religious or ideological nature. It must carry on its humanitarian work throughout its territory. The IFRC coordinates relief efforts of National Societies. and civilian internees. The Movement endeavours to prevent and alleviate human suffering wherever it may be found. The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). class or political opinions. They operate independently of each other. The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement consists of: 1. refugees. It promotes mutual understanding. The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC). being guided solely by their needs. Its purpose is to protect life and health and to ensure respect for the human being. religious beliefs. friendship. civil wars and internal disturbances to give protection to both military and civilian victims. There can only be one Red Cross or one Red Crescent in any one country. the Movement make not take sides in hostilities or engage at any time in controversies of a political. It must be open to all. The Movement makes no discrimination as to nationality. National Societies implement health. in which all Societies have equal status and share equal responsibilities and duties in helping each other.1 The Red Cross system Your Red Cross Branch is one of the Red Cross Branches in your country. race. 2. The Movement is a voluntary movement not prompted in any manner by desire or gain.  Independence. These are the principles that guide the activities all all people working in the Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement in all countries. All Branches are supported and coordinated by the National Society in your country. The National Societies.  Impartiality.

Your CRCV selection and training tasks are described in chapter 9. 4. 8. you will assist the people to do a PHAST exercise. A household survey consists of questions about health posed to the female head of the household and a number of observations. you will have a discussion with a small group of people from the community to discuss the problems that were prioritised during the PRA in more detail. The plan is made by the members of the Community Red Cross Committee and several other people from the community.). You will visit communities and explain them about the program. Your tasks during a PRA are described in chapter 5. Coaching. You will facilitate each community assigned to you to produce a community health development plan. Depending on the problems prioritised during the PRA and the information from the household surveys it may be decided that other investigations are required. Your role will usually be to assist those experts and make sure that you know exactly what has been investigated and what the outcome of the investigations is. Finally. Selection and training of Community Red Cross Volunteers (CRCV´s). In this chapter we describe what that means. explain people about the Red Cross principles and assist the community to elect a Red Cross Committee. You and others will train the CRCV’s in a number of health issues (ARCHI. CBFA. In communities that are not sufficiently aware of the importance of clean and healthy drinking water and sanitation. You will facilitate the community to select persons who are interested and capable to become a Community Red Cross Volunteer (CRCV). Your tasks regarding the community health development plan are described in chapter 8. etc.2 Your role as a community coach Your role as a community coach will be to assist communities to improve their health. 3. 6. You will meet regularly with the CRCV´s. 7. Community health development plan. Participatory Rural Appraisal. You will help them with this in the following ways: 1. The CRCV´s will choose one CRCV leader among themselves who will be your main contact person. Your tasks during household surveys are described in chapter 6. Your tasks to facilitate PHAST are described in chapter 10. A PRA consists of a number of exercises the community members will do under your guidance to get an overview over their own health situation. problems and priorities. This exercise consists of a number of actions by the community members that will help them to start seeing how important it is for their health to have enough and clean drinking water and proper sanitation in the community. Your tasks during other surveys are described in chapter 7. 5. Preparations in new areas. During the PRA you will also introduce your organization. Your tasks during preparations in new areas are described in chapter 4. Other investigations. This plan will form the basis for the activities the community will undertake in the coming years to improve the health of the community members. Usually these will be executed by experts from your organization. You will work together with other people from your organization to execute these surveys. You will facilitate a Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) in each community assigned to you. Household surveys. First of all it is important that health improvements are realized as much as possible by the people in the community themselves. Once every three months you will also have a review and planning meeting with the CRCV 2 . In some of the communities household surveys will be executed to get more information about the health situation at the family level. PHAST. the CRCV leader and the Community Red Cross Committee to discuss progress with the health activities they are involved in. 2. from the authorities or form a specialized company.

Sometimes you visit the places where health activities are executed to monitor whether these are done properly and advise how things can be improved further. After 6 to 12 months you will facilitate a Vulnerability Assessment (VA) in the community. This can be anything from implementing a borehole with a hand pump to get cleaner and more nearby water to the production by households of improved cooking stoves. Your tasks in micro projects are described in chapter 14. Your tasks in the vulnerability assessment are described in chapter 12 10. A VA consists of a number of participatory exercises and investigations the community members execute to assess to what disasters they are vulnerable and what they can do to minimize these vulnerabilities. These tasks have been described in chapter 15. . Vulnerability Assessment. 11. the problems encountered and the things they want to do in the coming three months. tracing activities etc. Micro projects are small projects the community executes to improve the health of the community members. Other tasks of the coach. Your coaching tasks are described in chapter 11.Your role as a community coach 3 ´s plus people of the Red Cross Committee to discuss what was done during the last three months. The emphasis is on vulnerabilities for which no plans have been taken up in the Community Develkopment Plan yet. You also have to report to your branch office every three months. for instance relief aid. 9. The results are used to further update and expand the Community Development Plan. Micro projects. You may also be involved in other Red Cross activities.

otherwise you or the participants may want to continue to a next subject or aspect of the subject. Some of the most important skills that you should master are: 1. polite. An open interview is a discussion in which you ask questions that stimulate the participants to discuss things further until all arguments. If you find that participants have not sufficiently covered a certain part of a subject you ask further questions regarding that aspect. 2. introduce yourself and state the name of the organization you are working with and the general purpose of the survey. the community coach. Important aspects that you should take into consideration when interviewing people are:  Always be courteous. The questions depend on what comes out of the discussion. ask them politely to leave in an appropriate and polite way. Open interviews.3 Skills you should master In order to assist communities effectively in their health development you. Coaching skills In this chapter we explain you more about these skills. Health awareness creation skills 3. Structured interviews. These are interviews with closed questions that limit the answers to a predetermined set of choices. and non-judgmental. 3. These are interviews guided by a list of open-ended questions.1 Interviewing An interview is a discussion with people using questions to which you ask people to answer. have been discussed. thoughts and insights in answering the questions. Semi-structured interviews.1. Explain that the person can also decide not to take part in the survey and that the answers 4 . you should make sure that you have these skills and really use them in a proper way whenever needed. 3. If there are other people around the respondent. But they allow the respondent to give his or her own words. Facilitation skills 4. Therefore you should master the following investigation skills:  Interviewing  Informal information gathering  Observations  Developing an investigation  Structuring and use of information 3.1 Investigation skills A good community coach is often involved in different kinds of investigations. The questions are posed in exact wording and order as written down. With ‘mastering skills’ we mean that you should be the master of these skills. Often the participants decide about the topics to be discussed. This type of interviewing is used for instance in household surveys. There are three types of interviewing: 1.  Maintain the confidentiality of the interview.  Before interviewing a person. respectful. In other words. Investigation skills 2. information etc. should master a number of skills.

Ask: ‘what problems do you have?’ Don’t ask: ‘what sanitation problems do you have?’ (because then suddenly everybody has sanitation problems). pose the question in words that you feel are easier for the person to understand. meetings and discussions with people. Don´t miss it! Take time to talk to people in the villages. When someone does not understand a question you can repeat the question and. but in a different way than you did before). A person may change his/her answer just to please you. Do not imply that some answers are better than others. Always keep your eyes and ears open. if necessary. give hints for answers or give examples or influence the person in any way. But make sure not to change the question. the interviewer. (b) structured methods require too much time. If the information is there but you are not sensitive to it you will miss it.2 Informal information gathering Informal information gathering is information coming to you unplanned and without the use of any methodology. It is important to respect the decision of the person and avoid telling others details about an interview and/or mentioning the name of the person.  Obtain information about subjects for which there are no structured information gathering methods in place. . want to hear but that do not present the actual situation or opinion of that person. This can be important when: (a) it is very difficult to obtain information about certain topics with structured methods. and informal talks.  If an answer seems inconsistent with previous information given by the person. try to discover the truth by asking him/her another question or asking a question in a slightly different way.Skills you should master 5 will remain confidential. However. Important is to catch the informal information that comes to you. You should try to avoid this situation and ask the interviewed person to give the real answers as he/she sees it. or if there is some reason to disbelieve an answer. It is the information gathered. You can for instance cross-check whether the activities implemented in the community function as good as the structured information tells you and whether the structured information gathering in itself functions well. not only to the men but also to women and children.  For structured interviews: ask each question exactly as it is written. or (d) people have insufficient experience to work with certain structured information gathering methods. So be sharp.  Make sure to pose all questions that need to be posed and obtain and register information as accurately and completely as possible. Informal information gathering may help you to:  Signal: obtaining knowledge about problems for which no activities exist yet in the community.1.  Cross-check: beside all the information obtained in structured ways informally obtained information can help you to cross-check things (control something again.  Ask questions in a respectful way. 3. do not be overly persistent. without having planned to gather it. There is always information to be caught that may be of use to you. Gain the person’s trust and consent before starting with the questions.  Be careful that a person does not give answers he/she thinks you. or ‘Do you have a problem with drinking water?’ (because the answer will then always be yes). (c) the equipment needed for structured information gathering is not available. through informal and unstructured every day observations. wherever you are.

and register the observations. 3. 100 x number of number of households with a waste pit divided by the total number of households observed. A hygiene promotion program pays attention to hand washing after toilet use. For example. the toilet is dirty. Examples: observing how many people wash their hands after leaving the toilet compared to the total number of people who visit the toilet. You happen to see or hear something. Analysis: count the total number observed in each part of the camp and the number fulfilling the criterion and calculate the percentage. etc. what is considered ‘clean’ and what is ‘dirty’. Observing how many people wash their hands after toilet use requires a lot of time and effort. 3. Rating check observations: observations that require a judgement by the observer (can be spot checks or continuous). for instance a few hours but sometimes longer. the number of children + parents in a . observing how many times people in a household scoop out water from a container while touching the water with their hands against no.5 Structuring and use of information obtained through investigations Have a discussion that surveyors should always check all answers that include figures extra carefully. of times that people scoop water without touching the water. 3. their own unstructured observations when they happen to pass a latrine and see that people don’t wash their hands. They obtain the information every day through informal talks with people. Analysis: same as with spot check observations.1.6 Skills you should master Some examples of informal information gathering: 1.1. Observation method: the observer should sit quietly (to disturb the group observed as little as possible) for about 2 to 3 hours at a place where he can see well what is going on. culture. Examples: numbers of ‘clean’ toilets against number of ‘dirty’ toilets. in this example. number of students on a school. Staff working in the program may be able to give quite reliable informal information though. water reservoir in the household is covered or not. 3. A disadvantage of informal information gathering is that it is difficult to find out whether the obtained information is correct. a little bit dirty or clean. Continuous observations: observations carried out over a long period of time. e. Spot-check observations: observations made during a short time directly after arrival at a certain site. 2. a household has a solid waste pit or not. They also know because they are themselves part of the people. 2.3 Structured observations Structured observations are observations that are well planned and organized: 1. you feel it could be of importance in one way or another for your work and/or for the people your are working for.4 Developing an investigation Still to be worked on. After you think about it.g. and thus have a good understanding of the habits. Analysis: with regard to hygiene behaviours observed: calculate the percentage of the people observed to practice a proper behaviour = 100 x number of people who practiced the proper behaviour divided by the total number of people observed with regard to that behaviour.1. Examples: a household has a drain way or not. It should thus be discussed on beforehand how the criteria are interpreted.

But for the numbers of boys it was answered that there are 270 and for the number of girls the answer was that there are 150. which is that a good facilitator does the following things:  Speak the local language  Lead group exercises properly  Be patience.  Listen to people and take careful notes of the discussions. In the remaining part of this paragraph we explain how you can facilitate the following events:  open and informal group discussions  focus group discussions  community meetings  workshops 3. Another purpose is often decision making. not too modern.3 Facilitation skills The community coach needs to be able to facilitate people to assess their own health situation.3.  Ensure that each exercise is done within the time limits. You can see that there is something wrong because the number of boys + the number of girls is 420 which does not match the answer about the total number of pupils (500). Stimulate women to speak up and let their voices and opinions be heard. etc. It is very important to speak and look both to the men and the women.Skills you should master 7 household. which we call a meeting. Meetings are events in which more than one person come together at a certain location and communicate with each other and sometimes work at the location on certain issues to accomplish a task (mainly formulating/documenting things together). Example: in an education system survey it was asked what the number of pupils is. motivated. 3. Open group discussions are discussions that you may prepare but in which you do not decide on beforehand . The answer was 500. enthusiastic. do not tell community members which problems to write down during the problem ranking exercise).  Do not influence the community members during the exercises (for example. and use humour  Be respectful and friendly towards the community members  Dress modestly. The most important part of this paragraph is what we are telling you now. the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement Facilitation of people is done through person to person or through person (the community coach) to a group of people.  Involve the women. the problems they face in improving it and making plans to tackle these problems. so stand closely to the group (or ask the group to come closer to you). Exchange of information between the participants and the facilitator is a central purpose of meetings. especially during the plenary sessions.  Involve all participants. If you find such inconsistencies you need to investigate things further in order to be sure to get the proper figures.2 Health awareness creation skills 3.1 Facilitation of open and informal group discussions Informal group discussions are gatherings of groups of people discussing things without any planning or formal preparations made for it and usually without a specific subject set.

This motivates people much more to be open to the subjects discussed and to accept and do something with the outcome of the discussion while it also increases people’s self-esteem (we knew all this ourselves!). who has prepared the discussion and stimulates each participant (and especially those who are shy or less active in the discussion for whatever reason) to keep discussing the subject until no new points emerge. 3. A focus group discussion is a discussion among a small group of people on a specific subject. The facilitator mainly asks open questions (questions that can not be answered with yes or no) and sometimes explains some things if the participants really lack knowledge.2 Facilitation of focus group discussions Whenever there is a need to discuss with people a subject in detail. It can also be held with staff to discuss certain things with regard to the work (higher level staff or the manager then usually being the facilitator). To enable people to build up knowledge and become aware themselves about the subject 2. built up motivation to really practice the things) by discovering those things themselves. The subject of discussion can be decided on by the facilitator. their opinions about certain things etc. beliefs. and listen carefully to what people say so that you learn about the things they find important. awareness.e. The function of the facilitator in an open or informal group discussion is to take part in the discussions. see chapter 7). ideas. Therefore to transmit knowledge and stimulate people to become aware in first instance the best thing to do is to ask questions about the subject only and let people discover the answers and form their own opinions through discussion among themselves. Importance of the technique. Example of use of technique: Focus group discussions are often held with groups of camp inhabitants to discuss one or a few hygiene behaviors (the hygiene promoter then being the facilitator.3. stimulate the discussions by asking questions that stimulate the others to discuss things in more depth.8 Skills you should master what the subject of the meeting will be. To obtain information about the people’s knowledge. possibilities or restrictions with respect to the subject. So it is important that you teach them how they can facilitate open and informal group discussions. This may give you information that is important for your understanding of things in the community and things that may be of importance for the work with the community. Such discussions are often facilitated by the CRCV´s when they meet with small groups of community members as part of their volunteering work. by the participants themselves or by a few representatives of them (which should then be done some time before the meeting allowing the facilitator to prepare the discussion about that subject). or. what it can be used for: 1. There is a facilitator. which is preferable. People learn best and also become aware about things (i. You will facilitate informal group discussions yourself for instance during a visit to a community when no specific meeting has been planned but you meet people there. Methods used:  open questions following up upon each other  pocket charts (optional)  explanation of things  registration of the discussion either through writing or with a recorder (optional) Preparing a focus group discussion: . The group consists usually of not more than 6 to 15 persons in order to make it possible for each participant to take actively part in the discussion.

then ‘What is better for our health. The list should be such that if people have discussed all the questions they should all have a good understanding and awareness of all aspects involved with the subject (including different opinions etc. then ‘Why?’ etc. Let the participants decide on the place and time. for instance groups of women. opinions) but that everybody is welcome. Some hints for the facilitator on how to act during a focus group discussion: Keep in mind what your role is 1. The discussion can also be held under a tree or outside someone’s shelter. Focus group discussions may for instance be held to find out what hygiene subjects need attention and in what form. chapter 7). then ‘Why do we prefer such toilets’. The obtained information should be fed-back to the involved programs and be used to improve those programs. This can be done by someone writing down the things said/discussed. the strong convincement behind it is that people are capable and should be respected to form their own ideas and opinions which are best for and/or most suitable to them. 2. going to the preferred toilet.. This may not always be possible though (ask the participants on beforehand whether they know a suitable place). etc. as long as they have been enabled to build up an understanding of all aspects involved with the subject). will learn from the meeting.. The questions should follow-up on each other. explain why initially you wanted a small group (the reason for a small group is that you want each participant to have enough possibility to come forward with his or her answers. including yourself. For instance when promoting latrines and the need to keep them clean you can start with questions like ‘Where do we go to the toilet?’ . leaders. . or doing it the way we do it now?’. Six to twelve participants is often cited as ideal but do not turn people away. ideas. To observe and listen carefully and learn about what people already know. Prepare the meeting Develop a number of questions with regard to the subject. Explain that there are no right or wrong answers to the questions (especially in cases where opinions with regard to the questions are important). or by a tape recorder. that everybody should be able to give their opinion. Then you can ask the participants to first decide on how they will discuss. or persons from a particular area where certain problems exist. to what extent people are aware and why or why not they do practice or use the knowledge with regard to the subject. so that people can form their own opinion based on a complete overview of all aspects involved and all opinions). then ‘What kind of toilet do we prefer?’. Invite suitable participants Invite relatively homogenous groups that have something in common in relation to the topic (directly or indirectly). sometimes they decide to appoint someone among themselves to record the things said. (see also the example lists of questions for group discussions with regard to hygiene subjects in Box . To stimulate the participants to focus the discussion on the subject and ensure that all participants are enabled to look at the subject from all possible angles and standpoints so that each of them will have a complete overview and understanding of all aspects and be able to form a well-balanced opinion about it (which not necessarily has to be the same opinion as the facilitator or other participants. Usually people decide then together that they should only speak one at a time (otherwise ask them to do so). Try to sit somewhere where there is privacy. what knowledge is lacking. To be able to execute this role well it may be necessary to record the discussion.. If more people attend the meeting.Skills you should master 9 For asking the questions the facilitator can make a list of the aspects he would like to pose questions about. Introduce yourself to the group Explain the subject of the meeting clearly. Express the hope that everybody.

Ending the meeting Bring the meeting to a close when you feel that the subject has been exhausted. Remember that people may be more shy if their remarks are recorded in one way or another which may rehold certain people to speak openly thus causing the discussion to not be fully representative and not providing all the information and opinions one would otherwise have obtained (so if you are afraid for this effect. If problems have been identified try also to get people to consider any possible solutions. especially what they can do themselves to solve the problems. when discussing those questions. Also ask people to speak loudly and don’t talk through each other. If it appears that people do have the required knowledge but still don’t wash their hands don’t ask ‘why don’t you wash your hands?’ as this may be interpreted by people as a conviction. if necessary adapting the questions that were planned to be posed. You may then better emphasize these aspects and ask questions about them (to see whether within these cultural issues acceptable solutions can be found) instead of approaching the subject from a scientific point of view. During the discussions use the opinions and things said before as a basis for the coming questions. who they can contact about it. For instance don’t ask ‘what do you use for protection during menstruation?’ but ask ‘what do women use to protect themselves during menstruation?’. how they can get assistance with regard to the subject etc. Ask them how they intend to implement them. . don’t use a recorder). Explain how they function. have a relation to the subject and cause people to practice an undesirable behavior even if they have knowledge about it. This should preferably be done by asking additional questions that may help them. If people ask your opinion of something answer for instance that you will participate more once you have heard their views. In case you are recording the discussion with a tape recorder When recording the discussion with a tape recorder make sure that the recorder can register everybody’s remarks (women often speak very softly and there may be background noises). If necessary explain certain things shortly. but take care not to interfere too much in the discussions and restrict yourself to providing knowledge only and not pushing a certain (your) opinion forward.) and ask people what they think they can do to prevent such disease transmissions if you have the feeling that the knowledge about this is lacking and that this is the main reason for not practicing the desired behavior (in this case handwashing). beliefs or preferences. So don’t say ‘you must wash your hands’ because this is a conclusion that people will hopefully draw themselves once they understand why that is important. Inform people about existing programs and initiatives related to the subject Give the participants information about existing programs and other initiatives related to the discussed subject. Instead you may decide to explain how diseases can be transmitted (use drawings etc. Also if the discussed subject is or could be in the taboo sphere it may be better to refer to things in the third person. It may for instance be that things like cultural habits. If not recording the difficulty is that you will have to remember all the relevant things said write them down or memorize them by head in order to feed-back the important issues to the involved program. Instead ask things in the third person: ‘What do you think could be the reason for people not to wash their hands?’ or 'what could be a reason for people to wash their hands?'.10 Skills you should master Ask open questions as much as possible These are questions that give room to the respondent to formulate her or his own answer without any limits to it and that can not be answered with yes or no. religion etc. Therefore it may be necessary to sit in a place where background noises are limited. to find the answers themselves and obtain a better understanding. Clarify things and obtain information by asking questions and sometimes by explaining If it appears that people do not know or understand certain things it is necessary to first clarify these.

This will often be at times that certain decisions need to be taken or changes are taking place. needs. ideas. So. see chapter 7). Ask them whether they think that everybody has fully participated and that all things were sufficiently discussed. Be careful though not to promise things of which you are not 100% sure that they can/will be realized! Learning facilitators learn: People who are involved in training facilitators about the techniques and skills needed for focus group discussions should keep in mind that they should use the same approach as used in focus group discussions to stimulate/enable the trainees to build up knowledge and become aware. 3. if you could meet up with them again to discuss any further conclusions you or they have come to or discuss things that were/are not clear.3 Community meetings Importance of the technique. priority needs etc. only explaining things with regard to pure knowledge (for instance giving a talk about the principles behind behaviors of people and the relation with Knowledge. The fact that you are willing to listen to them and take them serious will ‘open up’ people (invite especially women to talk in the meeting and discuss their problems). When to use the technique: Community meetings may be held whenever community coach or community members feel this is necessary. If not ask them to speak out further and continue the discussion trying to further motivate especially shy people to speak out. The person facilitating the meeting asks the people to tell what they feel are their main problems and needs (depending on the set up and objective of the meeting this question may be completely open are with regard to a certain subject). If you think it is useful/important you can ask the participants whether they would like to be involved in further discussion groups.3. Attitude and Practice. a tribal. When the meeting addresses subjects found important by the people and it is clear that in the meeting the people can express their problems. are as perceived by the people attending the meeting. what it can be used for: The purpose of a community meeting is to have contact during a short time with a large and hopefully representative group of people from the community in order to discuss important issues during that the short time and learn about what the major problems. not pushing forward the opinion that they should use this approach. Only if facilitators have a full understanding and awareness of the usefulness of the approach (i. or to prepare for follow-up actions resulting from the meeting.Skills you should master 11 Thank the participants for their contribution to the discussion and their time. political or military leader etc. This person can be the manager of a program. They will understand that you are also ready to listen to them. which creates trust and respect. priorities etc. have focus group discussions with the facilitators and ask them questions. this will assure a high turn up. Also explain them that you will feedback the results to your program and that you will keep them informed about anything done with that feedback. ideas. .e. Explanation of the technique: The effect of a community meeting is usually caused by the fact that a by the beneficiaries regarded important representative of the community calls for the meeting (which also ensures that people will turn up). Such trainings thus need careful preparations. This will give you an idea of the major problems people are facing and perceiving as a priority to them. enabling people to learn through asking questions) will they use it themselves.

prepared and executed within a few hours if necessary! During the meeting: 1. To prepare the meeting: 1. be ready to adapt if necessary). After the meeting: Follow up on the things discussed. the time and location. better.000 new arrivals on a total camp population of 50. open defecation was increasing. This information was passed on to other programs in the camp. Ask the community leaders to ensure that many people will turn up. 3. The result was that many people who already had a latrine started to allow new arrivals to make use of their latrine for the time being while new arrivals started to dig latrines in large numbers. Be prepared for that and think on beforehand what you will answer to such questions/remarks. more important you want to learn from them what their problems are). 2. Discuss with the people as explained above. Instead it was chosen to hold mass meetings with both the new arrivals and the people who lived already longer in the camp. not to be shy. In the same meetings it was learned that one of the biggest problems of the people was the lack of plastic sheeting for their huts. People usually start with telling you about all the material things they are lacking. A mass meeting can be planned. make notes yourself: it further convinces people that you take them serious and that you will do something with the things they say). 4. Mass meetings with 3000 people (heads of families) per meeting were held to convince people that they had to dig latrines as the situation was rapidly deteriorating (new arrivals were using latrines of people who already had built one which caused frictions.12 Skills you should master This however also has consequences: the fact that you ask people to come forward and express their problems and priorities raises expectations! It means that using this approach will oblige you to do something with the information they provide to you! We recommend acting as follows: With regard to the problems brought forward which are not concerning your program you can tell them that you can’t do much about it. and the purpose (and ask their opinion about it. and invite especially the women and elderly to speak up. Have staff to explain arriving people where they can sit or stand. etc. you can continue discussing the messages you want to promote to the people. Invite the people to stand up and speak out loudly if they want to say something. discuss with them. Speak with a friendly but loud enough voice (preferably not with the megaphone). Example of use of technique: In a camp in Rwanda there was suddenly a large influx in February 95 of new arrivals within 4 weeks (30. Have staff to assist with translation if necessary (make sure to have the megaphone available although it should preferably be used as little as possible as it creates ‘a distinction’ between you and the people) 3. Within a few days (!) the problems were almost solved. send staff around to invite people to come to the meeting and explain them shortly what it is about. 4.). if still necessary. If necessary. Then concentrate on the things brought forward by the people which are concerning your program (discuss and agree with them on what they will do about it themselves and what the program can/will do) and only after that. only that you will pass on the information to the relevant programs in the camp and feed-back to some of the representatives of the beneficiaries about what has come out of that (which you will then also have to do!). Visit community leaders to inform them about the meeting. . Some staff started to argue that the participatory approach of the program should be abandoned and that the program should dig latrines for the people. 2. Explain the reason for the meeting first (you want to pass on a message but. Ask one or two of the staff to make notes about the things said (or. Discuss with others involved about the need of the meeting and the subject(s) to be dealt with. not to wait but react directly on the things said.000) due to unrest in certain parts of the country.

Things were further investigated though and for the worst cases some sheeting was distributed secretly. what it can be used for: Example of use of technique: Remarks: 3.4 Workshop When to use the technique: Explanation of the technique: Importance of the technique. 3.4 Coaching skills .3. as the military forces did not allow distributions of plastic sheeting.Skills you should master 13 Unfortunately not much could be done.

that certain activities will not be necessary. Communities who do not agree with the steps in the process or their following order should not be allowed to take part in the program. children and elderly people and both poor and the more richer people. The different steps in the program (see next chapter) should be executed exactly as programmed by your organization (as described in this manual. A committee will need to be formed that will guide the program activities in the community and fulfill the official contacts with your organization. They may for instance try to convince you that the Community Red Cross Committee can best be formed by the village leaders or that recruitment of volunteers can best be done by them. explain that they will have to fill in a request form. It is very important that you and your Red Cross Branch do not agree with this. not only men. Explain that if the request of the community is accepted a first activity will be a PRA in which a good representation of the community should take part. 3. The idea of the program is that the community and the Red Cross will work together to improve the health of the people in the community.1 Program preparations Your tasks to inform communities about the program In the beginning of the program. It is crucial that the volunteers are elected by the community. the community coach. 6. Provide them the form (the form is presented in Annex 1 ) and explain it as far as required. Box 14 . The steps described in this manual have been tested in a large number of countries. If the community becomes part of the program you. Discuss that it is important to have all kinds of people in this PRA meeting. will be their main contact person concerning all things that involve your organization. If they are interested to take part in the program. 7. Explain the following points: 1. the community coach.4 4. 2. The role of the volunteers will be to promote health in the community and assist with other activities the community does with your organization. The experience is that if things are not done as described or not in the following order as described that this will create problems sooner or later. Box Community leaders or other key persons may try to convince you. Make clear that it is a condition for taking part in the program that this committee is elected completely by the community members (see also the explanations in the below Box). but also women. They will be trained and coached by your organization. Make sure that you talk to the right people: the community leaders and other key persons. 5. see the explanation in the Box below). 4. Explain that once they have filled the form they should bring it to you. you will visit communities in your area to inform them about the possibility to participate in the program.

Program preparations 15 In Tanzania an NGO implementing a similar community health development program starts with executing a field appraisal in each village before inviting communities to apply for the participation in the program. In the field appraisal a number of issues are discussed infromally with villagers (among others how their leaders are) and some observations are done. Tejh field apparaisal is used to do a pre-selection. determining whioch communities can be invited to request for participation in the program and which should not. //further work is need to include here how a community coach can execute a field appraisal/// .

2 Skills you should master Your tasks when you receive requests from communities  Read through the request form to check whether everything is filled in properly.  Once you feel the form is well filled in you accept it. They should then take it back to their community and bring it back again to you after they have filled the form properly. If not you give the form back to those who brought it to you and explain them what things are not good. . The office can then decide together with you which villages are suitable to participate in the program.  Send the communities that are approved to be part of the program a message about this and a short explanation that you will soon contact them to make an appointment for the PRA (see next chapter).  Write down in the Community Overview Form which communities have been approved and enter the date the approval was given (see Annex 8 for the form).  The next time you visit the branch office you give all the filled in forms you received to the person who supervises you.16 4.

Discuss the following things with the local authorities/community leaders of the community:  Explain the earlier mentioned reasons to do a PRA. Avoid market days. but definitely not less then 50. religious holidays. key resource persons and interested people. Problem identification and ranking 5. Election of a Community Red Cross Committee (RCC) 7.  Explain that about 100-150 community members should preferably participate. This may have consequences for the cooperation with your Red Cross Branch. explain that most exercises are done separately. 5. The community determines its own priority needs. Your Red Cross Branch and the community are introduced to each other. 2. The steps of a PRA are: 1. Focus group discussion with Red Cross Committee. A Community Red Cross Committee (RCC) is elected that will organize and guide the community to implement health activities and fulfill contacts with you and your Red Cross Branch.  Agree with the local authority/community leaders on a suitable date and time for the PRA. and that it should not be only the friends of the community leader who come to the PRA. 3.1 Your tasks to prepare for a PRA a. that all ethnic groups and religions existing in the community should be represented. harvesting time.  Explain that the PRA should be attended by an equal number of men and women. The date should be appropriate for all different groups of people in the community. Your Red Cross Branch obtains information about the community. community leaders. that both the poor and the non-poor participate. and a too early start of the PRA (which is often difficult for women). in order 17 . 5. Introduction 3. school holidays. If they don’t accept. so that everybody is there at the right time. Community history and community mapping 4. The community members become motivated to work together and with your Red Cross Branch. A PRA is also an introduction and a start of the cooperation between your Red Cross Branch and the community. A PRA is done for the following reasons: 1.5 Participatory Rural Appraisal A Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) is a community meeting in which community members analyze their problems and priority needs. Explanation of the conditions of assistance by the Red Cross Branch 6. Set the appointment half an hour earlier than you plan to start. Closing of the meeting 8.  Convince the community leadership that especially women should attend the PRA.  Explain that the PRA will be cancelled if not enough people attend. 4. This lays a basis for trust and respect and for good cooperation. Preparations 2. The date should not be too soon (usually not within two weeks).  Explain that the PRA should preferably be held in the morning.

2. c. This manual Copies with information (principles. 10. 11. the other to facilitate the discussions and activities (they may if they want switch roles now and then). Make sure to bring all the materials required: 1. etc. b. a bottle filled with water representing the water problem in the community.1 Controlls just before the start of the PRA  Controll whether the group of community members that has come to the PRA is representative for the community. a drawing of a clinic that represents the problem that people have a poor healthcare system. 5.  If the group is not representative or too small: (1) explain again the importance of PRA. chair or flipchart holder.2 10 empty flipchart papers. (2) cancel this PRA.2) 3. small round balls. bicycle or car to the community at the agreed date and time. 2.2. The facilitators can travel by motorbike. About 8 empty sheets of paper for the problem ranking exercise (to list the problems) About 40 empty paper cards for the problem ranking exercise. 6 marker pens.18 Participatory Rural Appraisal to give the local authority/community leaders the chance and time to organize the PRA meeting and ensure that a sufficient large number of people will attend the meeting. or other material suitable for voting Tape or pins to stick the flip charts to a tree. and (3) make a new appointment (one more chance) for the PRA. one to make notes. and introduction by community leaders and other key people. 13. 9. Different kinds of symbols that represent problems and that can be used during the problem ranking exercise for voting (e. 6.  Controll whether the total number of people is at least 50 and whether there are enough women. 7. small colored pieces of plastic.  Remind the local authority/community leaders again a few days before the agreed date of the PRA.2 Introduction Timing: 20 minutes.2. following the protocol of formalities usual to the community. Your tasks during the PRA 5. etc) about your organization in the local language. Official opening by community leader or facilitator. 5. objectives.2. 5.) Voting material: coloured stones.2.2).5) The three prepared flipcharts should be in the local language of the community! 4. A flipchart with the ‘reasons for the PRA’ (see paragraph 5. A flipchart paper with the ‘conditions of your organization’ (see paragraph 5. 12. Bring (food and) drinks with you for the people participating in the focus group discussion. This usually includes: greetings. During the PRA you should not eat and drink. . 8. Ensure that there are at least 2 facilitators during the PRA. A flipchart paper with the ‘program of the PRA’ (see paragraph 5.g. prayer. Activities: 1.

Example of the ‘Program of the PRA’ flipchart paper Program of the PRA 1. 6. Remarks: 1. 5. 5. Invite especially the female participants to participate actively. points 1 to 5. 6. 5. Explain WHAT you are going to do: show the flipchart paper with the “Program of the Day”. Introduction Community history and mapping exercises Problem ranking Information about your organization (conditions.Participatory Rural Appraisal 19 2. In case the facilitators do not speak the local language well enough they should ask someone from the community to translate what they are telling. When someone translates make sure to stop each time after a few sentences to give the translator the opportunity to translate what has been said. Example of the ‘Reasons for the PRA’ flipchart paper Reasons for the PRA 1. you can already start the introduction. etc) Election of a Red Cross Committee Closing of meeting Focus group discussion 5. Explain WHY you are there to do a PRA with the community: show the 4. The Red Cross obtains information about the community. mandate. 2. 7. If some people are late. 30 minutes for describing the history and making the maps. Become motivated to work together and with the Red Cross. Possibly you can illustrate this by a joke. If required you can repeat them shortly when more people arrive (summarize). Introduce your organization briefly! 3. . 3. 25 minutes for the presentations by those who did the history and the mapping). Election of a Community Red Cross Committee (RCC) that will organize and guide health activities and coordinate things with the Red Cross. 3. Create a friendly and positive atmosphere in which people feel free to speak. Introduction with the Red Cross. 2. Explain that they should not be afraid to speak up. Explain that the PRA may form a good start for cooperation between your organization and their community. 3. 4.3 Community history and community mapping Timing: 60 minutes (5 minutes introduction/explanation of the exercise. In short: community members discuss and present the history and mapping of their community. But it is of course much better if the facilitators speak the local language themselves properly. Explain each program point shortly. 4. 2. Determine your priority needs.2. Make sure that all people sit close enough to you so that they can easily hear you when you speak. 4.

If there are many more men then women. roads. 5. If there is no woman who can write in a group ask in the other female groups whether there is an extra woman who can help this group with writing. If children are under 8. then you can have 2 groups working on the community history exercise). 3. Describe also which organizations have assisted.  A representative of each group can explain their community history / community map. Then form the groups and put them at proper distances from each other. Try to avoid people walking around during the exercise (men standing with women groups. migrations.20 Participatory Rural Appraisal This serves as a first introduction and starting point for discussing the community's problems and achievements and should therefore not take too long. Explain that they have 25 minutes to finalize their exercise. Achievements are for example: constructions (school. teachers standing with pupils groups). Split kids up in separate groups of boys and girls. Everybody who wants to say something should get enough time to react! Ask the people questions if things about the community history or the community map are not clear or if the different groups tell contradictory stories.  The note taker takes notes about these things (and makes sure that later this information .  Call the groups together. If they claim not to be in any group you can put them in one of the male groups. Explain the community mapping exercise. Activities: 1. areas that are a risk to health. disasters. 2.  Do not accept that men act as writers in women groups. If you see this ask these men kindly to return to their own group. Also one group of men will work on the community mapping exercise. The groups that will do the community mapping exercise will make a map of their community. Explain that the community members are going to work in small groups. etc). public buildings. 6. The number of groups depends on the total number of participants.  Sometimes men tend to walk around and interfere with the groups (especially with women groups). epidemics and achievements. market places. Form the groups. Presentations. in which water points (protected and unprotected). Explain the community history exercise. you can make 2 groups of women and 3 groups of men. For instance if there are about 100 participants you can divide them in 4 groups. Explain that one group of the women will work on the community history exercise and one group of women on the community mapping exercise. and other important places are indicated. Stimulate active participation by all people:  Walk around and explain that everybody should participate. Introduction. and one group of men will work on the community history exercise (if you have 3 groups of men. clinic.  Ensure your time management! If they go too slow remind them of the timing. Always try to include the years in which events have occurred. 4. divided in groups of men and groups of women. They should then continue to discuss what happened in their community since they can remember (they should include information about the first settlers. The groups that will do the history exercise should start with an explanation of the meaning of the name of their community. If there are children you can form groups of children to make a community map.  People can discuss things further and add to the lists the events that were forgotten or add things to the community map. they do not need to participate.

. also form groups of children. since the women might feel most comfortable talking with women. so that both sexes are given the same importance. 1. Explain again that they can write only one problem per card! 4. Ask these men kindly to return to their own group. This may be a bit difficult if the whole group is large. If necessary a woman from another female group can be asked to rotate and write down the problems quickly after discussions (after which she can go back to her own group again to do the writing there). men and women might experience different problems.  Make as many male groups as female groups. Introduction.2. 2. Explain that:  everybody will split up again in the same groups as during the former exercise. Make sure that the note taker makes notes of everything and keeps the flipcharts with the results of each group as background information for the PRA report. and men more comfortable talking with men. the note taker should copy the 'ground map' on a paper (and of course. Remarks: 1. 5.  Do not help the groups much: they are usually very well capable of formulating the problems they find important.  The men and the women should sit in different groups. Collect the cards. As a facilitator. If there are children.  An alternative to using paper and marker pen is drawing the map on the ground. If there are less women than men. Furthermore.  Do not accept that men act as writers in the female groups when the women claim illiteracy. This can make the community mapping a little bit more difficult. make the groups with women smaller than the groups with men so that there are still as many female as male groups. when the PRA report is ready. you should give the flipcharts back to the community. This ground map will then be presented to the whole group. The facilitator explains that they can choose from their list of problems the 5 problems they feel are the most important ones and write each of these problems on a separate card. If this method is used. The people come together in one large group again.  this exercise is meant to provide information about the problems in the community. The facilitator collects the cards after 5 minutes.Participatory Rural Appraisal 21 will be included in the PRA report). While each group is still discussing and writing problems on a piece of paper the facilitator gives 5 cards to each group. should explain the meaning of the different things drawn on the paper). Each group selects 5 problems.  each group should write down all problems they feel they have on a sheet of paper. In short: the aim of this exercise is to let the community members identify the different problems they experience and to let them prioritize these problems.4 Problem ranking Timing: 60 minutes. Split up in groups of men and women and ask them to start writing down the problems they have. Mapping exercise:  Rural people sometimes live in a very scattered way. 2. using stones and sticks to indicate the different locations. Later. 3. just walk around!  Sometimes men tend to walk around and interfere with the groups (especially with women groups).

write them all on the flipchart. They can vote with all their 6 voting pieces for one problem.  They can do this by putting the voting pieces in front of the problems of their choice. for instance if there are not enough women to write down their problems. Place symbols on the ground that represent the 6 problems. 9.  Ask everybody to listen  Make piles of similar problems. Discuss the prioritized problems shortly. which problem was second in votes. Also the children participating in the PRA should get voting pieces and be allowed to vote.  In case there are really less women than men you can propose to the participants that the women should be given more voting materials in order to balance the votes of the men and the women.  Then identify the 6 problems with most cards. Finalize the activity by asking whether everybody agrees with the priorities given to the different problems. . 6. Distribute 6 voting pieces (e. Count the number of cards for each pile (Aloud!) and write this number behind the problem. ask people what problems they find more important (ask women separately as they usually shout not as loud as the men). Identify the 6 highest priority problems. Explain that it is good that they think carefully on beforehand where they will put their votes.  Write all the piles on 1 flipchart paper. Write the results (the number of votes per problem) on a flipchart paper. make sure everybody hears and sees the result. no influence of others) during the actual voting!!! 8. coloured stones or other voting material) to each person. try to find out what the causes are of this problem. otherwise it gets too crowded when people start voting. It is important that all participants of the PRA clearly see that the counting of the votes is done properly. For instance if people mention ‘hunger’ as a problem.g. Make sure that you involve the group by asking loudly for their advise for each card. a bottle represents water. Explain to the people the number of votes they have given to each problem. etc.  Explain to the people that they can vote with the 6 voting pieces for the problems they find important. Remarks: 1.22 Participatory Rural Appraisal 5.  Invite people to come and vote. each card on the pile it fits to most (or forming a new pile when a card does not fit to any of the existing piles). Count the votes. Ask a number of community members to help you with the counting. or distribute them among different problems. Indicate which problem had most votes. Put enough distance between the symbols. distribution of voting material. etc. Again. She can assist the women groups. There may be many piles but this is no problem. for example: “Can I put clinic on the pile of health problems?” Put the cards on the ground or table and pile them up.  Repeat the explanation of the voting (how you can choose.  If in the end some piles with the same number of cards remain. Ask the people to explain the nature and the causes of each prioritized problem shortly. It is good if at least one of the facilitators is female. The people can vote as they like. For example: a first aid box represents a clinic. 7. The note taker should make sure to note the answers down in his/her notebook! 10.

Be aware that people do not influence other people during voting. because your organization can still offer a lot. Beans are food and people may feel wrong about 'playing' with food. 5. Every organization has limits due to limitations of funds. what it expects of the community and what your organization can do for the community. also in the community itself. the easier it is to group the problem cards and determine the six problems that are mentioned most often. how your organization works with communities. It is important to explain what your organization can do to assist the people with their priority problems and what it cannot do. Think carefully about the voting materials you want to use.5 Explanation about your organization and what it can do for the community Timing: 20 minutes. Example of the ‘Conditions’ flipchart paper Conditions . This means that when you have 3 groups of men and 2 groups of women. knowledge and experience. When you explain the conditions of your organization you can use a flipchart like the below example. It is good to split the people in at least 3 groups of men and 3 groups of women. 5. and 3 groups with each 10 women. If these things are not explained properly it may cause frictions or other problems between your organization and the community. The more groups you have. pieces of colored plastic. Therefore it is best to find some other small things to vote with.  Another solution is to give the women the same number of cards as the men. Even if this means that each of the groups will be very small. The facilitator and note taker should not influence the people also not if they help them to write down their problems.2. 3. such as the objectives and mandate of your organization. Purpose: to avoid confusion and too high expectations. The men and the women should get the same number of cards.Participatory Rural Appraisal 23 2. Make sure that you have enough of this material to distribute to all. if there are 60 men and 30 women. you can make 3 groups with each 20 men. For instance.  If there are more men then women. you can give the men groups each 5 cards (this means that in total the men have 15 cards al together: 5 cards in each of the three groups) and one of the women groups 8 cards and the other women group 7 cards (also leading up to a total of 15 cards for the women). small balls. etc. After problem ranking. so the problems of the women are given the same weight as those of the men. such as painted stones. This is a very important part of the PRA. Limitation of capacity exists everywhere. continue with a session in which you tell more about your organization. it is good to do it. this means that the groups with women will be smaller then the groups with men. Facilitators need to remember that communities asking solutions/funds for all problems are unrealistic. 6. 4. Wood and stones can be cheated with because they can be found on the ground. what its restrictions are and what its conditions are for cooperation with the community. Regarding high expectations and possible disappointed reaction of community members: facilitators should not be embarrassed if they have a limited mandate.

Ask the people for each problem whether they think Red Cross can help them with solving the problem. In case the community is not willing to do so. Community elects a Red Cross Committee. unskilled labour and voluntary participation in such things as meetings. Active participation of the community members 2. It is important to relate this to the priorities of the people as they have just determined in the problem ranking exercise. the community will take care to have a proper place for storage. The community accepts to attend all meetings and trainings they are called for. The community accepts that the organization will only support activities that fall under its mandate and are within its capacity. 8. 3. All inputs by community members and committee members are on a voluntary basis. including volunteers and committee. 5.  Explain the people that you will now look together with them at the problems they have prioritized and discuss what your organization can do with regard to each priority problem. your organization will not provide its support. Some examples to clarify this: . Active participation of the community members. The community accepts that per activity additional conditions may exist. and safe against theft. Community elects a Red Cross Committee. Important: It is important that the conditions are properly explained. The community needs to have a representative body for decision-making with regard to the activities it will execute in cooperation with your Red Cross Branch. The facilitator asks the community whether it agrees to participate actively in all activities through provision of local materials. It can elect a new committee for this purpose or choose to have this function being fulfilled by a committee already existing in the community. 3. The community accepts that the organization will only support activities that fall under its mandate and are within its capacity. 2. Therefore we provide here some advice on what you can explain per each of the points in the above list of ´Conditions´. 5.24 Participatory Rural Appraisal 1. You can do this as follows:  Explain what types of activities your organization normally supports. 7. 1. and explain the people for each priority problem what your organisation can do or may be able to do in the future. The community will store materials at community level whenever needed 6. No allowances will be provided to any community member. rain and wind. The community will store materials at community level whenever needed. All inputs by community members and committee members are on a voluntary basis. 4. Explain that in the next exercise the people can elect a committee. workshops etc.  Go back to the flipchart with the problem ranking. In case materials need to be stored at community level. All facilities will be operated and maintained by the community itself. 6. 4. The community will operate and maintain all facilities realized. well protected against sunshine. The community will operate and maintain all facilities realized.

can we help you with the construction of a road?’ Explain that your organization is not involved in road construction and therefore cannot help the community with this problem. 5.Participatory Rural Appraisal 25  If people have prioritised the construction of a road. other organizations and authorities regarding matters that concern the planned activities. Explain that in the mean time health promotion can help people to get knowledge on how to prevent water related diseases. It is much better though if there are sufficient participants and the committee can be elected at the end of the PRA. Ask the participants to choose one of the following options:  Give the tasks of the RCC to an already existing committee and perhaps change or add .  The RCC will coordinate and supervise the CRCV´s 2. when you remember the things Red Cross does.  The RCC will make a community development plan that will contain plans for solving the prioritized problems. Timing: 45 minutes. the community members who participated in the PRA elect a Red Cross Committee. you explain that a clinic as well as the curative service are very expensive and therefore at least for the time being not an option for your organization. Therefore propose to start with health promotion in the community so that people get more knowledge about how they can prevent diseases.6 Election of the Red Cross Committee At the end of the PRA. but that people should know that your Red Cross Branch only has limited funds and that therefore it may not be possible to help them.  If people have prioritised a clinic. It is important that community members. The community accepts that per activity additional conditions may exist. you ask the people ‘What do you think. of course together with the leadership of the community.  If people have prioritised drinking water. 8. Explain that for specific activities additional conditions may exist and that these will always be timely communicated to the community. These investigations will provide more information about the subjects prioritized by the people during the PRA.  The RCC will represent the community towards your Red Cross Branch. the committee can be elected later during another community meeting.  The RCC will coordinate planned activities. etc. 1. especially volunteers and committee members attend the meetings and training courses of your organization. The fieldworker should then be present in that meeting. 7. Explain the tasks of the Red Cross Committee:  The RCC will assist your Red Cross Branch during the Household Survey and other investigations in the community later on. Important: If the number of people participating in the PRA is not enough to elect a committee. you explain that Red Cross sometimes does water projects and that you will therefore investigate the possibilities.2. mobilize the community. Remark: It is good when you ask each time after explaining a condition whether the community agrees with that condition instead of only asking this question once at the end of all conditions. The community accepts to attend all meetings and trainings. This will depend on what exactly the possibilities are to improve the drinking water and what funding your Red Cross Branch may find in the future.

The people can then vote for their candidate by raising hands when the facilitator points his/her finger to the candidate. Have a short discussion with the community about:  The functions needed in the committee.26 Participatory Rural Appraisal   members. the vice-chairman should preferably be a man). for instance: chairman. Invite especially also women to take part. but try to make it as democratic as possible and remember the gender balance.8. Explain that you will bring back the flipcharts made by the people during the PRA after you have used them to make your report. vice treasurer. 3. Preferably.  One member of the RCC will be elected later: the CRCV leader who will be elected by the CRCV´s and who will become a RCC member to represent the CRCV´s in the RCC. A good method for electing RCC members is to ask the participants to nominate for each function 2 men and 2 women (altogether 4 candidates).  The number of people needed for the committee. sufficient time available. people may try to cheat and it may be difficult to count all raised hands if the group is large.7 Closing the meeting Timing: 2 minutes. or Elect a complete new RCC during another community meeting. religious leaders. etc) to take part in the meeting. the ability to read and write. Explain that after this meeting you will have a short meeting with the committee and others who are interested. The 4 candidates should stand in front of the group with their backs towards the group so that they can’t see the people. All papers are collected and the votes per symbol are counted. 2. Let the RCC present itself in the end. Remarks:  Choose the way of voting that is accepted in your region. 5. If the person with most votes is a man. an even amount should be chosen (6. vice-secretary. All people get a piece of paper and write the symbol of the person they support. 6. storekeeper and members. Follow the same procedure for the other functions. 3. In case your organization already knows that there will be funding to do certain activities with this community you can inform the people about this but be careful not to raise expectations you cannot fulfill! . If you have these kind of problems you can also use another method: ask the participants to stand in line behind the candidate of their choice. 5. However.  Gender balance in the committee (same number of men and women).2. secretary. it is good when the vice-candidate is a woman and the other way around (example: if the chairman is a woman. 1.  Other way of voting: each candidate has a symbol. Also invite community leaders and other key persons (health agents. treasurer.10). vice-chairman. 4. Elect a complete new RCC now.  Characteristics of the committee members: for example trusted and respected. to discuss some subjects further and to make appointments for the baseline survey. Thank all for their presence and input. Facilitate the participants to elect the RCC members. you can then count the number of people in each line.

 Finalize the PRA report as soon as possible.  Write down in the Community Overview Form at what date the PRA was done in the community and whether a proper PRA report was produced (see Annex 8 for the form). 5. thirsty and hungry after the PRA. This focus group discussion is meant to obtain additional information about the community and the prioritized problems identified. . Paragraph … of this manual explains what skills are required to facilitate a focuss group discussion properly. The focus group discussion can give you a lot of information. Remarks: 1.  Discuss the PRA report with other fieldworkers and your supervisor. So do it thoroughly! 2. 2. Let the talking be done by participants. File the information. Ask additional questions if more information is needed on specific issues. the information obtained during the focus group discussion and all other things that you remember. (See the format for the report in Annex …).  Copy the report. This will give you a clearer picture of all problems in the community.Participatory Rural Appraisal 27 5. Listen carefully to the answers.  Put the report in the file you have made for this community (every community needs its own file map!). because people may be tired.2. the notes made during the PRA. Do not just ask questions. Facilitate that especially the women participate. Make changes if necessary. personal filing).  Use all the information that you have: the information obtained during preparations.3 Your tasks to finalize the PRA 1.8 Focus group discussion Timing: 45 minutes. 5. 4. It is good if you have give some food and drinks to the participants. It is also good to ask additional questions about problems identified during the PRA in which your organization cannot or does not want to be involved in. preferably the same day or the day after the PRA.  Leave the original with your supervisor/coordinator and take a copy with you for the community (and perhaps 1 for yourself. 6. After the PRA. 3.  Next time when you visit the community you give a copy of the report to the chairman of the committee. the information the participants in the PRA wrote on the flipchart papers. depending on the feedback you get. you will facilitate a focuss group discussion with the committee and other people interested. Create a discussion. Finalize the PRA report. You can use the questions presented in the last part of the PRA report (see Annex …) as a guideline.

We define a household as ‘a group of people sharing the same kitchen. for instance the biggest ones or the most shabby 28 . because the CRCV’s themselves will not be sufficiently experienced yet to do it) o once every two years by the CRCV’s (you. you will supervise them during the surveys. Annex 3 contains the household survey form and explanations how this form should be filled by a surveyor. a piece of paper or carton). the community coach will train the CRCV’s to execute household surveys. You.6 Household survey A household survey an investigation to obtain information about the health situation in a number of households (usually 20 to 30) in the community. The household survey is done: o shortly after the PRA to collect detailed information that can be used by the CRCV’s to develop their health promotion plan (for this survey. and you will assist them to structure the information in a community household health report.  Walk to the part of the community where you want to start. Stop.  Make sure that there is transport to the community for all persons involved who need to be transported  Make sure that there is a tool for weighing children for each surveyor. once it has come to a stand still. This can be done in two ways:  Ask the community authority to provide a list that includes all households in the community (also single parent households. 6.  Have enough household survey forms for all household surveys.g. After the household survey is done in that house repeat the procedure by walking 100 or 200 m from the house and then spin the pencil again to select the next house. Normally the household survey is done.  Make sure that there is a tool for measuring the height of children for each surveyor. You can also decide to take from the list for instance each tenth household until you have enough households.1 Your tasks to prepare for the household surveys  Agree on a date for the household surveys with the community leadership and others involved. The house standing nearest to where the pencil/bottle point directs. Close your eyes and point a pencil in the list. surveyors will be needed from the branch. cooking area or cooking pot’. without knowing it. The household pointed at is one of the households to be surveyed. may act as a surveyor or (later when you are more experienced) as a supervisor of the surveyors. 6. Rotate a pencil or empty bottle on a flat surface (e.2 Your tasks in case you act as a surveyor  Select each household at randomly. child headed households.  Have a notebook and pen for each surveyor and for the supervisor(s). It is important to select the households ad randomly because you may. etc. and use the information to adapt the hygiene promotion plan if required). the community coach. is the selected house.). tend to choose for a certain type of house. o By the CRCV’s whenever the CRCV’s and RCC members feel it is necessary to do the household survey.  Make sure that there are sufficient and properly trained surveyors (count with one surveyor doing 4 household surveys per day).

community coaches and surveyors.  Take the filled in household survey forms to the Branch office. If the household has no adult women but does have one or more adult men.  In the office analyse the outcomes of the household survey and discuss this with all involved staff members. find another adult female person belonging to the household who can answer the questions. Discuss if errors occur in his/her performance. if she is not around. Do this while waiting for others to finish.  Assist with the structuring of data of the household surveys if asked to do so. Discuss problems encountered etc.  Take the interview aspects and courtesy rules into account described in paragraph …. This could influence the outcome of the survey (e.. or .  Execute the household survey. If there is no adult female present leave the house and try another ad random selected household.  Make sure to be accurate and get answers to all questions. 6. so that you are sure you get the right information). in big houses probably richer people live with other health habits and problems than the people living in small houses). Do this as soon as possible. Each surveyor should work in a separate area of the community. Enter the household survey results in the computer if possible. If information is incorrect or insufficient the surveyor should go back to the households to obtain more information. problems.  Find the female head of household.g. preferably together with the involved surveyors.  Check the quality of the household surveys. do the survey with the oldest man . Pay special attention to the proper filling in of the survey forms.  Make sure that you understand the results of the surveys and discuss these with the involved communities. If the household consists of children only do the survey with the oldest child. Leave the filled in household survey forms with the responsible person at the Branch office. Take courtesy rules into account (see chapter …).3 Your tasks in case you act as a supervisor  Observe the surveyors. Discuss the contents of the forms with the responsible person at the Branch office.  Fill all answers properly in the forms! Make notes on the back of the forms about things you find in the household that are important for health in the household but that are not covered by the form..Household survey 29 ones. In each household visited:  Ask the questions included in the household survey form and do the observations required (observe things really yourself. .  Write down in the Community Overview Form at what date the household survey was done in the community and whether a proper household survey report was produced (see Annex 8 for the form). or. remarks etc.  File the forms.

Examples of such investigations are:  Water survey  Hydro-geological survey  Sanitation survey  Health system survey  Disaster preparedness survey  Infrastructure survey  Agriculture survey  Community organizations survey  Primary education survey  Construction survey These surveys will usually be executed by people who have a certain level of expertise with regard to the subjects.  Get copies of the results of the investigations for your personal administration. This can be experts from a company. Often this will be at the start of the program.7 Other investigations Depending on the information already obtained and the problems prioritized by the community it may be necessary to do more investigations (beside the household survey discussed in the former chapter). 30 .  Control that the results of the investigations are used in the work done in the community. at which dates and whether proper reports for the results of the investigations have been produced (see Annex 8 for the form). In some cases it may be necessary to develop a complete new investigation.  Join the experts in the field during the investigations. from the authorities. but it may also be necessary later on (after one or more years) to do additional investigations.  See to it that those involved int eh investigations produce proper reports for the results of the investigations.1 Your tasks during other investigations  Contact the RCC and discuss with them the need for additional investigationss and agree on dates and times to execute them.  Provide and explain the results of the investigations to the members of the RCC and/or the CRCV’s. or from you branch or head office. 7. Ask them to explain the results to the community. For several types of investigations there are standard report formats that need to be filled (for instance the investigations mentioned above).  Write down in the Community Overview Form what investigations were done in the community. If there is noty a standard format the investigators will have to produce a format themselves and fill it in as well as possible. Make sure that this is also agreed by the village authorities (the best thing is to have a meeting with RCC and village authorities together).  You may also develop additional ionvestigations with the CRCV’s (see paragraph …). See chapter … on how to do this.

 Authorities get an understanding and awareness of the priorities and plans of the communities in their area. If at the end of the meeting not all 31 . The plan is based on information about the priority problems of the community obtained through PRA.  It is good if the RCC invites representatives from the district (and possibly other level) authorities to take part in the meeting for the following reasons:  Authorities should know what happens in their area. etc).1 What you need to know before facilitating a CDP meeting  The Red Cross Committee should decide who will be invited for the meeting. Participants from outside the community should not take over the discussions. You should explain this carefully to the participants who are from outside the community before the start of the meeting. The plan is made by the Red Cross Committee that was elected by the community.g. Therefore. health agents. the community coach will facilitate the involved community members to make the plan.8 The Community Development Plan A Community Development Plan (CDP) is a plan made by a community for its own development. The Planning Form is to be filled by the involved community members because it is their plan. It may be interesting for a community to work out a plan for a large drinking water project. You should recommend the members of the RCC to also invite people from the authorities.  Before the CDP meeting starts you should express towards the RCC and village leadership that it is important that a good number of women participate (especially if in the committee there are not many women).  Encourage the participants to work out the plans they think can be achieved in the coming year. It is better to make plans for activities the community can start with quite soon. elders.  Participants from outside the community (such as the above discussed authorities but also other outsiders) should take part as observers. religious leaders. local administration representatives and other key persons (e. You should also stimulate the women to take part actively in the discussions during the meeting. health agents). religious leaders. In some cases they may take part in discussions but only to add information. together with the community leadership. speak up and come forward with their ideas and opinions (often the men talk too much and the women too little). 8. but it is unlikely that this will be realized quickly.  Authorities staff often has a lot of expertise with regard to different priority problems. concentrating on the things the community can do itself and the things for which it can find assistance relatively easily (for instance form your Red Cross Branch or from the authorities). If the community does not have a donor for such a project it does not make sense to spend a lot of time making a detailed plan for it. You can for instance specifically ask women to say what they think about something and ask the men to give room to the ladies to speak up. to try to get a more or less equal number of male and female participants during the meeting and invite other key persons (for example: elders. household and possibly other surveys and other information available. They can assist the community in making the plans by providing their expertise.  Authorities might take up the outcomes of the CDP in their own annual plans. invite staff who have specific expertise regarding the subjects prioritised by the community. You.  Study the Community Development Planning Form and how it should be filled in by the participants of the CDP meeting (see Annex 4 ).

8.  Each participant (also yourself) introduces him/herself shortly to the group. Ask the men to respect the women and give them ample time and opportunity to speak up. Also ask the RCC members to decide who will take part in the meeting. Avoid religious days.2 Introduction Depending on what is customary the introduction may include the following actions:  Official opening by you and/or the community leader.32 The community development plan problems have been worked out yet another meeting may need to be planned.  Ask the participants to sit close to you so you can hear each other easily. This will be hung on the wall so that all participants can see the CDP. and introduction by community leader(s) and other key people. 8.2.  Ask the participants to select one of them to do the writing. Explain that women are often more shy. prayer. date and place for the meeting.  Prepare the flipcharts on which the Planning Form is copied in large. The participants can also decide to fill in other Planning Forms themselves without your help later. Discuss with them the reasons for inviting authorities and a sufficient number of women (see the former paragraph) but respect their decision on who they will invite for the meeting. It is good to summarize shortly what problems were prioritized during the PRA and what information was found during the household and other surveys done. .  Explain the purpose of the meeting: the participants will make a CDP that will contain details on solving community priority problems. For problems of which it is unlikely that they can soon be solved you can propose to do a planning meeting next year.  Materials needed:  Flipcharts  Marker pens  Pens  Copies of Planning Form  Tape  PRA and Baseline Survey reports and other relevant documents  This manual  Possibly: some refreshments for the participants (probably these can also be bought in the village).  Greetings. following the protocol of formalities usual to the community.2 Your tasks during the CDP meeting 8.1 Preparations  Agree with the Red Cross Committee on the time.  Invite especially the female participants to participate actively.  Read this manual carefully and control once again if you understand all aspects of the Planning Form and your role in facilitating the meeting. but that they should not be afraid to speak up as their ideas and knowledge are crucial for the CDP.2. markets days and busy harvesting time.

Example: if there is an old borehole that could possibly be rehabilitated but there is also a spring that could be developed.  If it is difficult to decide what the most appropriate solution is one can decide to first investigate things further before continuing with filling in the form. or is it that they have to walk far to the water source. Therefore this subject does not need attention at this moment. The CRCV´s will make a health promotion plan for this in some months and this plan will then be taken up in the CDP (after it has been approved by the community). 8.2. etc. Example: rehabilitation of a borehole is not be possible if an the borehole has collapsed. if the problem is diseases due to poor water. Now there is a pile of forms on each of which a problem is filled in. also health and hygiene promotion could be a solution. For instance. within the budget available. etc. Explain that the problem of ´poor health behaviours´ will be worked on by the CRCV´s.3 Filling in the Community Development Plan Forms 1.What do you think is the cause of this problem. but possibly also other problems can be included. diarrhoea among children. because education can also help to diminish water related diseases (this is important because education is something that can be done even if only few financial resources are available). Some additional things to consider  Sometimes the most appropriate solution for a problem is different from what people think of first. no latrines. In order to facilitate that the participants determine the most suitable solution of a problem ask the following questions to them (and stimulate them to discuss the questions): .). meaning that it can be realized within the actual circumstances (technically possible. how come that the problem is there? (Example: if the problem is poor drinking water. . Ask the participants to take one of the forms with a problem they want to work on first and continue to discuss and work on each subject in this form as follows: 3. Unrealistic solutions will raise expectations that cannot come through which . absence of a clinic. Explain that in this part of the Form the participants should describe the solution of the problem. malaria. The problems that were given a high priority during the PRA should preferably be included in the list. Solution. positive atmosphere in which the participants feel free and happy. Examples of problems are: unsafe drinking water.  Make sure that the participants discuss things intensively before writing a solution on the Form. Explain that a good solution is a solution that solves the problem but that is also realistic. 2. it is important to investigate what the most appropriate solution is.The community development plan 33  Create a friendly. Explain that per form only one problem can be covered.How can the problem best be solved? Stimulate the participants to determine more than one possible solution before deciding what the best solution is.  An investigation is also required if it is unknown whether a solution people brig forward is at all possible. or any other cause?).  Often a combination of solutions is appropriate. poor primary school. Whether or not the borehole can still be rehabilitated should first be investigated. After the list is ready the participants can fill in one problem per form. It is good if the participants first make a list of problems they want to cover. is this because of a breakdown of the hand pump they cannot repair.

For instance. Explain that he/she is the one who checks that the activity is carried out properly.Make a design of the school and a calculation of all materials required . gravels and stones and bake bricks.Skilled labour from outside the community (e. If this is not possible to say because the things needed for the activity have not been secured yet. . Use more Forms if the activities cannot all fit in one Planning Form. Once all activities have been listed the best way to continue is to fill in the other columns for each activity: 5. 6. the following activities are probably needed: .Find funds (either from the community itself or from others who want to donate money). if the community wants to build a school. it is better to put a question mark than to indicate a certain period for the activity without knowing whether it can be realized. the starting date and ending date of the activity. the participants can write in the Form: ‘3 unskilled labourers each day will be provided by the community’. if the community wants to do an activity but they don’t know yet where to get the money required for the activity.).g.Skilled labour from the community (e. For example. a professionally schooled mason. who takes action when things are not going well or not quick enough.g. 7. . In this column the participants have to fill in all the activities required to realize the solution. . Activity. .Etc.34 The community development plan then may lead to disappointments. PRA report. Usually this also includes all labour.Unskilled labour provided by the community.  To determine the most appropriate solution make use of all information and expertise available (e.Build the foundation and walls. Examples of types of labour are: . who stimulates other people to carry out the activity. Important: for each type of labour indicate who will provide it and how much of it is required.Start digging the trenches.Collect sand.Purchase required materials like cement and roofing plates and transport these to the site. and expertise from the participants themselves)! 4. put a ‘?’. household and other baseline survey reports if such investigations have been done. For instance if for the activity three unskilled labourers are required every day during the execution of the activity. Each of the above is an activity. Who will be responsible for the activity? Explain that being responsible for an activity does not mean that this person needs to carry out the activity him or herself. Explain that everything that can be done by the community should be done by the community. . . a drinking water expert etc. a local mason). Labour required for the activity. etc. See Annex … for some more examples of activities required for different solutions. When will the activity be executed? Write down. Ask the participants to write down all the different types of labour they think are required to execute the activity. . .g.Make/find a store for the cement in the community near the construction site. if possible. unless very specialized labour is required that the community cannot deliver. who controls that all things required for the activity are in place in time. For types of labour for which no funding is found yet or for which it is unknown yet who will provide it the participants .

roofing sheets. . Make sure you have a copy of each filled Form and that the Community Red Cross Committee has a copy of each filled Form as well.  Each time when changes are made in the plan the plan will need to be acknowledged again by the community following the procedure described under point 1. Tools/equipment required for the activity.2. district authorities. has voted for acknowledgement of the plan. etc. they should write this in the Form. After filling all the plan forms explain that if we talk about the ‘Community Development Plan´ we mean all the Planning Forms that have been filled in and approved by the community (approval by the community will be done during a community meeting as described further on). Ask questions if the participants find it difficult to come up with regulations. or ‘2 m3 of sand is required (will be provided by the community)’. stones. Explain that the participants should try to estimate the cost of all things that are required for the activity. 8.For each material the partiocipants should indicate who will provide it (the community. Make sure they include all required materials. …). ‘Should the community members vote for accepting the plans?’ ‘When are the plans accepted. cement. 2. or 50% or 70%?’ ‘How many of the community members should be present in the community meeting to make the voting valid?´ Examples of some Community Development Plan Regulations:  The community development plan will be officially acknowledged by the community when a clear majority (more than 65%) of the participants in a community meeting. external donor. push carts. . Example of tools: shovels.Explain to the participants that they should write down all the different materials that they think are required to execute the activity. for the other bags still a donor needs to be found)’. So basically the Community Development Plans consists of a group of worked out plans for activities to solve different problems existing in the community. for example bricks.  The committee will assess progress with the plan regularly with the fieldworker. gloves. 8. . If for certain materials it is not known yet who will provide it. Indicate the means of transport (car. etc) and the amount of days that transport will be needed.5 Finalizing the Community Development Plan Meeting 1. Transport means required for the activity. Money required for the activity. motorbike.4 Formulation of Community Development Plan Regulations Explain to the participants that it is good to formulate a number of regulations with regard to the plan and write them on a flipchart. Explain that the next step is that the Planning Forms are accepted by the community. should it be 30% of the votes.The community development plan 35 can write in the Form remarks like: ‘water system designers required (unknown how many days and unknown yet who will provide and pay for them)’. for instance: ´How will the plans be acknowledged by the community?’.2. stationary. sand. The partiucipants should fill in this column in the same way as they have done for ‘materials required for the activity’. etc. attended by at least 50% of all community members. 11. truck. The partiucipants should fill in this column in the same way as they have done for ‘materials required for the activity’. 9. 8. etc. Materials required for the activity. They should also indicate what part of the costs is already covered. 10. Examples: ‘500 bags of cement are required (district authorities have agreed that they will provide 200 bags.

In the end the community should vote per plan whether they accept it or not. 6. Your tasks are: 1. 4. Discuss with the RCC who will provide the plans together with the introductory letters to the different parties and control that this is done. Help the RCC to prepare the meeting.3 Your tasks during the Community meeting After the Planning Forms have been filled they should be presented in a community meeting for approval by the community. Ask questions that stimulate further discussions if things have not been properly discussed yet. Assist the RCC to write introductory letters that will be sent together with the plans to the different parties. and other parties who may be able/interested to provide support for the realization of the plans. adaptations can be made in the Planning Forms as a result of the remarks made in the meeting.). Write down in the Community Overview Form at what date the CDP was approved by the community and whether a proper CDP has been produced (see Annex 8 for the form). This will increase the chance that the authorities will provide support to certain activities of the CDP in the future. Say a word of thanks to the participants for their active participation. 8. 8. 4. The letters will explain what process has led to the plans (PRA. In the introductory letters that will be sent to the authorities the RCC should also request them to take up the Community Development Plan in their planning. 3. The parties that should get a copy of the plans are: the RCC. Example: ‘You are proposing to start voting about this plan but who will provide the funds for the activities?’. When the plans have been approved by the community make sure that each approved plan is copied several times. assist the community with searching for parties that can provide inputs in the plans.36 The community development plan 3.  Assist with the implementation of micro projects as described in chapter …  In case the CRCV’s or the RCC wish to do activities that have not been included yet in the CDP facilitate them in a meeting meeting (with RCC and CRCV’s) to fill a new CDP form . During the meeting the Community Red Cross Committee members explain what has been filled in the Forms. During the meeting be present (if this is appreciated by the community). Several examples of introductory letters are presented in Annex … 5. If necessary. baseline survey. 2. yourself. Advise them on how they can present the results in the community meeting. involved authorities.4 Your tasks during the implementation of the Community Development Plan The implementation of the community development plan can start each time when for one of the plans the required resources are available. planning meeting) and requesting the party what support it can provide for the realization of the plans.  Coach the CRCV’s and Community Red Cross Committee members (see chapter . Close the meeting.. Your tasks are:  If possible. Community members can then react on the plans.

37 .The community development plan for these activities. Once this is ready the plan first needs to be approved by the community (in a community meeting) after which it will be added to the CDP and then implemented.

Ask the participants how many families there are in the village. Write the number of required CRCV´s in large on a flipchart so that everybody sees the number and explain how you have calculated the number of CRCV´s required. 3. Explain the role and tasks of a CRCV: o CRCV´s work 4 to 5 hours each month as a CRCV. explain to the participants that for this reason the CRCV´s should not be elected during this meeting. not enough women.). Write down the answers on a flipchart. o CRCV´s are inspired by the Red Cross and Red Crescent principles and work according to these principles (ask whether people have heard about these principles and explain them once again shortly). 2. If the number is not enough or if the group of people is not representative for the community (e. Just before the start of the meeting count how many participants there are. This will be through health promotion and education to these families. In this meeting your tasks are: 1. The CRCV’s will choose one leader amongst them who will be your main contact person. 9.g. Calculate how many CRCV´s are needed by dividing the total number of households by 15 (usually 1 CRCV will provide health guidance to 15 households). You (and possibly others) will train the CRCV´s in a number of aspects important for their role and tasks (in this chapter we describe the most important training for CRCV’s: the ARCHI Toolkit training and CBFA training). Ask the participants what kind of a person they feel a CRCV should be. o Each CRCV assists 15 households in the community at least once a month to improve their health. Prepare the meeting with the Red Cross Committee and make sure to be present on the agreed date. Explain that you will later ask people to come forward as a candidate but that you first want to discuss what a volunteer should do. 5. Make an appointment for a new community meeting (if the next time there is a problem again with the group you should consider to leave this community for the time being out of the program). 4. o CRCV´s assist also with other Red Cross activities if they are requested to do so by the Red Cross Branch or Red Cross Committee. time and location. only influential people are present etc. If they have problems to come up with proper answers you can ask questions like: Should the volunteer be a person who works far away from the village? Should the volunteer be able to read and write? Should the volunteer be a man or a woman? Should it be someone who has very little time available? Examples of answers that you should expect people to come forward with are: P.1 Your tasks to facilitate the selection of CRCV’s You will facilitate the community to select CRCV´s during a community meeting. 6. o The CRCV´s will elect a CRCV leader among themselves who will function as the contact person for the community coach and the Red Cross Committee.9 Selection and training of Community Red Cross Volunteers You will facilitate the community to select suitable Community Red Cross Volunteers (CRCV ´s). o The CRCV’s coordinate their actions with the community coach and the RCC. 38 . 7. Verify the number given with the number of households mentioned during the PRA.

Do this exercise for each candidate. Ask them to start thinking each of them separately about who they want to elect as their CRCV leader. . ask villagers to step forward and be a candidate. 9. 15. If so discuss the question with the community until everything is clear to everybody. until you have reached the number of CRCV´s required. Say a word of thanks to the other villagers for their time. If the number of candidates was larger than the number of CRCV´s needed you can select the CRCV´s as follows: the woman with most raised hands of all female candidates will be a CRCV. Explain that for the remaining CRCV´s you and the Red Cross Committee will try to recruit other community members in the near future. Ask the candidates to stand in front with their back towards the community. If the number of candidates was smaller than the number of CRCV´s needed you can do the same voting session as in the former point. Have a short meeting with the elected CRCV´s. 10. and coordinate things with the Red Cross Committee). and the number of raised hands for that person. 12. It is good if there is an equal number of male and female CRCV´s He/she must be trustworthy and show integrity He/she must be able to work hard and show initiative 8. Each candidate with more than half of the people who raised their hands will be elected to be a CRCV. then from the remaining candidates start with the next woman with most votes etc. Explain that it will be good if in a few weeks they can select their CRCV leader. Explain the role of the CRCV leader (these are: to coordinate the CRCV´s. 11. Count the number of raised hands. In case there are not enough candidates. 13. Ask the CRCV´s when they feel is a good time to elect their CRCV leader. Write the name of the candidate on a flipchart and behind the name whether the person is a woman or a man. The volunteer is well known and respected in the village He/she has good communication skills He/she has good organizational skills He/she must be a pleasant person to work with He/she must have leadership qualities CRCV´s should live near the households for which they are responsible. Discuss the tasks of a CRCV together and explain about the training courses they will get (see the next paragraph).Selection and training of Community Red Cross Volunteers o o o o o o o o o o 39 Community volunteers should not work regularly outside their own communities unless there is an emergency or disaster. Ask the CRCV´s to stay after the meeting in order to discuss some things together and possibly already elect the CRCV leader. participation and understanding. mention the name of the candidate loud and clear and then ask the people ´Those who feel that this person is a good CRCV raise their hands´. Ask whether anybody has a question. After everybody understands what being a volunteer means. Ask the elected CRCV´s to come forward (altogether) so that the community can see who they are. 14. or a specially organized event. be the contact person to you. Ask in the end whether the community agrees with the candidates. the man with most raised hands from the male candidates will be a CRCV. Make an appointment with them for the ARCHI training course and explain how long this training course will take. the community coach. Point your finger to the back of one candidate. Stimulate especially women to come forward to be a candidate. explain that the villagers will just now decide whether the candidates who are now available are in their opinion good persons to be a CRCV or not and that later more CRCV´s will be recruited.

It should be a location that it is not too hot and that is suitable for training.2. local health workers. and a CRCV registration form. o a copy of the CRCV handbook for each CRCV. 9. 3. Give the participants about 10 minutes to look at the materials. o training course evaluation forms for the participants (make sure that in the questions 2 and 3 in the form the different parts of the training course have been described. o The CRCV monthly monitoring form and the explanations with this form (see the CRCV handbook)  Put all the materials ready that you will need during the training course: o flipcharts and a marker pen. a pen and paper. 9. etc. Open the training course (word of welcome. . The location of the training course should be somewhere in the village. o CRCV registration forms (one for each CRCV). Observe whether all CRCV’s are present (if not you may have to decide to postpone the training. usually if more than two or three of the CRCV’s are absent).2. the CRCV handbook.1 Preparations  Agree with the CRCV’s on the date and location for the training course. 9.  Read through: o The ARCHI tools o Chapter … in this manual (which provides information about how you can facilitate a good group discussion. 2. o one or two CBFA manuals. etc. o copies of the ARCHI toolkit (one for each CRCV). Explain about the work of the National Society and the Red Cross Principles. o The CRCV monthly review and planning form and the explanations with this form (see the CRCV handbook). traditional birth attendants (TBAs). Explain that the training takes two days and that all CRCV’s should be present.) are welcome in the training course (ask the CRCV’s to inform these people about this). the form is presented in Annex 5 .g. see also the example in Annex 6 ).2 Your tasks in the ARCHI Toolkit introduction training If you feel you do not have sufficient experience yet to train people in health subjects ask your Branch to provide a trainer who can take over the training tasks from you. They will however not get the ARCHI Toolkit (unless you have sufficient toolkits available). read especially the paragraph about ‘focus group discussions’ as you will need to do several focus group discussions during the training course).2 The first day of the training course 1.40 Selection and training of Community Red Cross Volunteers 16. o paper and pens for the participants. Explain that also the RCC members and other community members who are involved in health activities (e. 4. o a Red Cross armband for each CRCV.). Give each CRCV an ARCHI volunteer toolkit. o any other Red Cross material the CRCV’s should have. Write down in the Community Overview Form at what date(s) the CRCV’s were elected (see Annex 8 for the form).

6. Provide additional material if you have it. Furthermore. Ask the CRCV’s to select three of the Tools that deal with very important problems in the community. o the ARCHI Toolkit contains a number of leaflets (the ARCHI Tools). Do role plays: ask the participants to play that one of them is the CRCV visiting a household to explain about one of the three topics. PRA report etc whether the selected topics indeed are a priority topic in the community. They can also discuss the topics with the . Ask the CRCV’s whether they are sure they want to be a CRCV. In case there are persons who were elected to be a CRCV but now decide not to continue you invite them to continue as a participant in this training course (but they should give back the materials provided to them). o CRCV´s are inspired by the Red Cross and Red Crescent Principles and work according to these principles. o The CRCV’s coordinate their actions with the community coach and the RCC. If not. topic 1 point 1 to 3 (pages 15 to 17) and discuss each part until you are sure that all participants have understood the whole text well. Ask the CRCV’s to visit each of them two households and to do observations in those households with regard to the topics chosen. 9. 7. 8. Read about the topics together in the CBFA manual. o Each CRCV assists 15 households in the community at least once a month to improve their health. o CRCV´s assist also with other Red Cross activities if they are requested to do so by the Red Cross Branch or Red Cross Committee. Verify in the CDP.2. If so ask the other CRCV’s to help them with reading as far as required. 5. Do several of these role plays. In the CBFA manual read up to the participants Module 1. 7. 8. After each role play have a short discussion in which the participants assess whether they feel the person who played the CRCV provided the health messages in a good and convincing way to the household members. Explain that: o this training course will focus on the ARCHI Toolkit. To be able to do so you need to have good knowledge yourself about each health topic and about each ARCHI Tool. you should facilitate a discussion between the CRCV’s in such a way that they provide and come up with the knowledge as much as possible themselves (see chapter … on focus group discussions on how to facilitate a good discussion). o in this training course the CRCV’s will get a first introduction to these Tools and will during the second training day learn to work with three of the Tools the participants will select themselves. each time with another person playing the CRCV (stimulate especially the more shy persons to play the CRCV). To each person who decides to become a CRCV you give a CRCV registration form and ask to sign it. One person plays the CRCV. After that explain once again the specific tasks of the CRCV’s in this program: o CRCV´s work 4 to 5 hours each month as a CRCV. the others play the household members who are visited by the CRCV.3 The second day of the training course 6. Discuss each of the three Tools in detail. ask the CRCV’s why they have chosen these topics and emphasize the need to select health topics that really have a priority in the community. 9.Selection and training of Community Red Cross Volunteers 41 Ask whether there are CRCV’s who don’t know how to read and write. o each ARCHI Tool is about one health topic. Discuss each ARCHI Tool shortly. This will be through health promotion and education to these families.

It is good to give each CRCV a certificate stating that the CRCV has successfully completed the ARCHI toolkit introduction training course. Ask the CRCV’s how they want to promote the health messages of the three ARCHI Tools to the households under their guidance in the coming three months (have a discussion about this. Explain the CRCV review and planning form (see the CRCV handbook) and assist the CRCV´S to fill in this form for the coming three months (it is described in paragraph 11. 15. Tell them that when they come back they should report about their findings. through house visits or through group meetings. 17. ask what topics they want to cover and how they want inform the households about these topics.2. 16. Close the training course. Write in the Community Overview Form at what date the training course was done in the community and whether a proper training report has been produced (see Annex 8 for the form). When the CRCV’s are back ask each of them to explain shortly what they have learned.2. 13.3 Your tasks to train the CRCV’s in Community Based First Aid (CBFA) If you feel you do not have sufficient experience yet to train people in health subjects ask your Branch to provide a trainer who can take over the training tasks from you.1 how you can facilitate the CRCV’s to do so). 11. CBFA training will be done during the review and planning meetings with the CRCV’s. During each review and planning meeting you will train the CRCV’s in one CBFA subject (sometimes also other subjects may be covered depending on what subject has been chosen by the CRCV’s). Ask for instance to one CRCV: ‘Can you tell me in your own words what activities you are going to do in the coming month?’. For details on how to do this see pargaraph 11.1 which is about your tasks during the review and planning meeting. They should not put their name on the form. 10. 12. . 9. or in another way). They have one to two hours for these household visits. Ask questions to the CRCV’s in order to be sure that they understand what the plan is.42 Selection and training of Community Red Cross Volunteers household members. 14. Ask the participants to fill in the training course evaluation form (see Annex 5 ). Explain that during the filling of the form they should not discuss things with any body else but really give their personal opinion in the form. Produce the training course evaluation report (see Annex 6 ). Make notes on a flipchart so that they can all see what the conclusions are.

wells. 4. you should facilitate a PHAST exercise. Make sure that all participants have a chance to speak. Select activities and see whether they will be done by men or women. See also what the traditional division is. Draw on a map. rivers. What do they consider to be good/bad?  Investigating community practices: What do they do themselves? Do they practise everything they believe is good? Do they know that sometimes things are not very good to do?  Investigating how diseases spread: do they know how diseases spread? Use drawings to explain.  Discuss health problems in the community. How do they practice hygiene. what do they know/believe? 2. PHAST consists of a number of exercises that aim to:  Gather information on existing water supply and sanitation in the community  Create awareness regarding the importance of water and sanitation  Promote hygiene behaviour change  Ensure gender balance Your tasks are: 1. Planning for solutions  Discussion on how to block the spread of diseases. Ask villagers what they think they can do to stop the spread of diseases? Do they know that it is possible?  Selecting the barriers. In communities of which you feel that they are not sufficiently aware of the importance of good drinking water and sanitation. Problem analysis  Mapping water and sanitation in the specific community: what kind of water and sanitation related infrastructure is there in the community? Pumps.10 PHAST  Include descriptions of the PHAST exercise (to be adapted to the Eritrean context and if possible reduced to an exercise of not more than one day). PHAST stands for Participatory Hygiene and Sanitation Transformation. Problem identification  Community stories: you ask the community what has happened in the past with regard to health topics.  Take up the format for the PHAST monitoring report in the Annex. 3.  Discussion and advice on good and bad hygiene behaviours. Also you can use examples of other villages and discuss what is wrong and what is right about these situations and the solutions that were implemented. Ask what their normal practices are regarding these issues. Selecting options 43 . latrines. especially women. What are difficult things to overcome? Are people willing to change their attitude and behaviour?  Distribution of tasks for men and women in the community.

you have to add the people that are actually going to do it. . the village leadership and the community health development committee. they can see if changes are still implemented and what has changed. He/she will have to write a report on the total amount of activities and talk this through with community health development committee and branch coordinator. The RCV will spend several days each month on community health development and has to see whether progress is made.  Choosing improved hygiene behaviours.  Planning who does what. 7. He/she will report to the coach. however now for hygiene related problems. The community needs to think about refresher courses. For example: Are they satisfied with what has happened so far? Do they think the activities were implemented well? Do they think the changes will last? Have they already seen the results of changed hygiene behaviour/ if not.  Village meeting.  Write in the Community Overview Form at what date the PHAST exercise was done in the community and whether a proper report has been produced (see Annex 8 for the form). The community should come together after their schedule for activities has ended to discuss results. Do they want to discuss their hygiene and sanitation situation again in a couple of months. 6. Participatory evaluation  Checking and recording progress and outcomes.44 PHAST Choosing sanitation improvements. so make a selection. The coach visits the village once or twice a month and then he/she needs a report on health progress. Besides.  Identifying what might go wrong. This has to be done on a regular basis. Many tasks can be monitored by the RCV’s. The RCV will write the findings down regularly. The RCV also has to talk to the villagers themselves. Planning for new facilities and behaviour change  Planning for change.  Taking time for questions  5. Again. Think about the bottlenecks in your ideas and activities. After a timeframe is made. The coach then reports to the branch coordinator. The RCV will check progress in the community activities. the coach will write a report and discuss this with committee and branch coordinator. In this discussion. It may be a good idea to organise a village meeting six months after the activities have ended. The RCV gives them to the coach when he/she visits the village. Planning for monitoring and evaluation  Preparing to check community progress. This person will check progress and talk to (RCV and) coach. What does the village want to change? You cannot change all. are they going to continue with the changed behavior? The coach leads this discussion and poses questions. a responsible person should be added for each activity. The same.  Refresher courses. They must be sanitation related problems you want to tackle. Brainstorm about what might go wrong and what you can do about it. Discuss about importance of certain activities. When do you want to implement the hygiene and sanitation behaviours and facilities? The community must come up with some kind of a time frame in order to facilitate the implementation of their ideas.

If necessary organize transport to and from the location for this person. Possibly new plans should be taken up in the CDP for certain problems in the community. o Discuss progress with the CDP. o If you feel you cannot or you don’t want to teach about the subject yourself. see the information you have on how to facilitate and guide micro projects). so they should take responsibility for it. o In case you are the one to teach the CRCV’s about a health subject in the coming review and planning meeting prepare yourself properly: find information about the subject.2 Your tasks to coach the CRCV´s 11. a CRCV. the ARCHI Tool that deals with the subject. the part of the CBFA manual that deals with the subject.11 Coaching the Community 11. other information you have found that deals with the subject). P. the local health clinic worker. Explain the subject and provide the person the information you have. Your tasks are:  Prepare the meeting: o Whenever you speak to a CRCV or RCC member remind them of the date. 45 .  Visit the micro projects in the community on a regular basis and monitor how well they are implemented (for certain micro projects your presence may even be required more intensively during some periods. Discuss any problems found with the RCC and if necessary also with the village leadership and/or the CRCV´s or other stakeholders.1 Facilitate the review and planning meeting The meeting will usually be held once every three months per community. read through the information (e. o Discuss how the RCC provides guidance and supervision to the CRCV´s.g. time and location of the meeting. If you find the person is not ready or able to do the training you will have to do it yourself. Remind CRCV’s that they should take their filled monthly monitoring forms to the meeting! o Read this paragraph carefully and also the paragraphs … and … (that deal with teaching techniques and facilitation of focus group meetings). Ask him/her to also find and bring information about the subject him/herself. Do the following things: o Discuss any issues the RCC members or you find important to discuss. etc). 11. someone from the authorities. Adapt the CDP if required.1 Your tasks to coach the RCC  Meet with the RCC once every one or two months and whenever you or RCC members feel it is necessary to meet. o If someone else was chosen in the former review and planning meeting to be the trainer you should control whether this person will really do it. o Discuss problems encountered and how they should be solved. someone from the branch office. you should ask someone else to do it (e. Assist the RCC (and others involved) as much as possible to solve all problems.2. Assist the RCC members as much as possible with advise on how to solve the problems and explain them that the CDP is their plan.g. o Fill in your community coach monitoring form regarding the functioning of the RCC. See further the chapter on micro projects.

 Write in the Community Overview Form at what date the review and planning meeting was done in the community and whether the review and planning form was properly filled (see Annex 8 for the form). Facilitate the participants to discuss the subjects in the format before writing things down. other information and education material that you have. ARCHI Toolkit.46 Coaching the community o Put all required materials ready (flipcharts. are those problems present in the community. The health promotion plan will become part of the CDP after it has been approved by the community.  Prepare the meeting: o Agree on a date.  Copy the report and keep this for your administration. two review and planning forms).2 Facilitate the development of a health promotion plan by the CRCV´s The health promotion plan is a plan made by the CRCV’s on how they wish to promote health int heir community. try to encourage a lively discussion): o Facilitate a discussion about the subject: what expereicnes do the participants have with the subject. Let the participants react (by asking them questions about the information in between.2. o Read with the participants through the part of the CBFA manual that deals with the subject and the coinciding ARCHI Tool. what problems are related to the subject. marker pen. The plan is filled in a CDP form for that reason (so that all plans use the same format). Also write down the health subject that was chosen by the CRCV’s in your monthly planning form and who will do the teaching about this subject (if this person was not in the meeting you will have to ask the person first whether he/she can and wants to do it).  Write down the agreed date.  Be present in the meeting at the agreed location and time (this should be indicated in one of your monthly planning forms).  Ask the participants to keep the original report with either the RCC or one of the CRCV’s. etc. (see chapter … on how to facilitate a discussion and teach a group of persons). whether they feel the activities are useful and if not what can be done about that. ask them whether they have additional information) so that a lively dicussion develops. .  Teach the CRCV’s with regard to the health subject selected by them during the former meeting (If the teaching was agreed to be done by someone else invite this person to start teaching about the subject and facilitate the teacher where possible. ask them whether they have experiences regarding what you are telling.  Assist the CRCV´s and RCC members who are present to make the review and planning report (see Annex 9 for the report format and details how to fill it). time and location for the next review and planning meeting in your monthly planning form. etc. CBFA manual. 11. whether the CRCV’s all function properly and how this can be improved. time and location for the meeting with the CRCV’s and note this in your monthly planning form. Show drawings that you have about the subject and tell them whatever more you know about the subject. They can discuss things like how certain activities can be further improved. what can be done about those problems. Facilitate the participants to include in the review and planning report how they will promote the health subject they have just covered during the training in the coming period in the community.

health clinic workers. but may be you want to interview children. This they can do by filling in a CDP form. For further details see the paragraph about investigation skills in this manual (par. etc.  observations (in households. including the PRA report.). or elderly people.1. etc).  Facilitate the CRCV´s to study all health information available about their community.  Discuss with the CRCV´s and other participants how and when they will explain the health promotion plan to the community. o Read through paragraph … on how to facilitate workshops. other village health actors (e. and CDP forms). These can be written down as subjects that will need attention during the health promotion activities.  Be present in the meeting at the agreed location and time (this should be indicated in your monthly planning form). o Read thropugh the example health promotion plan in this manual (see Annex A4. reports of investigations done in the village. Make a new appointment for a meeting to finalize the health promotion plan. In case the conclusion is that the household survey should be executed in a number of households prepare for this and train and supervise the CRCV’s to execute the household survey (see chapter 6 of this manual how to do this).2. 3. Follow the instructions on how to fill the form described in the CDP chapter (chapter 8). explanation of what this meeting will be about. 2. based on all health information available. Also discuss how they will act if community members comment on the plan and ask them to adapt certain things. or may be in the local clinic or at a place where people collect drinking water. and the CDP. Make sure they have a proper plan for this and have agreed who will present it and when. reports of other investigations. The investigation can consist of:  interviews (for instance with female heads of households. TBA´s. 4. If so. These subjects can also provide an idea for subjects in which the CRCV’s will need to be furthjer trained (for instance during the review and planning meetings). o Put required materials ready (flipcharts.). Box What to do if more investigations are required before making the health promotion plan 1. etc. etc.g. the outcome of household surveys (if such surveys have been done). Use the example health promotion plan presented in Annex A4. 3.2).).  Open the meeting (word of welcome.  Ask the participants whether they feel it necessary to investigate health problems in the community further. marker pen. which health subjects need attention in the community. or the very poorest people in the community. village leaders to participate in the meeting. In case the conlusion is that another type of investigation is required facilitate the CRCV´s to develop the investigation. see the below Box on what to do. PRA report.Coaching the community 47 o Ask the CRCV´s to also invite RCC members.  Facilitate the CRCV´s and the other participants to produce the health promotion plan.1. a copy of the CDP of the community as it is up to now.  Facilitate the CRCV´s and other participants to decide. Discuss together what type of investigation is required. .1).

 Fill in your monthly planning form if any follow up is required and make sure to execute this follow up in a proper way. Especially if CRCV’s and RCC have just started it is good to visit the community quite often.48 Coaching the community  Fill in your monthly planning form whether any follow up is required and make sure to execute this follow up in a proper way.  Write in the Community Overview Form at what date the health promotion plan was made. and when it was approved by the community (see Annex 8 for the form). 11.2.3 Other activities to coach the CRCV´s  Whenever you feel it is necessary (or whenever you are requested) visit the CRCV leader or all CRCV´s to discuss things. and assist them where ever you can. . advise them on how to solve problems.

12 Vulnerability Assessment About 6 to 12 months after the start of the program in a community it is time to do a vulnerability assessment (VA) with the community.1 Preparations  Discuss the need for a vulnerability assessment with the RCC and ask them to organize the assessment in their community. 12.4 Taking up vulnerability reduction plans in the CDP …to be worked out …. The results are used to further update and expand the Community Development Plan and take community action. Explain that the VA consists of the following activities: …to be worked out further…. 12. 49 . The emphasis is on vulnerabilities for which no plans have been taken up in the Community Development Plan yet. A VA consists of a number of participatory exercises and investigations the community members execute to assess the disasters they are vulnerable to and how they can minimize these vulnerabilities. Your tasks in the vulnerability assessment are: 12. 12.  Write in the Community Overview Form at what date the vulnerability assessment was done in the community and what additional plans for the CDP have been produced as a result and when (see Annex 8 for the form).3 Focus group discussions …to be worked out ….2 Village walk …to be worked out ….

didn’t do so even after the workshop was done). 50 . and one or two more at a later stage during the program. one just after the PRA. It would be good to also include such workshops in this manual. Initial conclusions are that several leadership workshops are required. It was also found that problems with leaders continue to exist if only one workshop is done (for instance leaders who are resposnible to account for finances used.13 Leadership workshops In communities it is often important to train the community leadership and ensure their positive and active support for the program activities in their communities. In Tanzania currently experiments are conducted with such leadership workshops.

///to be worked on still///  Write in the Community Overview Form (see Annex 8 for the form) for each micro project in the community: o at what date the project started o at what date the project was finalized o whether the project was properly monitored. 51 .14 Micro projects general description with referal to the micro project manuals. and o when a proper project reports was made.

o All reports of investigations and surveys that were done in the villages during the three months period.  Update the Community Overview Form regularly. Then make sure that these measures are implemented.  Control regularly with the Community Overview Form and other information you have whether each community is developing well and according to the program concept (control whether the program activities are done in the proper following order and whether they are done in time).  Make sure that not one person in the committee takes the lead and prevent others to participate in the discussions.  Provide the following documents once every three months to your branch office: o A copy of the last filled Review and Planning Form of each village. village leadership and RCV’s. 52 . tracing activities.  Identify and provide appropriate volunteer incentives. etc.  Discuss things regularly with your branch coordinator and ask for his/her assistance in activities you find difficult or have insufficient knowledge about. for example relief aid. o A copy of the Community Overview Form.  Watch integrity and leadership of health committee. These junior volunteers can be used to fill eventual vacancies in community networks.  Encourage volunteers to identify back-up volunteers (junior volunteers) who can gradually learn and assume the volunteer duties. and. In case there are problems or you expect problems int his regard for certain communities discuss this with your branch coordinator and decide together on appropriate measures to be taken.15 Other tasks of the coach  You may also be involved in other Red Cross activities. Your branch coordinator will instruct you on these issues whenever your input is required.

It endeavours to relieve the suffering of individuals. 53 . It will get advice and support from the community coach. The Red cross Committee will supervise and coordinate all kinds of health activities in the community. The Movement is a voluntary movement not prompted in any manner by desire or gain. In case the Red Cross has resources it may in some cases also assist the community with some funds for health activities but this will only be the case if there are funds and if the community makes good progress with improvement of the health of the community members. race. The program works through a Red Cross Committee elected by the community members and Red Cross volunteers who are also elected by the volunteers. The Movement is independent.  Neutrality.Annex 1 Request form Date of request: Community: Sub-Zoba: Zoba: Distance from Red Cross Branch office (in km): Name of community representative: Explanation of the program The community based health development program is there to help your community to improve its health. class or political opinions. Its purpose is to protect life and health and to ensure respect for the human being. The Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement The community based health development program is based on the Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement as are all Red Cross activities. The Red Cross Volunteers will execute health promotion activities in the community and assist with other health activities in the community. The National Societies. racial. religious or ideological nature. must always maintain their autonomy so that they may be able at all times to act in accordance with the principles of the Movement. cooperation and lasting peace amongst all peoples.  Impartiality. These Principles include:  Humanity. friendship. In order to continue to enjoy the confidence of all. The Movement endeavours to prevent and alleviate human suffering wherever it may be found.  Voluntary Service. religious beliefs.  Independence. The principle of the program is that the community does as much as possible by itself. and to give priority to the most urgent cases of distress. being guided solely by their needs. while auxiliaries in the humanitarian services of their governments and subject to the laws of their respective countries. the Movement make not take sides in hostilities or engage at any time in controversies of a political. Red Cross Committee and volunteers will be coached by a Red Cross Community Coach. It promotes mutual understanding. The Movement makes no discrimination as to nationality.

Conditions of the program: 1. There can only be one Red Cross or one Red Crescent in any one country. without direct involvement of others. This means that once an activity has been agreed on in the community plans the Red Cross Committee is entitled to organize the community. A Red Cross Committee is elected by the community members and will get the mandate to act on behalf of the community in Red Cross activities in the community once they have been approved by the community. Red Cross Volunteers and Red Cross Committee members will be on a voluntary basis. Red Cross Volunteers will be elected by the community members in a community meeting. It must carry on its humanitarian work throughout its territory. As such the community as a whole is supervising the Red Cross Committee through decision making in community meetings attended by a group of community members who together form a very good representation of the whole community. 5. He Movement. in which all Societies have equal status and share equal responsibilities and duties in helping each other. 3. The community can always decide to change things in a community meeting though. What are the main health related problems in the community? 3.54 Request form  Unity. It must be open to all. groups and committees are active in the community and what activities do they do? . is worldwide.  Universality. 2. How many families are there in the community? 2. All activities executed by community members. What community organizations. The community leadership commits itself to facilitate the improvement of health in the community actively and support the Red Cross Committee and the Red Cross Volunteers as much as possible. Questions to be answered by the community: 1. without any financial compensation by the Red Cross. The community embraces the Red Cross and Red Crescent Principles. 4. community labour etc.

Why is the community motivated to be part of the program? I declare to have filled this form in the name of our community and to the best of my abilities and knowledge. Signature representative: .Request form 55 4. I also declare that our community agrees with the program and the program conditions and that we hereby request that our community will be taken up in the program.

of people who attended the PRA: No. of men No.2 History of the involved communities Describe for each community that may possibly get involved. Who were the first settlers in the community and when did they come? What is the meaning of the name of the community? 56 .1 PRA report PRA data Name community: Name sub-district: Name district: Date PRA: Names facilitators: No. of women No.Annex 2 A2. of children Total A2.

PRA report 57 What are the important events that happened in the community (the problems but also the achievements)? Put down the events and achievements in following order of the years (also include events that were particular for only one of the involved communities) Year Event .

(d) include distances where possible. (c) include all water sources in and near the community (indicate for each source whether it functions or not). (e) give explanations on the back of this form if necessary.3 PRA report Map of the community Redraw the community map below as follows: (a) copy the the map(s) drawn by the community members (if more than one map was drawn combine the things in those maps to draw your map below). (b) indicate the location of the PRA in the map. .58 A2.

………………………………………. Number of votes: ……… Cause of the problems: 6.. Number of votes: ……… Cause of the problems: 5... Give the number of votes (that is the number of beans. ………………………………………. Number of votes: ……… Cause of the problems: 4. ……………………………………….PRA report A2.. pieces of wood or other voting materials used) that people have given to each of the six problems and explain for each problem what the people mentioned to be the cause(s) of this problem.. Number of votes: ……… Cause of the problems: 3. Number of votes: ……… Cause of the problems: 2.. ………………………………………. Number of votes: ……… Cause of the problems: Other typical problems that were mentioned by the community members and are considered to be very important as well: . ……………………………………….4 59 Problem priorities Put down here the results of the problem ranking in order of priority. 1……………………………………….

Function Name Sex (M – Male. .g. sex and position of each elected member of the committee. members fulfilling specific functions) Chair person Vice-chair person Secretary Vice-secretary Treasurer Vice-treasurer Storekeeper Member Member Member Member Note: the community can decide by itself which of the above functions it wishes to have in its committee and how many members. Remarks F – Female) (e.5 Red Cross Committee Put down the name.60 PRA report A2.

why they were not accepted. . explain which conditions were not accepted. depending on what you feel is most suitable. Some questions you may want to pose:  Were the conditions for assistance by your organization explained properly to the community members? Yes / No If the answer is No. Remember that the focus group discussion should be a real discussion. and what your advice is with regard to continuation with this community. explain why. not only a question and answer session.PRA report A2.  What help do you get from other organizations?  How many households are there in the community?  What is the average size of a family?  How many female-headed households are there in the community? What problems do they have?  Which community leaders does the community have? Are people happy with them? If not. why?  What ethnic groups do live in the community? Indicate the approximate percentage of total community population.6 61 Focus group discussion results Below is a list of questions the facilitator can use during the discussion. The note taker must write down all answers during the discussions.  Were the conditions accepted by the community members? Yes / No If the answer is No. Also discuss topics that have been prioritised but that are not topics your organization will be assisting with. It is good to have some information on such topics if you plan to ask other organizations or the authorities to help the community with those problems. Questions can be added or left out.

 Are there problems between the different ethnic groups in the community?  What are the most predominant occupations/jobs?  Do certain groups in the community.  What problems do the people have as a result of HIV/AIDS? And what is the response of the community towards these problems? . have other priorities than the 6 listed during PRA?  Can people build toilets themselves. for instance the women. ask why)  Which diseases are the ones that need most urgent attention?  How can the diseases be prevented? Describe per mentioned disease.62 PRA report  What are the religions of these ethnic groups? Indicate the approximate percentage per religion. if not why?  What community initiatives existed or exist on latrine construction? Explain (if there is none.

PRA report 63  Are there orphans in the community? If so. what do you do to help them?  What are the main problems you have with drinking water?  What could the community do itself to improve its drinking water situation?  Are women circumcised in the community? And men? Give percentages if possible.  What is the opinion towards circumcision? (male and female) .

child(ren).Annex 3 The household survey form Community: District: Date: Surveyor: Family details Name person interviewed Age person interviewed (years) Sex person interviewed Male Female Marital status person interviewed Single (was never married) Educational level of person interviewed (tick all levels of education completed) No formal education.g. but can read and write Parents. no children Vocational training Only children in the household Profession training Adult caretaker(s) + children University Oth er . no children Widow Secondary school Two or more adults. child(ren) and others (e. cannot read or write Household composition Parents. grandparents) Married No formal education. no others Single parent with child(ren) Total number of children living in the household? Total number of children under 5 living in the household? Total number of females (children + adults) Total number of males (children + adults) 64 Divorced Primary school One adult.

but with water only Yes but it has no water. is there space to construct one? Yes Pit lining material No pit lining Is the toilet and its direct surroundings clean? Observe yourself Dirty Not very clean Does the latrine smell bad? Observe yourself Yes No Are there many flies in or near the latrine? Observe yourself Yes No Is there a hand washing facility near the toilet? Observe yourself Yes. no soap and no ashes No Wood Other . health and hygiene Public traditional latrine Private latrine with concrete slab Public with slab latrine concrete Bricks or stones and cement mortar Iron sheets VIP latrine Other No Loose stones Concrete blocks or rings Reasonably clean Bricks or stones and mud mortar Clean Yes.The household survey form 65 Toilet Toilet type Observe yourself Open defecation Private traditional latrine If there is no toilet. with water and soap or ashes Water.

66 The household survey form Private Where do you get drinking tap water in the rainy season? Tick the most important sources Where do you get drinking water in the dry season? Tick the most important sources Private tap Public tap Water seller Protec Unpro- ted spring tected spring Public tap Water seller Protec Unpro- ted spring tected spring Hand pump River or canal Dam or lake Small pond Well Water tank Othe r Hand pump River or canal Dam or lake Small pond Well Water tank Othe r How much water does the household use per day? Indicate in litres of water. How much water can be stored by the household (in litres)? Include all water that can be stored. walking to the water source or Walking to the water source Waiting at the water source Both take no or very little time Both equal take Not relevant because water is supplied at home (private connection or water . including the water stored in containers used for water collection and the water stored in containers in the household that are used for storage only How clean are the water containers? Observe yourself Very clean Are the water containers closed? Observe yourself Yes Clean Just OK Dirty Very dirty No How much do you pay for water on average per month (in local currency)? Time spent per day on water collection in rainy season (in hours) Time spent per day on water collection in dry season (in hours) What takes most time.

Do not read out the possible answers.waiting at the water source? amount time Who collects most of the water? Tick one or two options Female child(ren) Water collection. do not read out the possible answers No babies/ young children in the household When do you wash your hands? Let the person answer. Never washes hands What do you wash your hands with? Ask the person to show you the ashes or soap if he/she claims they use this. Does not wash hands Left in around house After defecation/ urination of Waste pit or the Thrown compound farmland After cleaning baby bottom Water Composting / burying the waste out or Before food preparation of on Buried near the house Before eating Water and soap Before prayers Placed on waste pile / in waste pit Before feeding children Water and ashes Thrown in toilet After work Other Other Other . Tick all possibilities actually used by the household No water collection (private tap or water delivery at the house) By foot with water containers No water treatment Water boiling Water treatment in the household Male child(ren) Adult woman / women of Adult man / men The household survey form provider) 67 Not applicable because water is obtained from a private tap or delivered at home By bicycle with water containers By anima l Water filtration By private chart pulled by animal By private motorized vehicle Water chlorination Other Throwing waste out of house / on farmland Other Ask and observe yourself How does the household disposes its rubbish? Observe yourself Central collection Burning waste What is done with stools of babies / young children? Let the person answer.

Fill in only if there is a child under two years of age and if the respondent agrees that you weigh the child and if you have a balance to weigh the child Height youngest child (in cm). tick all options mentioned) Does not preserve but throws the food into the garbage Does not preserve but gives the food to the animals Stores the food to be used another time Did any of the children have diarrhea in the last four weeks? Fill in nothing in case there are no children in the household Yes No Did any of the children have malaria or fever in the last four weeks? Fill in nothing in case there are no children in the household Yes No Did any of the children have cough or other lung problems in the last four weeks? Fill in nothing in case there are no children in the household Yes No Did any of the children have another disease in the last four weeks? Fill in nothing in case there are no children in the household Yes No Weight youngest child (in kg). Dries the food Not applicable because there is hardly ever food left over Other .68 The household survey form How clean is the compound of the household? Observe yourself Very clean Clean Just OK Dirty Very dirty How many times do you wash your whole body per month? What do you do with left over food (let the person answer. don’t read out the answers. Fill in only if there is a child under two and if the respondent agrees that you measure the child’s height and if you have a tape measure.

At home Within the community (maximum of 5 km from the household) Ward of traditional birth attendant Community health worker Ward of traditional healer 5 to 10 km from the community Traditional healer Health centre 10 to 20 km from the community Hospital Nobody Other More than 20 km from the community . midwife or doctor Where was the last-born child of the household delivered? If there are no children in the household. fill in nothing. including babies who died just after birth? How many babies died within one week after birth? Who assisted the delivery of the last-born child in the household? If there are no children in the household. Family or friends Traditional birth attendant Professional nurse. If there are no children in the household. Ask the respondent whether you can be allowed to inspect them on malnourishment. fill in nothing. fill in nothing. fill in nothing. Fill in only if there is a child under two years of age How many vaccinations did the youngest child receive? How many of the children have been vaccinated against measles? If there are no children in the household or if the person does not know the answer. fill in nothing. What indicators for malnourishment did you observe? Observe yourself among the children who are present in or near the house during the interview.The household survey form 69 Age youngest child (in months). At home At friends or relatives home How far from the household was the youngest child of the household delivered? If there are no children in the household. No signs of malnouris hment Big belly Thin Other signs of malnourishment How many children died? We mean all children who lived in the household before and who have died.

tick all answers) Condom Pil l Injection Spiral or similar Temperature regulation/ monthly abstinence Abstinence Local beliefs for contraception Drawing back before ejaculation Other How many bednets? adults sleep under How many children sleep under bednets? Current quality of the bednets? Observe yourself There are no bednets Where do you go when someone is sick? Don’t read out the options. Let the person interviewed answer. Tick two options maximum Nowhere How can one prevent malaria or fever? Tick all options mentioned by the respondent. tick all answers) Condom Pil l Injection Spiral or similar Temperature regulation/ monthly abstinence Abstinence Local beliefs for contraception Drawing back before ejaculation Other What contraceptive methods do you or your partner(s) use? (let the person answer her/ himself. Do not read out the options! No ans wer How do you treat malaria or fever? Tick all options mentioned by the No answer Bedn et Local clinic Remove still standing water Selftreatment Good Hospital Local beliefs for prevention Go to local healer Other professional health facility Reasonable Local heale r Mosquito repellent Local beliefs treatment for Spray walls Poor Pharmacy Holy spring or other holy place Preventive medicine Go to clinic or hospital Cover skin with clothes Let heal by itself Other Othe r Other .70 The household survey form Problems How many household memduring bers died due to (ask the delivery person how many household members died due to each death cause) Malaria or fever TB Cough / lung problems Diarrhoea AIDS Measles Accident War or violence Cause unknown Other causes What contraceptive methods do you know of? (let the person answer her/ himself.

Do not read out the options! No answer Avoid sex Use condoms Can’t be treated Drink clean water Eat well prepared food Medicines from the pharmacy Avoid blood contact Special AIDS medicines Go to health centre or hospital Don’t kiss Have sex with one partner only Other types of medicines Let heal by itself Local beliefs for prevention Local beliefs for treatment Have sex with few partners only Local beliefs for treatment Don’t go to prostitutes Go to local healer or witch doctor Other Go to local healer or witch doctor Other Local beliefs for prevention Visit local healer Go to local healer or witch doctor Oth er Other . Do not read out the options! How can someone prevent diarrhoea? Tick all options mentioned by the respondent. salt and sugar How can someone prevent AIDS? Tick all options mentioned by the respondent.The household survey form 71 with pills respondent. Do not read out the options! No answer Wash hands How do you treat diarrhoea? Tick all options mentioned by the respondent. Do not read out the options! No answer Solution of water. Do not read out the options! No answer How should AIDS be treated? Tick all options mentioned by the respondent.

wood cutting) Own business (officially registered) Total salary earned by all members of the household together (in local currency). of cows and oxen Bicycle No. for grazing of cattle. of pigs Household uses land by users right Selling of homemade items (no crops) Large machine(s) No. Indicate in amount of money per month. of horses.g. of chicken Small machines No.72 The household survey form Belongings and economic aspects What material belongings does the household have? Observe yourself and tick all material belongings owned by the household Radio and/or cassette TV Couch and/or chairs Cupboard recorder Small tools Private water connection? Yes No Electricity connection? Yes No No. of other livestock They are not farmers and therefore do not use farmland Paid job full-time Paid job part-time Other Other . Small own business/shop (not officially registered) Motorized vehicle Other No. mules and donkeys How is the farmland situation of the household? Tick all valid options Household owns land Household hires land What economic activities do the members of the household undertake? Tick all economic activities undertaken by them Agriculture for own use Selling of crops on the local market Hand or ox plough No. of goats/sheep Household makes use of public/community owned land (e.

The household survey form 73 The house Is this your own house or do you rent it? It is our own house We rent the house Wall type (observe yourself) Mud Wall quality (observe y. are walls black of smoke.). bricks /stones) Other Wood with clay / mud Grass/bamboo with or without mud Other Very poor Bricks / stones / tiles with mud mortar Reasonable Grass or bamboo with or without mud Poor Concrete Wood Very poor Grass/hay Concrete Wood Other Reasonable Poor Very poor Is the kitchen a separate room? (observe yourself) Yes No How is ventilation of the kitchen during cooking? (observe yourself. woods. Some of the animals stay in the rooms where people live None of the animals stay in the rooms where people live . mud. iron sheets. carton. Very good Good Reasonable Poor Very poor If the household has animals. do they stay in the same rooms as where the people live? (observe yourself) The animals stay in the rooms where people live How many rooms are there in the house? (observe yourself) is there smoke. etc.self) Very good Good Bricks or stones with cement mortar Bricks or stones with mud mortar Good Mud/soil covered by cloth or plastic Concrete Other Wood or timber Reasonable Bricks / stones / tiles with cement mortar Wood with clay / mud Poor Iron sheets Cloth / tent Mixed (e.self) Very good Floor type (observe yourself) Mud/soil Floor quality (observ y.self) Very good Good Roof type (observe yourself) Iron sheets Brick or concrete panes Roof quality (observe y.g. Very good Good Reasonable Poor Very poor What is your overall judgement of the quality of the house? Give your personal judgement.

A3. A3. children under 5 years of age. children above 1 year of age. Annex 2 contains an example of a part of a baseline survey report.1 Explanation of the household survey form In this paragraph we give some further explanations with regard to some of the issues in the household survey form.1. Control whether the information is correct.1 General points  If the person you interview does not know or want to give an answer to a certain question or if you feel the question is inappropriate (for instance if it is culturally unacceptable to pose the question) you just skip the question and don’t fill in anything.2 Family details  Household composition. or cooking pot are regarded to be household members. cooking area.1. A son of a family living in another village should therefore not be regarded as a p[art of the household. People who share on a very regular basis the same kitchen.g.74 The household survey form A3. In many question children of a specific age group are mentioned.  With the term ‘children’ we mean all persons up to 15 years of age (persons older than 15 should be regarded as adults). etc.  Questions of which you can find the answer yourself by observing things yourself please do so. Instead try to find which of the other household composition options comes closest to the actual situation in the household. For instance if people claim that the number of community members is 3500 ask them about the numbers of children and adults. e. This also includes children who do not or only irregularly sleep in the house but who are supported in many ways by the household.  Write down all information obtained in the baseline survey report.  Total number of children living in the household? We mean the number of children (all persons up to 15 years of age) who are actually supported for a large part by / living in the household. The person you interview may say something to a certain question or subject but if you are able to verify this with your own observations this is better. We recommend that each surveyor reads carefully through these explanations and makes sure he/she understands them well before starting to execute household surveys. . Try to avoid filling in the option ‘Other’. If for instance two adults live in the house who claim to have children who all live somewhere else the household composition should be indicated as ‘Two or more adults’. If then they claim there are 1800 children and 2800 adults than you can see that there is something wrong because the number of children + the number of adults is 4600 which does not match the answer about the total number of community members (3500).

The household survey form

A3.1.3

75

Drinking water, health and hygiene

 Where do you get drinking water from? If the household obtains water from the same sources in both the rainy and the dry season, fill in the same
answers for both questions. If there is a difference between the sources, answers for the 2 questions should be different. With a small pond we mean a
small hole or depression that fills up with water. Usually small ponds develop during the rainy season as rainwater runs into them. An unprotected spring
fills up with water flowing out of ground, which is not the case in a small pond.
 How much water does the household use per day? It is important to give the answer in litres of water per day. If you find this difficult you can write
down how many containers (e.g. bucket or jerry can) with water the household uses per day. If possible also write down how water one such container
contains. Your supervisor or other staff of the organization can then later help you to calculate how much water this actually is in liters and enter this
amount in the form.
 How much water can be stored in the house (in litres)? Here you have to include the volume of all containers that can store water together: the
containers used to carry water plus the containers used for storage of water only. Again, make sure that the answer is provided in liters (see also the
former question). Observe as many of the containers as possible yourself and determine for each container how much water it can have. Try your best
now to calculate the total number of litres of water that can be stored in all containers together if they would all be filled with water. If you find this
difficult write down for each type of container how many there are in the household and how many litres of water each type of container can contain.
Your supervisor or other staff of the organization can then later help you to calculate the total storage capacity.
 Time spent per day on water collection. For people who have a private tap or water provision at their house the time spent should be filled in as 0. If
the time spent on water collection is less than one hour per day you can also fill in ‘1/2 hour’ or ‘1/3 hour’ etc.
 Who collects most of the water used by the household? If one type of person collects all the water fill in only one option. If two or more types of
persons collect the water fill in the two types of persons who collect most of the water.
 Rubbish disposal. The difference between ‘composting/burrying’ and ‘waste pit’ is that with composting/burying you cover the waste with a layer of
soil while a waste pit is usually a hole in the ground in which waste is thrown without any covering with soil.
 What is done with stools of babies / young children? Try to avoid filling in the option ‘other’ unless really the answer doesn’t come close to any of the
other options. If the household does not have any babies/young children, then fill in the first option (No babies/ young children in the household). People
may tend to not answer the truth to this question. Try to convince the person you interview that she or he does not have to feel ashamed of the actual
answer.

76

The household survey form

 When do you wash your hands? People tend to not answer the truth to this question. Try to convince the person you interview that she or he does not
have to feel ashamed even if the answer is ‘never’.
 How many times do you wash your whole body per month? Make sure that the person who is interviewed by you understands well that you mean
washing of the whole body, not just washing the face or something like that.
 Cleanliness of compound. We mean the area directly around the house that is intensively used by the household members.
 Left over food is. Ask the person you interview what is done with left over food but, if possible, also check this yourself by observing what they do with
left over food.
 Weight youngest child under age two (in kg). Fill in only if there is a child under two years of age in the household, if you have the tools for weighing
a child with you and if the person interviewed by you agrees that you weigh the child.
 Height youngest child under age two (in cm). Fill in only if there is a child under two years of age in the household, if you have the tools for
measuring the height of a child with you and if the person interviewed by you agrees that you measure the height of the child.
 How many vaccinations did the youngest child receive? If the person you interview doesn’t know the answer or doesn’t want to answer, fill in
nothing.
 Indicators for malnourishment? Surveyors should be able to recognize malnourishment. Train them at the office before conducting the survey on
indicators for malnourishment. Show drawings and pictures of malnourished children. The surveyor should observe the nourishment condition of the
children present in or near the house during the interview.
 How many children died? These are the children (up to 15 years of age) who lived in the household before but who have died (also including babies
who died just after birth).
 How can one prevent malaria or fever? With ‘local beliefs for prevention’ we mean any beliefs that people have on how malaria or fever can be
prevented that is not correct. Important here is that surveyors are able to recognize when an answer should fall in this category. Discuss with the
surveyors on beforehand what habits that people have to prevent diseases that they call malaria or fever belong in the option ‘local beliefs for
prevention’. This also goes for the other diseases in the form.
 How can one treat malaria or fever? Same remarks with regard to the option ‘local beliefs for treatment’.

A3.1.4

Belongings and economic aspects

The household survey form

77

 What household belongings does the household have? It is of course possible that the household has other belongings as well than the ones mentioned
in the options you can choose from. That doesn’t matter. Just fill in which of the options included the household has.

Annex 4 The community Development Plan Form Problem: Activity Who will be responsible for the activity? Solution: When will the activity be executed? Give an expected starting and ending date. Labour required for the activity Materials required for the activity 78 Tools/equipment required for the activity Transport means required for the activity Money required for the activity Remarks and further details .

80 person days) To be finalized still Remarks and further details . Labour required for the activity Materials required for the activity Tools/equipment required for the activity Transport means required for the activity Money required for the activity A supporting organization has not yet been found.1. therefore no date can be given. chairman of the community committee and representative(s) of the supporting organization When will the activity be executed? Give an expected starting and ending date. Community leader.Spring protection plan Problem: poor drinking water Activity Making and signing a project contract between community and support organization Collection of hard core.1 A4. Copies of the contract – to be provided by the supporting organization The project contract – will be made by the supporting organization Representative(s) of the supporting organization will arrange their transport for coming to the community 1. chairman of the community committee and representative(s) of the supporting organization. aggregate stones and sand and production of bricks Construction of the spring protection Training of the water committee and caretaker Maintenance of the protected spring 79 Solution: spring protection Who will make sure that the activity will be executed? Community leader.000 Nacfa for printing the contract (will be provided by the supporting organization) Community committee Community has already started the collection and baking of the bricks All unskilled labour required for collection of materials and production of the bricks will be provided by the community (appr.1 Examples of filled Community Development Plan Forms Example .The community development plan form A4.

Education material (drawings. The RCC and CRCV leader will supervise the CRCV’s Review and planning meeting The CRCV leader takes care that the activity takes place and that the participants are informed and stimulated to take part.1. Usually once every two months during about half a day.2 Example . Labour required for the activity Materials required for the activity Tools/equipmen t required for the activity Transport means required for the activity Money required for the activity Remarks and further details Each CRCV will spend each two months about 20 hours on house visits .CBFA manual (1 or 2 for the whole group) .CBFA manual (1 or 2 for the whole group) . Each household under health guidance of the CRCV’s will be visited for about two hours by a CRCV once every two months.Health promotion plan Problem: diseases caused by poor health behaviours Activity House visits Who will make sure that the activity will be executed? The CRCV’s.80 The community development plan form A4.ARCHI Toolkits . Each participant spends 4 hours each two months for attending the meeting .Education material (drawings. Households that do very well can be visited less often. . Focus group meetings The CRCV’s Solution: health promotion activities Page: 1 When will the activity be executed? Give an expected starting and ending date.ARCHI Toolkits . Households with a lot of problems will be visited more often. information about particular subjects) none By foot (the community coach comes by motor bike) none Participants in the meeting are: CRCV’s.Other education material (drawings) none By foot none See note 1 attached to this plan.CBFA manual (1 or 2 for the whole group) . information about particular subjects) none By foot none See note 2 attached to this plan. Sometimes a RCC members attends a meeting.ARCHI Toolkits . Each CRCV will do a focus group discussion once every two months for which the female heads of households under his/her guidance are invited The CRCV’s will prepare and facilitate the meetings. . some of the RCC members and the community coach (who facilitates the meetings).

2 old blankets.200 Nacfa The drama performance will be announced in the monthly community meetings and advertised by hanging information leaflets at public buildings (school. 3 packages of condoms 2 agricultural tools 81 Page: 2 Transport means required for the activity By foot Money required for the activity Remarks and further details 1. The subject will be diarrhoea and malaria.The community development plan form Problem: diseases caused by poor health behaviours Activity Drama performance Who will make sure that the activity will be executed? CRCV …name of CRCV who volunteers to organize the activity… When will the activity be executed? Give an expected starting and ending date. etc. . 2 baskets. There will be a lot of humor in the play with a witch doctor who gives very bad advices. The community coach will advice and monitor during 2 hours a wooden stick. During the harvest celebration and once again at the start of the dry season Solution: health promotion activities Labour required for the activity Materials required for the activity Tools/equipment required for the activity 7 CRCV’s and 2 RCC members will practise 40 hours and perform 6 hours. clinic). 2 pieces of red and blue tissue.

6. Make notes of those things that you feel are not OK. 3. If the CRCV has little knowledge about the health subject he/she will later contact others to help the family and monitor that this is followed up. Observe the situation in the household (do the children look healthy and happy. Note 2  Location: in someone’s house or outside under a tree. CRCV fills in the CRCV monitoring form for the house visit.  In a focus group discussion usually two subjects are discussed:  one health subject prepared by the CRCV. . do the children attend school. observe things regarding the problems in the household. 5. During each house visit the following will be done by the CRCV: 1. Discuss their health problems. and give advice where possible.). do children sleep under a mosquito net. are there indications of violence between household members. also about non-health topics if they wish). etc. are water and food properly stored.82 The community development plan form Notes with the health promotion plan Note 1 Each CRCV will have 10 households under his/her health guidance. 2. and  one subject chosen by the participants at the start of the meeting (can be any subject they find important. is the house clean. 4.  The CRCV facilitates the meeting. Ask the person(s) in the household whether there is any other thing they wish to discuss. Ask female head of household or oldest person in the household how things are going and what health problems they suffer from most. is there an alcohol or drugs problem. If there is time left and if appropriate discuss health topics the CRCV was trained in during the last review and planning meeting.

83 .The community development plan form A4.2 Examples of introductory letters to be sent together with the CDP Still to be worked on.

They should not put their name on the form and not discuss the things they fill in with other participants during the exercise. 4. all were useful. Which part of the training course/workshop did you find most useful? (choose as many options as you like) //remark for the facilitator: fill in what things were done in each part of the training course/workshop///  Part I  Part II  Part III  Part IV  Part V  Part VI 3. 1. How do you evaluate this training course/workshop?  Very useful and interesting  Useful  Not as useful as I hoped it would be  It was a poor workshop  Other (please fill in): 2. Which part of the workshop did you find not very useful for your work in the communities? (choose as many options as you want) //remark for the facilitator: fill in what things were done in each part of the training course/workshop///  Part I  Part II  Part III  Part IV  Part V  Part VI  None of the parts were less useful. Do you feel confident now to apply the knowledge/skills you have learned during this training course/workshop  Yes 84 .Annex 5 Training course/workshop evaluation form At the end of the training course or workshop give each participant the below form and ask them to fill in the form.

Do you have recommendations for improvements in this training course/workshop? Please write them down here 7. equipment (please specify)  Other (please specify) 6. What things do you feel are needed further in order to be effective in your work in the community health development program? (choose as many options as you want)  More training (please specify the subjects)  Manuals (please specify which ones)  Monitoring forms (please specify which ones)  Materials. What other subjects do you feel could be included in the training course/workshop? . tools.The community development plan form 85  No (please explain why) 5.

Annex 6 Training course/workshop evaluation report Use the evaluation forms filled by the participants and information about the total number of participants and output realized during the training course/workshop to produce the training course/workshop evaluation report. Date start: 5 January 2005 Date end: 6 January 2005 Number of participants who fulfilled the training course/workshop properly: 19 participants Information about the participants: just elected CRCV’s from Amda village. Zoba Northern Red Sea. sub-Zoba mmmm. 86 . Name of the training course/workshop: ARCHI Toolkit Introduction training course.  Part II: explanations and discussions about the tasks of the CRCV’s (day 1) : 18 participants.  Part III: Introduction to and discussions about the ARCHI Tools (day 1) : 14 participants.  Part IV: detailed explanation of and discussion about three ARCHI Tools selected by the CRCV’s (day 2) : 18 participants. How do you evaluate this training course/workshop?  Very useful and interesting : 12 participants  Useful : 3 participants  Not as useful as I hoped it would be : 3 participants  It was a poor workshop : 1 participant  Other (please fill in): 2.  Part V: role plays about how to promote the health subjects covered by the three ARCHI Tools (day 2) : 8 participants. Output realized:  19 participants trained  Small survey realized of some of the health problems in 25 households in the community Answers to the evaluation questions by the participants: 1.  Part VI: visits to households + presentations and discussions afterwards about the findings (day 2) : 19 participants. Below is an example of a filled evaluation report. Which part of the training course/workshop did you find most useful? (choose as many options as you like)  Part I: explanation about the work of the National Society and the Red Cross Principles (day 1) : 7 participants.

Do you have recommendations for improvements in this training course/workshop? Please write them down here . all were useful : 12 participants.  Manuals (please specify which ones) : how we can organize ourselves better (1 participant).Training course/workshop evaluation report 87  Part VII: planning of the promotion in the coming months of the three ARCHI Tool subjects that were selected and filling in the review and planning form (day 2) : 17 participants.  Part VII: planning of the promotion in the coming months of the three ARCHI Tool subjects that were selected and filling in the review and planning form (day 2). we need a salary as we are poor (1 participant). equipment (please specify) : we need bicycles as our village is very extended (1 participant). ticked but no subject described (3 participants)  Monitoring forms (please specify which ones)  Materials.  None of the parts were less useful.  Part IV: detailed explanation of and discussion about three ARCHI Tools selected by the CRCV’s (day 2). Which part of the workshop did you find not very useful for your work in the communities? (choose as many options as you want)  Part I: explanation about the work of the National Society and the Red Cross Principles (day 1) : 1 participant  Part II: explanations and discussions about the tasks of the CRCV’s (day 1). how to help women in the village to make improved cooking stoves (2 participants). expect to be confronted with health problems in the households that were not covered in the training course.  Part V: role plays about how to promote the health subjects covered by the three ARCHI Tools (day 2) : 5 participants  Part VI: visits to households + presentations and discussions afterwards about the findings (day 2). tools. What things do you feel are needed further in order to be effective in your work in the community health development program? (choose as many options as you want)  More training (please specify the subjects) : other ARCHI Tools (3 participants). 4. Do you feel confident now to apply the knowledge/skills you have learned during this training course/workshop  Yes : 15 participants  No (please explain why) : 4 participants. reasons: not enough knowledge yet about the selected health subjects. 5. 3.  Other (please specify) 6. raincoat (1 participant).  Part III: Introduction to and discussions about the ARCHI Tools (day 1).

7. Instruct the participants better on what the idea about it is.88 Training course/workshop evaluation report The role plays were not very realistic. (1 participant). What other subjects do you feel could be included in the training course/workshop? HIV/AIDS (1 participant) How to make a planning (1 participant) . More education materials needed (especially drawings) (3 participants). Much more information is needed on other health subjects (2 participants).

Annex 7 The community coach monthly planning form Month: Name village 1 Year: 2 3 4 5 Name community coach: 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 89 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 .

90 Household survey .

 Write down each time when you plan something with a village what you have planned in the column of the day at which you have planned it (for instance if you have agreed to do a PRA on the 5th of the month you put ‘PRA’ in the cell of that day. just put a referrence number and write down on a separate note what you mean with the reference number (see the example on the next page). Write down also the time the activity you planned will start and the time it will end. . You don’t have to use this form. RP = review and planning meeting. Only use it if you find it handy for your daily planning. If you have more villages under your responsibility than can be entered in the column use a second form for the remaining villages. see the example on the next page).  If you do not have enough space to write down what you plan to do. If you wish you can also only use your personal agenda but then be aware not to loose overview. Witsema village). You can best do this in alphabetical following order (e. Gatechwa village. etc. Coach = coaching visit.  In this way you can easily see for each day of the month and the hours during the days what you are supposed to do. Udengena village. Konderu village. for instance: PP = program preparation in the community (providing information about the program). The best thing to do is to fill the form but also write down all your planning in your personal agenda.  In the first column (name village) you write down all the villages under your responsibility.g Amda village. You can also use abbreviations. CDP = community development plan meeting. PRA = participatory rural appraisal. microwater = micro water project.The community coach monthly planning form A7. IMPORTANT: when you plan something new always control if on the day you want to plan it you don’t have too many other things to do already in other villages (also take travel time into account).1 91 How to use the community coach monthly planning form  The planning form provides you an overview for the whole month and for all villages.

92 The community coach monthly planning form A7.2 Example of a partly filled community coach monthly planning form Month: January Name village Amda village 1 Gatechwa village Konderu village PP 911 2 3 CDP 9-13 RP 9-12 CDP 1418 CDP 1418 Year: 2005 4 6 1518 no2 RP 1418 PRA 8-13 Udengena village Witsema village 5 912 no1 PP 1517 PRA 9-13 7 8 Name community coach: Tom Gatchengwe 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 .

No1: In Udengena village the hand pump has broken. No2: In Amda village there is a problem with the village leadership who seems to block progress with some of the activities of the RCC. better. I made an appointment for 6 January at 15. the chairman of the RCC and some village elders to discuss the problem and see what can be done about it.00 in the afternoon with the village chairman. .00 in the morning on 5 January to go and have a look what the problem is. Visit the RCC chairman at 9. in your personal agenda.93 The community coach monthly planning form The below notes you can write on a separate paper or.

Annex 8 Name village Program preparation The community overview form PRA Household survey Other investigations Selection of CRCV’s 94 Training courses Review and planning meetings Other coaching activities Micro projects Other Red Cross activities .

other coaching activities and other Red Cross activities list what activities have been executed.  For activities that are ongoing (e. 95 .  See the example on the next page. ‘Review and planning meetings’) write down the date the activity was executed for the first time and whether and how often the activity is still ongoing.g. when they started for the first time and whether they are still ongoing or have been finalized (if they have been finalized put the date of finalization).1 Explanations with the community overview form  For each village per activity the date should be filled at which the activity was finalized. you may have to copy things on a new form.  For micro projects.  Whenever the form becomes too full with changes etc.The community overview form A8.  In case there are important remarks for any of the activity you can add them under the activity or put e reference not to a spearate paper where you explain things further.

2 The community overview form Example of a partly filled community overview form Name village: Program preparation. . report (average: once a month) produced 22-06-05 Regular contacts with CRCV  Water dam project leader (average: twice a month) started 20-09-05 In the period March 05 to June 05 only 1 R&P meeting was done Other Red Cross activities Tracing activities: whenever there are letters to be delivered the CRCV’s ensure that the coach takes them to the Branch office and the optherw ay around. average) finalized 20-06-05.96 A8.  02-02-05 (se. during the R&P meeting  CDP approved by community on 4-02-05 Coaching activities (RCC coaching. review and planning meetings. other) Micro projects R&P: from 03-01-05 ongoing  Improved stoves project once every two months (on started 04-05-05. other investigations)  PP: 01-11-04  PRA: 28-11-04 (report finalized on 30-11-04)  Household survey: 25 households were surveyed on 12-12-04 (report finalized on 20-12-04) Sub-Zoba: Selection of CRCV’s  02-12-04: 13  25-1-05: 10  15-2-05: 5 Zoba: CDP Training courses  02-01-05 (first  ARCHI intro: 15-02-05 session) (report finalized 16-02-05). CBFA: always 1 subject cond session). PRA. Regular contacts with RCC monitored once a week by coach. investigations (household survey.

The community overview form 97 .

etc. of active male CRCV´s No. of CRCV’s in the meeting: Date end report period: No. explanation of problems. of other RC volunteers active in the community Number of house visits realized by the CRCV’s Topics covered during the house visits Number of group meetings facilitated by the CRCV’s Topics covered during the group meetings 98 Remarks. of active female CRCV´s No.Annex 9 Review and planning report Name village: Sub-Zoba: No. findings. of households in the community: No. Is it in line with the planning in the CDP? (if not explain) . of other participants in the meeting: Subject Original planning for the report period Zoba: Date start report period: No. of RCC members in the meeting: Name community coach: Achieved during the report period Planning for the next report period Subject selected for training of CRCV’s No.

etc. findings. of times the community coach was active in the community for more than two hours Training activities executed in the village (both by RCSE and others) Program introduction. CDP. 99 Is it in line with the planning in the CDP? (if not explain) . PRA. explanation of problems. PHAST (refer to the reports of these activities as far as relevant) Original planning for the report period Achieved during the report period Planning for the next report period Remarks. other investigations. household surveys.Review and planning report Subject Other types of health promotion activities realized by the CRCV’s Topics covered during the ‘other types of health promotion activities’ Number of households reached by the health promotion activities of the CRCV´s Number of community meetings held Topics covered during the community meetings No.

first aid. tracing. peer education or peer coaching. emergency activities. refer to reports for these activities) Other activities without involvement of the RCSE (describe as well as possible) Is progress in the community in line with what was planned in the CDP? (if not.g. explanation of problems. Is it in line with the planning in the CDP? (if not explain) . etc.100 Review and planning report Subject Original planning for the report period Achieved during the report period Other activities with involvement of the RCSE (e. findings. time and location of the next review and planning meeting: Planning for the next report period Remarks. explain) Date. micro projects.

For each subject use the information that you have available to determine what was achieved during the report period. and other stakeholders (you. they should not plan things that are unlikely or of which they already can know now that they cannot be achieved! In case the activities are behind schedule in comparison to what has been planned in the CDP it may be necessary to adapt the CDP if the activities cannot easily be sped up. etc. The CRCV’s should take their filled monthly monitoring forms to the meeting! How to fill in the column Original planning for the report period: The information that should be entered in the column Original planning for the report period is the same as the information in the column Planning for the next report period of the former review and planning report. Important: mention to the participants that they need to be realistic. findings. the community coach. 101 . then in the review and planning report for this period this same figure should be written for the number of house visits in the column Original planning for the report period. (d) discussions during the meeting and other events between CRCV’s.1 Explanations with the review and planning report The information for the report should be obtained from: (a) observations and findings of the participants. Ask the participants to describe at least per subject how they think they can solve existing problems. How to fill in the column Remarks. explanation of problems. So copy the information from the former review and planning report.). indications of the quality that they hope to realize. RCC members. For some subjects it can be determined what was achieved by counting up numbers from all the CRCV monitoring forms for the report period. Let them look at what has been achieved in the past and also what is planned in the CDP. How to fill in the column Achieved during the report period: This column should only contain quantitative information (numbers. like how many latrines were realized. including the community coach. how many house visits. etc. How to fill in the column Planning for the next report period: Facilitate the participants to discuss together what they want to achieve in the coming report period. If this is the case explain that this will need to be done by the RCC and afterwards be approved by the community in a community meeting. (c) the filled monitoring forms of the CRCV’s for this report period. Example: if in the former review and planning report it was planned that in the next report period the number of house visits to be done should be 280. (b) investigations done.A9. what numbers they hope to achieve.: For each subject facilitate the participants to include information about:  For certain subjects: indications of the quality realized. also participate in the discussions. but you mainly act to facilitate the discussions). etc. community leaders. how man active female CRCV’s.

This is especially important if there is adifference between the number of active female CRCV’s during this report period and the expected number of active female CRCV’s in the coming report period. etc. Subject selected for training of CRCV’s. o Original planning for the report period: the participants should enter the number of active female CRCV’s as was originally planned for the report period (see the former review and planning report). findings. explanation of problems. o Remarks.).: the participants can write down additional remarks. Explanation of the subjects in the report: 1. o Achieved during the report period: the participants should describe what subject they were actually trained in during this meeting. o Planning for the next report period: the participants should describe how many female CRCV’s will be active during the coming report period. How to fill in the column Is it in line with the planning in the CDP? In this column the participants should write down for each subject whether progress regarding the subject is in line with what was planned in the CDP. The reasons for difference should then be described. findings. etc. household surveys. explanation of problems.  Any other remarks you feel are important to make regarding the subject. for instance ‘we feel that we need more information about this subject’ or ‘we have the idea that now we have sufficient knowledge about this subject’. o Original planning for the report period: the participants should describe what subject was originally selected for the training during this meeting. etc. the community coach. These are the female CRCV’s who actually filled in their monthly monitoring forms during the report period and executed their CRCV tasks in a proper way. CDP. o Remarks. If not they should describe why and what they are planning to do about (this may mean speeding up the activities but it can also mean that they will adapt the CDP). there should be detailed reports)  Problems encountered regarding the subject  Important findings regarding the subject. Number of active female CRCV’s. o Achieved during the report period: the participants should describe what number of female CRCV’s have actually been active during the report period. o Is it in line with the planning in the CDP? No need to fill in anything here. 2.102 Review and planning report  Reference for certain subjects to more detailed reports in case there are such reports (for instance for activities like PRA. micro projects etc.: the participants can write down additional remarks with regard to the training. o Is it in line with the planning in the CDP? The participants should write down whether the number of active female CRCV’s is in line with what was planned in the CDP (for instance the health promotion plan should contain some information on that). . o Planning for the next report period: the participants should describe what health subject they would like to be trained in during the next review and planning meeting and Discuss who they think should be the trainer (this can for instance be one of the CRCV’s. someone from the authorities.

Review and planning report

103

3. Number of active male CRCV’s. Same remarks as for ‘Number of active female
CRCV’s’
4. Number of other RC volunteers active in the community. The number of other active
volunteers such as peer educators, RCAT members. Provide per type of volunteers how
many there are (a distinction between males and females is not necessary).
5. Number of house visits executed.
o Original planning for the report period: the participants should enter the number of
house visits that was originally planned for the report period (get this figure from the
former review and planning report).
o Achieved during the report period: the participants should write the number of all
house visits that were actually done during the report period. They can do this by
counting up the number of house visits from all monthly monitoring forms of all
CRCV’s that cover the report period.
o Planning for the next report period: the participants should write how many house
visits they think all CRCV’s together will do during the next two months. Before they
write down a number have a discussion on this. Do they want to do the same number
of house visits as during the former report period? Or may be the CRCV’s want to do a
number of other activities which then may mean that they will have less time for the
house visits. In that case they will have to plan a lower number of house visits. Tel the
participants that they should try to be realistic and take into account that the CRCV’s
also have many other things to do beside their CRCV tasks.
o Remarks, findings, explanation of problems, etc.: the participants can write down
additional remarks. This is especially important if there is a difference between the
number of house visits during this report period and the expected number of house
visits in the coming report period. The reasons for difference should then be described.
Also other remarks, such as comments about the results of the house visits (do the
participants feel they are useful?) and ideas for alternative promotional activities can
be written down here.
o Is it in line with the planning in the CDP? The participants should write down whether
the number of house visits is in line with what was planned in the CDP (for instance
the health promotion plan should contain some information on that).
6. Topics covered during the house visits.
o Original planning for the report period: the participants should enter the topics to be
covered as was originally planned for the report period (copy this information from the
former review and planning report). Examples of topics: prevention of diarrhoea,
prevention of malaria, reduction of smoke in the kitchen, need to wash hand after
toilet use, etc.
o Achieved during the report period: the participants should write the topics that were
actually covered during the house visits in the report period. They can do this by
looking in the monthly monitoring forms of all CRCV’s filled during the report period
what topics were covered and by discussing among themselves what topics they
covered during the house visits.
o Planning for the next report period: facilitate the participants to discuss what topics
they feel should be covered during the house visits in the next period (ask them
whether they think it is important to include the topic they have just been trained in
and what other topics they feel are important). Then they should write down the topics
they wish to cover during the next period in the report.

104

Review and planning report

o Remarks, findings, explanation of problems, etc.: the participants can write down
additional remarks. They should also write down to what extent the topics have
sufficiently been covered and whether the topics will need further attention during the
coming months. Also remarks about whether the way of promoting the health topics is
successful should be written down here.
o Is it in line with the planning in the CDP? The participants should write down whether
the topics covered during the house visits are in line with what was planned in the
CDP (for instance the health promotion plan should contain some information on that).
7. Number of group meetings facilitated by the CRCV´s. In the same way as for house
visits but then for group meetings. Group meetings are gatherings of people from several
or all the households guided by a CRCV. Sometimes there can also be other kinds of
group meetings (e.g. a group of women met at a water collection point).
8. Topics covered during the group meetings. In the same way as for house visits but then
for group meetings.
9. Other types of health promotion activities realized by the CRCV´s. In the same way as
was done for house visits. Describe beside the number of other activities also what type of
activities they were (e.g. two campaigns with pamphlets and posters).
10. Topics covered during the ‘other types of health promotion activities’. In the same
way as was done for house visits. Examples: pamphlets about HIV/AIDS, posters about
malaria.
11. Number of households reached by the health promotion activities of the CRCV´s. Fill
in how many households were reached by the activities of all CRCV´s together during the
report period. Consider a household to have been reached by the CRCV´s if one or more
persons of the household participated in one or more of the health promotion activities of
the CRCV´s.
12. Number of community meetings held. In the same way as was done for house visits. A
community meeting is a meeting with a good representation of the whole community
(usually at least 50 persons, women, men, elderly people, poor and rich, etc.).
13. Topics covered during the community meetings. In the same way as was done for house
visits.
14. Number of times the community coach was active in the community for more than
two hours. Only count events (e.g. training of CRCV´s, facilitation of meetings,
advise/monitoring during micro-projects, etc.) that took two hours or more and in which
the community coach fulfilled an important role (e.g. as trainer, advisor or facilitator).
These can also be events in which other persons from outside the village were involved
(e.g. Branch Coordinators, staff of a Zoba Ministry etc.) as long as the community coach
fulfilled a substantial role during the event.
15. Training activities executed. Describe the training courses and state who were the tutors
(can for instance be community coach, Branch Coordinators and/or others, such as Zoba
Ministry staff etc.). In the remarks column comment if there is a difference between what
was originally planned and what was actually achieved. Also describe whether the training
courses were successful in the sense of number of participants, extent to which
participants felt they understood the training contents well, usefulness of the training
courses, etc.
16. Program introduction, PRA, household surveys, other investigations, CDP or
PHAST. Mention whether any of these activities were executed. In case of ´other

Review and planning report

105

investigations´ explain what type of investigations were executed (water survey, village
organizations survey, hydro-geological survey, etc.). In the remarks column comment if
there is a difference between what was originally planned and what was actually achieved.
Also describe whether the activities were successful in the sense of turn up in the PRA,
whether investigations were properly executed and have yielded proper results (and if not
the reasons for it and what will be done about it, etc.). Refer to the reports made about
these activities (and attach the reports to this report).
17. Other activities with involvement of the RCSE. This includes all other activities related
to health in which the RCSE is involved in one way or another, also if it concerns
activities in which the CRCV’s are not involved. Examples: a micro project, first aid
activities, tracing activities, peer education or peer coaching, tracing activities, emergency
activities, etc.
o Original planning for the report period: the participants should describe what other
activities were originally planned for the report period (copy this information from the
former review and planning report; the descriptions should include numbers as far as
possible; examples: ‘construction of 20 latrines’, ‘construction of 50 improved stoves’,
‘delivery of tracing letters’ ‘coaching of 2 peer educators in the secondary school’,
etc.).
o Achieved during the report period: the participants should write down what other
activities were actually achieved in the report period. Include as much as possible
quantitative information (number of latrines realized, number of improved stoves
realized, etc.).
o Planning for the next report period: the participants should write down what other
activities they think will and should be done during the next report period. Before they
write down the topics they should have a discussion on this. Tell the participants that
they should be realistic in their planning. Include as much as possible quantitative
information (number of latrines to be realized, number of improved stoves to be
realized, etc.).
o Remarks, findings, explanation of problems, etc.: per ´other activity´ the participants
should describe some important information regarding the quality of the work,
problems encountered and what will be done about the problems. Refer to the specific
monitoring forms or reports for these activities that contain more detailed information
(if there are such filled forms or reports for the activities these should be attached to
this report). If there is no official form or report to be filled for a certain activity you,
the community coach, should write down on a paper each time you are in the
community as well as possible how the activity is progressing, what the constraints
are, the quality of the work done and the achievements.
o Is it in line with the planning in the CDP? The participants should write down whether
the ‘other activities’ are in line with what was planned in the CDP (there should be
different plans in the CDP that contain information on the planning of those ‘other
activities’).
18. Other activities without involvement of the RCSE. In the same way as for ‘Other
activities with involvement of the RCSE’. Examples: activiteis executed by the Zoba
authorities, activities executed by NGO’s, activities executed by the community itself.
IMPORTANT:
If there is not enough space to write down everything write things further on the back of
the report or on a separate paper (and then attach this paper to the report).

They can be printed double sided as A5 pages and then be pastified. . This will give 8 charts that are small and strong enough for the coach to easily take them with him/her into the field and use them intensively.Annex 10 PHAST monitoring form Annex 11 Summary charts On the following pages a number of charts have been presented that summarize the tasks of the community coach.

Facilitate and monitor micro projects. 4. Facilitate the community to select CRCV’s (they will choose a CRCV leader. CBFA. 2. Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA). Inform the community about the program. (c) if the request is accepted a first activity will be a PRA. The results are used to further update and expand the CDP. The emphasis is on vulnerabilities not covered by the CDP yet. and other information. Other tasks of the coach: (a) execute other Red Cross activities. election of a Red Cross committee and a focus group discussion. facilitate a PHAST exercise. 8. Check whether household survey forms have been filled properly. for instance relief aid. Community development plan. Every 3 months facilitate a review and planning meeting. Check whether the plan is consistent with the PRA report.Overview of activities in a community 1. tracing activities etc. 7. 9. Other investigations. Monitor health promotion activities. Assist surveyors to execute the survey in 20 to 30 households. 3. Selection and training of Community Red Cross Volunteers (CRCV´s). Understand the results and have the reports. Use project manuals and monitoring systems if available to ensure proper implementation. Give them the request form. Provide the community the report. Advise how to improve things. your main contact person). 11. 12. Facilitate a VA (several participatory exercises by community to assess what disasters it is vulnerable to and how to minimize these vulnerabilities). Assist the RCC and community leadership to produce a CDP. Receive the request from the community. Micro projects. 5. etc. Control that the request form is properly filled. Visit the community regularly to monitor the implementation of the CDP and meet with CRCV´s and RCC to discuss progress. results of surveys and investigations.. Analyze the results and make a report.). Explain: (a) the program. Vulnerability Assessment. In communities that are not sufficiently aware of the importance of clean and healthy drinking water and sanitation. (b) report to your branch office once every three months. 6. If not let them take the form back and improve it. Household survey. 10. If other investigations are required assist involved experts to execute them. Facilitate the PRA. Fill in the PRA report. Coaching. (b) possibility to request for participation in the program. PHAST. Give the filled request form to the proper staff in the Branch office. Train them in a number of health issues (ARCHI. When an activity is executed this should always be filled in the Community Overview Form (see other side of this chart) .

PRA ration Household survey Other investigations Selection of CRCV’s Training courses Review and Planning meetings Other coaching activities Micro projects Other Red Cross activities .Community Overview Form Name village Program prepa.

Use the conditions and restrictions flipchart and refer to the problems prioritized during problem ranking. time and location for the PRA. Explain that a large enough and representative group of community members should take part in the PRA. the meaning of the community’s name and who were the first inhabitants). Opening by community leaders and prayer. introduce your organization. Give each community member 6 pieces of voting material. Time: 15 minutes. 5. Children groups make village maps. Group the cards per problem. Point each time towards one candidate and ask the people whether they want this person to be in the committee. Each group selects their 5 most important problems writes these on separate cards (1 problem per card). After 20 minutes each group presents its results.  Ensure that there are two facilitators to facilitate the PRA. Explanation of the conditions and restrictions of your organization. The community can elect a new committee or let an existing committee take care of the organization of the activities and the contacts with you. They divide these over the symbols according to their preferences. village leaders. Finalize the PRA report and fill in the Community Overview Form. Village history and mapping. 8. Introduction.g. write down the problems they find important. The votes are counted by community members and written on a flipchart. 6. Discuss mainly the problems your organization will probably be involved in. Time: 20 minutes. Focus group discussion with committee. Ask what types of persons the committee members should be. count the community members. Time: 60 minutes. and others who are interested). 9. Put symbols for the 6 problems with most cards on the ground. Invite candidates per committee function to stand with their back to the community. Time: 60 min. Closing the meeting. explain the PRA program (use the program flipchart). Time: 45 minutes.Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) 1. + 1 or 2 children groups. Male and female groups make a village map or describe the village history (both good and bad things. Male and female groups. Time: 2 minutes. Explain the conditions (e. 3. Explain the purpose of the PRA. and (3) you will continue a discussion with a small group (committee members. Prepare the PRA:  Agree with the community on a date. Election of a committee.  Bring all materials required for the PRA. (2) the meeting is now closed. 4. . Discuss the problem causes. 2. Time: 45 minutes. voluntary labor and local materials should be provided by the community). 7. Explain that: (1) later a household survey will be done and a community development plan made. Problem ranking. village leaders and key resource persons.

Have all required transport and materials ready. Keep a copy of the survey report yourself and provide a copy to the community. Take the filled in household survey forms to the Branch office. preferably together with the involved surveyors. Observe the surveyors. Finalize the survey: 1. 2.Household survey Prepare the household survey: 1. 3. Leave the filled forms with this person. Assist with the analysis of the household survey data and production of the survey report. 4. Discuss their performance with them. Join them to the households. If information is incorrect or insufficient the surveyor should go back to the households to obtain more information. Also assist to enter the household survey results in the computer if possible. Apply your interview skills and take courtesy rules into account. Your tasks in case you act as a surveyor: 1. Picture here of two surveyors . Make sure there are sufficient and properly trained surveyors. Understand the survey results and discuss these with the community. Your tasks if you act as a supervisor: 1. Pay special attention to the proper filling in of the survey forms. Agree on a date with the community leadership and others involved.  Fill all answers properly in the forms! Make additional notes on the back of the forms. Execute the survey in each selected household preferably with the female head of the household:  Ask the questions in the household survey form and do the observations required. Discuss the results with the responsible person at the Branch office. 2. Check the quality of the filled forms. 3. 2. Select each household ad randomly from a community households list or by applying the ‘pencil method’.  Make sure to be accurate and get answers to all questions. 5. 2. Fill in the Community Overview Form.

.Other investigations To be worked out still.

Community development plan
1.

Preparations:
 Agree with the Red Cross Committee on the time, date and place for the meeting.
 Prepare all materials needed and read the CDP chapter in the coach manual.

2.

Introduction:
 Opening, greetings, prayer, and introduction by community leader.
 Each participant (also yourself) introduces him/herself shortly to the group.
 Explain the purpose of the CDP meeting.
 Invite especially the female participants to participate actively.
 Ask the participants to sit close to you. Select one to do the writing.

3.

Filling in the Community Development Plan Forms:

Problem. The participants make a list of problems and fill in one problem per
CDP form. The problem of ´poor health behaviours´ will be worked on by the
CRCV´s, and therefore does not need attention now. Per form the participants
should continue as follows:

Solution. The participants should write the solution for the problem in the form.
Stimulate them to discuss questions like ‘What do you think is the cause of this
problem, how come that the problem is there? and How can the problem best be
solved? (let them assess different solutions and choose the most appropriate one).

Activity. Ask the participants to fill in all the activities required to realize the
solution. Per activity fill in the form further as follows:

Who will be responsible for the activity? Who checks that the activity is
carried out properly, takes action when things are not going well, stimulates other
people to carry out the activity, controls that all things required for the activity
are in place in time, etc.

When will the activity be executed? Write down, if possible, start and end date.

Labour required for the activity like: unskilled labour, skilled community
labour, skilled labour from outside the community. For each type of labour the
participants should indicate who will provide it and how much of it is required.

Materials required for the activity. The participants should write down all the
materials they think are required to for the activity and indicate for each material
who will provide it (the community, district authorities, external donor, …).

Tools/equipment required for the activity. To be filled similar as for ‘materials
required for the activity’. Examples: shovels, stationary, etc.

Transport means required for the activity. To be filled in a similar way as for
‘materials required for the activity’. Indicate the means of transport (car, truck,
motorbike, etc) and the number of days transport will be needed.

Money required for the activity. The participants estimate the cost of all things
required for the activity and indicate what part of the costs is already covered.

4.

Formulation of Community Development Plan Regulations:
The participants should formulate regulations with regard to the plan.

5.

Finalizing the Community Development Plan Meeting:
 Explain that the plans should still be accepted by the community.
 Make a copy of each filled Form for your administration.
 Say a word of thanks and close the meeting.

6.

Your tasks during and after the Community meeting:
 Help the RCC to prepare a community meeting for approvement of the plans.
During the meeting ask questions that stimulate further discussions.
 Make sure that each plan is copied several times for: the RCC, yourself, involved
authorities and other parties.
 Assist the RCC to write introductory letters. Control that the RCC delivers plans
+ introductory letters to the different parties that shoul get them.
 Fill in the Community Overview Form.
 Assist the community with searching for parties that can provide inputs.
 Coach the CRCV’s and RCC and assist with micro projects.
 Facilitate RCC and CRCV’s to fill new CDP forms for new problems.

The Community Devcelopment Plan Form:
Problem:
Acti
vity

Who will
be responsible?

Solution:
When
will the
activity
be executed?

Labour
required

Materials
required

Tools
/equipment
required

Transpor
t means
required

Money
required

Remarks
and further
details

Selection of Community Red Cross Volunteers (CRCV´s)
1.

Be present in the community meeting on
the agreed date, time and location.
Count the number of participants. If the
number is low or the group not
representative stop and make a new
appointment.

2.

Ask how many families there are in the
village.

3.

Write the number of required CRCV´s
on a flipchart. Explain how you
calculated this number.

4.

Explain that you will later ask people to
be a candidate. Explain the role and
tasks of a CRCV. Then ask what kind of
a person the participants feel a CRCV
should be. Write the answers on a
flipchart. Ask questions like: Should the
volunteer be a person who works far
away from the village? Etc.

5.

Ask villagers (especially women) to step
forward and be a candidate. Tell the
candidates to stand in front with their
back to the community. Point your
finger to the back of one candidate,
mention his/her name and ask ´Those
who feel that this person is a good
CRCV raise their hands´. Count the
number of raised hands. Write name, sex
and number of votes of the candidate on
a flipchart. Do this exercise for each
candidate.

Picture here of community voting for
CRCV’s

6. If the number of candidates is too large
select the CRCV´s as follows: the woman
with most raised hands of all female
candidates will be a CRCV, the man with
most raised hands from the male
candidates will be a CRCV, then from the
remaining candidates start with the next
woman with most votes etc. until you
have reached the number of CRCV´s
required. Ask whether the community
agrees with the candidates.
7. If the number of candidates is too small
you consider each candidate with more
than half of the people who raised their
hands to be elected a CRCV. Explain that
for the remaining CRCV´s you and the
Red Cross Committee will try to recruit
other community members in the near
future.
8. Ask the elected CRCV´s to come forward
so that the community can see them. Ask
the CRCV´s to stay for a further
discussion and possibly election of the
CRCV leader.
9. Say a word of thanks.
10. Discuss with the CRCV’s the tasks of a
CRCV. Make an appointment for the
ARCHI training course. Explain they
should select a CRCV leader. Explain the
role of the CRCV leader. Ask the CRCV
´s when they want to elect their CRCV
leader. Ask them to start thinking who
they want to elect as their CRCV leader.
11. Fill in the Community Overview Form.

Open the training course and explain about the work of the National Society and the Red Cross and Red Crescent Principles. 3. . 11. Picture here of CRCV’s practising a role play. During the first day of the training course 2. Prepare the training course:  Agree on a date and location for the training course. If you feel you do not have sufficient experience yet to train people in health subjects ask your Branch to provide a trainer who can take over the training tasks from you. Discuss each ARCHI Tool shortly. Discuss each of these Tools in detail. 8. Invite the CRCV’s to play during several role plays that a CRCV visits a household to explain about one of the three topics.  Read through the ARCHI tools. Discuss the tasks of a CRCV and ask the CRCV’s to sign the CRCV commitment form. The others play the household members. Ask the CRCV’s to select 3 ARCHI Tools. Facilitate the CRCV’s to discuss how they want to promote the health messages of the three ARCHI Tools to the households under their guidance in the coming three months and assist them to fill in the review and planning form. Ask the participants to fill in the training course evaluation form. Give the CRCV’s the materials they should get (ARCHI Toolkit etc. Ask the CRCV’s to visit each during 2 to 4 hours two households to observe and discuss things regarding the three subjects. the review and planning form and. 7. the CRCV monthly monitoring form.Training of Community Red Cross Volunteers (CRCV´s) ARCHI Toolkit Introduction training course 1.). 12. relevant chapters in the coach manual.  Put all required materials ready. Community Based First Aid training During each review and planning meeting train the CRCV’s in one CBFA subject For details on how to do this see the summary chart about the review and planning meeting. Write the conclusions on a flipchart. Close the training course. 4. 9. 10. 5. Produce the training course evaluation report and fill in the Community Overview Form. During the second day of the training course 6. When they come back they report about their findings.

Which part of the workshop did you find not very useful for your work in the communities? (choose as many options as you want) ///same remark for the facilitator as with question 2///  Part I     Part II Part III Part IV Part V 4. Do you have recommendations for improvements in this training course/workshop? Please write them down here 7. What other subjects do you feel could be included in the training course/ workshop? . Do you feel confident now to apply the knowledge/skills you have learned during this training course/workshop   Yes No (please explain why) 5. Which part of the training course/workshop did you find most useful? (choose as many options as you like) //remark for the facilitator: fill in what things were done in each part of the training course/workshop///  Part I      Part II Part III Part IV Part V Part VI 3. tools. How do you evaluate this training course/workshop?      Very useful and interesting Useful Not as useful as I hoped it would be It was a poor workshop Other (please fill in): 2.Evaluation questions for training course/workshop participants 1. equipment (please specify) Other (please specify) 6. What things do you feel are needed further in order to be effective in your work in the community health development program? (choose as many options as you want)      More training (please specify the subjects) Manuals (please specify which ones) Monitoring forms (please specify which ones) Materials.

all were useful .  Part VI None of the parts were less useful.

.Review and planning meeting Still to be worked on.

PHAST To be worked out still. .

Execute such follow up in a proper way. Train the CRCV’s with regard to the selected health subject. Let the participants prepare presentation of the plan in a community meeting. Copy the report for your administration. etc. 4. based on the available information. 10. Facilitate the review and planning meeting once every 3 months 1. 3. Monitor the micro projects regularly and discuss problems with the RCC. Be present at the agreed location and time. read relevant documents. Other coaching activities  Whenever necessary visit CRCV leader or CRCV´s to discuss things.Coaching Coach the RCC   Meet with the RCC once every two months and when needed to discuss problems. Be present in the meeting at the agreed location and time. If necessary facilitate the participants to investigate health problems further. advise how to solve problems. 5. 4. 8. Prepare the meeting (remind participants about the meeting if you see them. assist the trainer if that is not you to prepare the training on the selected health subject and put required materials ready). 2. put required materials ready). progress with the CDP etc. Fill in the Community Overview Form. Write down in your monthly planning form when the next R&P meeting is and what will be the next teaching subject (if you want to invite someone to do the training. 7. Assist the RCC (and others) to solve problems. 2. 6. 6. Facilitate the CRCV´s and the other participants to produce the health promotion plan by assisting them to fill in a CDP form for it. read relevant documents. Assist the participants to make the review and planning report. which health subjects need attention. . 7. Open the meeting (word of welcome. village leaders. Prepare the meeting (agree on date. reports of surveys/investigations.). 3. CRCV´s and other stakeholders. Fill in your monthly planning form whether follow up is required. CDP). what this meeting is about. See further the chart on micro projects. and assist them. ask this person whether he/she can be available). Facilitate the participants to decide. Fill in the Community Overview Form. 5. Implement such follow up properly. time and location. Facilitate the CRCV´s to study the health information available (PRA report. Facilitate the development of a health promotion plan 1. 9.  Write in the monthly planning form when follow up is required.

Vulnerability Assessment To be worked out still .

Micro projects To be worked out still .

Other tasks of the coach To be worked out still .