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White Gold

Aspirin (C9H8O4)

COX-2
COX-1

COX-1 & COX-2


Sodium Azide (NaN3)
Glucose (C6H12O6)
Mesitylene (C3H4)
Isopropyl Alcohol
Caproic Acid
Dessert Rat
Hemoglobin

Serotonin
Eucalyptol
Vanillin
Tristearin (C57H110O6)
HCN
Sodium
Bicarbonate
(NaHCO3)
Noble Metals
Aqua Regia

Glycerol (C3H8O3)

Celery

Trinitroglycerin
(C3H5N3O9)

MRI

NMR

Albert Einsteins 1905

used in jewelry, contains two elements: gold and


palladium.
produced from salicylic acid (C7H6O3) and acetic
anhydride (C4H6O3).
composed of 60%C, 4.5%H and 35.5%O by mass.
known as acetylsalicylic acid.
an enzyme which promotes inflammation, pain, and fever.
an enzyme that makes hormones essential for the health
of the stomach and kidneys.
blocked by the use of superaspirin.
is used to inflate automobile air bags.
sometimes called dextrose.
also known as blood sugar.
a hydrocarbon that occurs in small amounts in crude oil.
a substance sold as rubbing alcohol.
which is responsible for the foul odor of dirty socks.
kangaroo rat.
never drinks water, only survives on its metabolic water.
the oxygen carrying protein in red blood cells.
has four iron atoms per molecule and contains 0.34% iron
by mass.
a compound that conducts nerve impulses
MW: 176
chief constituent in eucalyptus oil.
MW: 154
dominant flavoring in vanilla.
a typical animal fat.
forms when synthetic fibers containing Orlon or Acrilan
(CH2CHCN) burns.
used sometimes as an antacid to soothe an upset
stomach.
which are used to make coins and jewelry.
means royal water.
composed of HCl and Nitric Acid.
is a substance used extensively in the manufacture of
cosmetics, foodstuffs, antifreeze and plastics.
a plant that contains carbohydrates in the form of starch
and cellulose.
referred to as nitroglycerin has been used as an explosive.
used by Alfred Nobel to make dynamite in 1866.
also used in medication to relieve angina (chest pains
resulting from partially blocked arteries to the heart), by
dilating the blood vessels.
magnetic resonance imaging
a new technique moved to the forefront of medical
imaging technology.
nuclear magnetic resonance.
foundation of MRI
first important application of Plancks quantum hypothesis.

Paper on Photoelectric
Effect
Neutron Diffraction
Ganymede
Carotenoids

AgBr

Fraunhofer lines

Sulfur
Carbonic Anhydrase

Sodium Vapor Lamps

Sodium and
Potassium
C.L. Grigg

Lithium

Hydroxyapatite,
Ca5(PO4)3OH
Dioxins

PES

Born-Haber Cycle

Titanium(IV) Oxide,
TiO2
Phosgene (COCl2)

important technique for determining the structures of


molecules.
jupiters largest moon were transmitted from Galileo.
present in all organisms capable of photosynthesis.
extends the range of light absorbed by the organisms.
the light sensitive substance in black and white
photographic film.
when the spectrum of light from the sun is examined in
high resolution in an experiment, dark lines are evident.
consists of S8 molecule that forms yellow solid.
zinc containing enzymes.
found in the red blood cells.
facilitates the reaction of CO2 with water to form HCO3.
which are used for commercial and highway lighting, have
a yellow glow due to the emission from excited sodium
atoms.
major components of blood plasma and intracellular fluid.
marketed a lithium containing soft drink with the name
Bib-label lithiated lemon soda or Seven Up.
claimed to give healthful benefits but causes the effect on
the mental disorder of bipolar effective disorder or manic
depressive illness.
but lithium drugs are effective for manic depressive
patients who takes it.
primary mineral in bone and teeth.
organic compounds that contains chlorine which had been
thought to be entirely of man-made origin and are found in
natural process.
photoelectron spectroscopy.
one way to measure ionization energies, based on the
photoelectric effect.
shows the energetic relationship in the formation of ionic
solids from the elements.
which is commercially important white paint pigment.

a substance that is used in poisonous gas warfare in world


war I.
- is so name because it was first prepared by the action of
sunlight on a mixture of carbon monoxide and chlorine
gases.
- a toxic gas that is used in the manufacture of certain
polymers and insecticides.
- Eye drops for dry eyes usually contains a water-soluble polymer called polyvinyl
alcohol which is based on the unstable organic molecule.
Photoreceptor Cells
- known as rods and cones.

Rhodopsin

Organic Dyes

Cisplatin, Pt(NH3)2Cl2
Azo Dyes
Titan
Magnesium

Nickel Carbonyl,
Ni(CO)4
C60
Ethylene Glycol,
HOCH2CH2OH

Liquid Crystals

LCD
Perovskite
Rutile
Clausthalite
Kevlar
Hevea Brasiliensis
Meissner Effect

Diamonds
Polychloroprene

Polyacrylonitrile
Ammonium Nitrate
(NH4NO3)
Lauryl Alcohol

Lysozyme
Sodium Amalgam

Hexabarbital
Catalose
Nitrogen Fixation

Nitrogenase

Iron and

there are 3M cones (sensitive to colors) and 100M rods


(sensitive to dim light thus, used in night vision) in human
retina.
a molecule in the tops of rods and cones.
consists of a protein called opsin, bonded to a reddish
purple pigment called retinal.
substances that are used to provide vibrant colors to
fabrics.
used in CD-R discs for computer data storage.
is used in cancer therapy.
organic dyes used for coloring of fabrics.
derivative of organic substance Azobenzene (C12H10N2).
Saturns largest moon.
can be used as a getter in evacuated enclosure, to react
with the last traces of oxygen.
one of the most toxic susbtances known.
buckminsterfullerene or buckyball.
major substance in antifreeze.
is added to the water in radiators of cars as an antifreeze
to lower the freezing point of the solution.
used for temperature and pressure sensors, watches,
calculators and notebook and computers.
liquid crystal display.
a mineral composed of Ca, O and Ti.
a mineral composed of Ti and O.
a mineral composed of lead selenide (PbSe).
a high performance polymer.
a polymer of isoprene (C5H8).
a property exhibited by superconducting materials in
which they exclude all magnetic fields from their volume.
used to coat prosthetic materials and biosensors.
used in highway pavement seals, expansion joints,
conveyor belts and wire, and cable jackets.
used in house furnishings, craft yarns, clothing, etc.
used in instant ice packs used to treat athletic injuries.
is obtained from coconut oil.
used to make detergents.
is an enzyme that breaks bacterial cell walls.
sodium metal dissolves in liquid mercury to form a
solution.
used in medicine as a sedative and intravenous.
an enzyme in the blood and livers of mammals.
the process of converting N2 into compounds that plant
can use.
an enzyme found in bacteria that lives in the root nodules
of certain plants such as legumes, clover and alfalfa.
seen in the portion of introgenase and is called FeMo-

Molybdenum
Invertase

Denaturation

Liquid Ammonia
Putrescine,
H2N(CH2)4NH2
Cadaverine,
H2N(CH2)5NH2
Phenyl Acetic Acid,
HC8H7O2

cofactor (active site of the enzyme).


catalyzes the conversion of sucrose (a disaccharide) to
invert sugar (a mixture of glucose and fructose).
a process in which the three-dimensional structure of the
protein unravels or at least partly does so.
can be added directly to the soil as fertilizer.

amines with disagreable odor.

Saccharin
Ephedrine, C10H15ON

Trisodium Phosphate,
Na3PO4
7.4
Acidosis
Alkalosis
4.0
Sinkholes
Freon-11 (CFCl3)
Freon-12 (CF2Cl2)
Smog

Yttrium Hydroxide
CHCl3
CHCl2Br
CHClBr2
CHBr3
Halons

one of the substances that accumulates in the blood of


people with phenylketonuria (an inherited disorder that
can cause mental retardation or death).
a sugar substitute.
a central nervous system stimulant.
is used in nasal spray as a decongestant.
its salt (potassium sorbate) is added to cheese to inhibit
the formation of mold.
is available in hardware store as TSP and is used as a
cleaning agent.
pH of human blood.
pH below 7.35
pH above 7.45
pH of acid rain.
known as karst landforms.
used as propellants in spray cans, as refrigerant, and airconditioner gases, and foaming agents for plastics.
produced largely by the action of sunlight on automobile
exhaust gases.
alternative coating to lead in automobiles.

Trihalomethanes (THMs).
by-product of chlorination of water.

are fluorocarbons that contain bromine such as CBrF3.


they are used as foaming agents for fighting fire.
known as nitrogen triiodide, NI3.
CaS.
UO2.

Isomers of C3H6.

adenosine triphosphate.
source of energy.
most common nonrechargeable battery.
zinc metal is immobilized in a gel in contact with
concentrated solution of KOH.
Cathode: mixture of MnO2 (s) and graphite.

conventional fuels in fuel cells.

Sorbic Acid, HC6H7O2

Thermite
Oldhamite
Uraninite
Cyclopropane
Propylene
ATP
Alkaline Battery

H2
CH4

Hydrazine, N2H4
- self-igniting mixture that has been used as a rocket
Dinitrogen Tetraoxide,
propellant.
N2O4
- Heart pacemakers often powered by lithium-silver chromate button batteries.
Mercuric Oxide Dry-Cell
- Often used where a high energy density is required such
Batteries
as watches and cameras.
Disproportionation
- Is an oxidation-reduction reaction in which the same
Reaction
substance is oxidized and reduced.
Cytochrome, CyFe2+
- a complicated molecule that reacts with the air we breathe
to supply energy required to synthesized ATP.
Proton
- are called the nucleons that reside in nucleus.
Neutron
Carbon-11
- used in medical imaging.
PET
- positron emission tomography.
- used for clinical diagnosis of many diseases.
Tokamak Fusion
- a magnetic bottle for confining and heating nuclei in an
Reactor
effort to cause them to fuse.
Inhaled Radon
- causes lung cancer.
Cl-36
- convenient radiotracer.
Argon
- used as a blanketing atmosphere in electric lightbulbs.
- used as a protective atmosphere to prevent oxidation in
welding and certain high temperature metallurgical
processes.
Neon
- used in electric signs.
Helium
- used as a coolant to conduct experiment at very low
temperature.
Fluorine
- used to prepare fluorocarbons used as a refrigerants,
lubricants and plastics.
- i.e. Teflon.
Chlorine
- used into the manufacture of chlorine-containing organic
compounds such as vinyl chlorides (C2H3Cl), used in
making PVC plastics.
- used as bleaching agent in the paper and textile
industries.
- used in water treatments to oxidize and destroy bacteria.
Bromine
- is needed for the silver bromide used in photographic film.
Iodine
- used in KI for table salt.
Ammonium Perchlorate,
- used as the oxidizer in the solid booster rockets for the
NH4ClO4
space shuttle.
O2
- allotropes of oxygen.
O3
Potassium Superoxide
- used as an oxygen source in masks worn for rescue work.
(KO2)
Frasch process
- recovering sulfur from deposits located under quicksand
or water.
Iron Pyrite, FeS2
- also known as fools gold because its color has fooled
people into thinking it was gold.
Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)
- is used to sterilize dried fruit and wine.
N2O
- laughing gas.

NO
N2O (nitrous oxide)
NO (nitric oxide)
NO2 (nitrogen dioxide)
HNO3
Nitroglycerin
TNT
Nitrocellulose
Nitrite Salts

first substance used as a general anesthetic.


used as the compressed gas propellant in several
aerosols and foams such as whipped cream.
prepared by heating ammonium nitrate.
recently, is has been found to be an important
neurotransmitter in the human body.

oxides of nitrogen

used in production of plastics, dryers and explosives.

explosives made from nitric acid.

PCl3

P4O10
Sodium
Tripolyphosphate,
Na5P3O10
47% phosphate
16% bleaches,
perfumes,abrasives
37% LAS surfactants
Graphite
Diamond
Fullerenes
Carbon Black

used as a food additive in cured meats such as bacon, hot


dogs and ham.
used to prepare a wide variety of products including
soaps, detergents, plastics and insecticides.
used as a drying agent.
phosphates in detergents.

typical detergent composition.

crystalline forms of carbon.

is formed when hydrocarbons such as methane are


heated in a very limited supply of oxygen.
used as a pigment in black inks.
used in making automobile tires.
is formed when wood is heated strongly in the absence of
air.
widely used to adsorb molecules.
an impure form of carbon formed when coal is heated
strongly in the absence of air.
used as reducing agent in metallurgical operations.

oxides of carbon.

known as dry ice.

principal carbonate minerals.

known as Carborundum.
used as an abrasive and cutting tools.
used as an industrial solvent for waxes, greases, cellulose
and other nonpolar substances.

Charcoal

Coke

CO
CO2
Solid CO2
Calcite, CaCO3
Magnesite, MgCO3
Dolomite, MgCa(CO3)2
Siderite, FeCO3
Silicon Carbide, SiC
Carbon Disulfide, CS2

H3BO3
Sodium
trimetaphosphate,
Na3P3O9
Sodium
tetrametaphosphate,
Na4P4O12
Dimethylhydrazine,
(CH2)2NNH2
Methylhydrazine,
CH3NHNH2
SiO2
Fe2O3
Malleable
Ductile
Valence Band
Conduction Band
Doping

used as an eye wash.

used as water-softening agents.

used as rocket fuel.

major impurities found in bauxite.

n-type semiconductor
p-type semiconductor
Steel
Mild Steel

Duraluminum, CuAl2
Ni3Al

Cr3Pt

Co5Sm

which means they can be hammered into thin sheets.


which means they can be drawn into wires.
filled band.
empty band.
the electrical conductivity of a semiconductor or insulator
can be modified by adding small amounts of other
substances.
silicon doped with phosphorus.
silicon doped with a group of 3A element.
3% carbon.
0.2% carbon.
Uused to make cables, nails and chains.
0.2 to 0.6% carbon.
used to make girders and rails.
0.6 to 1.5% carbon.
used in cutlery, tools and springs.
compound of copper and aluminum.
major component of jet aircraft engines because of its
strength and low density.
coated to Razor blades which adds hardness, allowing the
blade to stay sharp longer.
used in the permanent magnets in lightweight headsets
because of its high magnetic strength per unit weight.

Medium Steel
High Carbon Steels

Gray tin (diamond


structure)
White tin (close packed
structure)
Silicon
Selenium
Tellerium
Lichens
Deficiency of Mn metal
Heme (which contains
Fe(ll)
Chlorophyll (which

allotropic forms of tin

has the same crystal structure of diamond.


impurities of crude copper that is subjected
electrofining.
grows on a rock surface.
leads to convulsive disorder.
i.e. epilepsy

porphyrin or porphyrin like compounds

to

contains Mg(ll)
Myoglobin
Siderophore

a protein that stores oxygen in cells.


iron binding compound that forms an extremely stable
water-soluble complex with iron (lll).
Ferrichrome
- a complex formed by siderophore.
Transferrin
- a protein that binds and transports iron across the
intestinal wall to distribute it to other tissues in the body.
- Red color of Ruby is due to the presence of Cr(lll) ions at octahedral sites.
Methane
- major component of natural gas and is used for home
heating, gas stoves and hot water heaters.
Propane
- major component of bottled gas used for home heating
and cooking.
Butane
- used in disposable lighters and in fuel canisters for gas
camping stoves and lanterns.
- Carbons of 5-12 atoms are found in gasoline.
Friedel Crafts Reaction
- alkyl groups can be substituted onto an aromatic ring by
reaction of an alkyl halide with an aromatic compound in
the presence of AlCl3 as a catalyst.
Condensation Reaction
- a reaction in which water is split out from two substances.
Pentyl Acetate
- responsible for the odor of banana.
Proteins
Polysaccharides
- three categories of biopolymers.
(carbohydrates)
Nucleic Acid
Zwitterion
- doubly ionized form usually predominant at near neutral
values of pH.
- transfer of a proton from the carboxylic acid group to the
basic amine group.
Glucose
- six carbon aldehyde sugar.
Fructose
- six carbon ketone sugar.
DNA
- found in the nucleus of the cell.
RNA
- found outside the nucleus in the cytoplasm.
Phosphoric acid, H3PO4
Five-carbon sugar
- monomers of nucleic acid, called nucleotides.
Nitrogen-containing
organic base
Gold leaf
- formed when gold is hammered into extremely thin sheets.
Pure Gold
- 24 carat.
1 carat
- 200 mg.
240,000 mi
- distance from earth to moon.
Selenium
- an element required nutritionally in trace quantities, forms
compounds analogous to sulfur.
YBa2Cu3O7
- filters formed from a ceramic oxides.
Tl2Ba2CaCu2O8
Red (salts of strontium)
Blue (salts of copper)
- colors of fireworks.
Green (salts of barium)
Troposphere
- the temperature decreases with increasing altitude.
Stratosphere
- the temperature increases with increasing altitude.

Atmosphere

the pressure decreases in a regular way with increasing


elevation/altitude.

73% H
26% He
- composition of Sun.
1% other elements by
mass
Group 8A
- are components of earths atmosphere except Radon.
- O2 is prepared by thermal decomposition of potassium chlorate (KclO3) with
manganeses dioxide (MnO2).
Ca3(PO4)2
- phosphate rock.
V Co Mo Zn
Cr Ni Cd
- ten out of 29 transition metals are essential for human life.
Mn Cu Fe
H
O
- elements that forms strong bond with carbon.
N
Halogens