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Design Of steam turbine.

Velocity Diagram.
In impulse turbine all calculations are made by velocity diagram.first we will
consider inlet velocity diagram and another outlet velocity Diagram.
Nozzle through which the steam is flowing and when the steam flows through
this nozzle, there will be a drop in the pressure and there will be increase in
velocity. Then, this steam will pass through the blade passages of the
impulse turbine.
Inlet velocity Diagram
let us draw the common velocity component U.In inlet velocity triangle we
have c1, V1 and U .We will have beta1 and alpha. Beta1 is the inlet velocity
angle and alpha is known as the nozzle angle. alpha is smaller compared to
beta1.

Outlet Velocity Diagram.


Now We draw the other velocity triangle that means the exit velocity
triangle. In this triangle V2, is the relative velocity at the exit. angle is beta2,
c2 is absolute velocity at the exit. If I project the vertical lines from the apex
of these two velocity triangles and join them, the quantity which I get is
denoted as comega.

Ca1 & Ca2 axial components of velocity at inlet and outlet.


Combined velocity diagram.

Applying the sine rule to the triangle ABC,


1. Blade Speed.
U DN /60
2. Relative velocity at inlet.
v 12=u2 +c 122 uc 1 cos
3. Relative velocity at outlet.
v 2=kv 1
4. Axial component at inlet.
c 1=c 1 sin
5. Velocity of whirl at inlet.
c 1=c 1 cos

6. Velocity of whirl at outlet.


c 2=v 2 cos 2u
7. Axial component at outlet.
c 2=( u+c 2 ) tan 2
8. Inlet angle of blade.
c 1 sin
sin 1=
v1
9. Outlet angle of blade
c 2
sin 2=
v2
10.

Mass flow rate.


p1000
M=
( v 1+v 2)u

11.

Steam flow per hour.


M3600

12.

Work done on blades.


tangential force on bladesblade velocity

13.

Power developed.
muc

14.

Efficiency of blading.
2
2u (c 1+c 2)/v 1

15.

Specific steam consumption.


3600(c 1+ c 2)

16.

Speed ratio.
U
p=
c1

17.

Workdone by steam.
wt =U (c 1+ c 2)

Calculations.
Sr.No
1.
2.
3.

Parameter
Blade speed
Relative velocity at
inlet
Relative velocity at

Result
172.7 m/sec
250.77 m/sec
225.69 m/sec
3

4.
5.
6.
7.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

outlet
Axial component at
inlet
Velocity of whirl at
inlet
Velocity of whirl at
outlet
Axial component at
outlet
Inlet angle of blade
Outlet angle of blade
Mass flow rate
Steam flow per hour
Tangential force on
blades
Work done on blades
Power developed
Efficiency of blading
Specific steam
consumption
Speed ratio
Workdone by steam

138.86 m/sec
381.51 m/sec
14.40 m/sec
126.20 m/sec
34*
34*
.073 kg/sec
263.25 kg/hr
28.90 N
4999.03 N.M/SEC
5 kw
82.95%
.05265 kg/kw.hr
.42
68371 j/kg of steam