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Organisations & Behaviour Unit 3

Table of Contents
Topic

Page

Introduction
Task 1 - Explore organizational structure and culture

Different organizational structures and culture of Nandos and Dominos

Relationship between an organizations structure and culture and the effects on


business performance for Nandos and Dominos

Factors which could influence individual behaviour at work (Nandos)

Task 2 - Examine different approaches to management and leadership and


theories of organisation
Effectiveness of different leadership styles

How different organizational theories underpin the practice of management

Effectiveness of these policies

Task 3 - Examine the relationship between motivational theories


Different leadership styles and the effectiveness of these leadership approaches in
context of Nandos and Dominos

Impact of these leadership styles in periods of change

Different motivational theories and their application within workplace

Task 4 - Demonstrate an understanding of working with others, teamwork,


groups and group dynamics
Relationship between motivation theory and the practice of management

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Nature of groups and group behavior within Nandos

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Factors that lead to effective teamwork and the influences that threaten success
Impact of technology on team functioning within a work team and organization
Conclusions and recommendations

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References

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Introduction
Organization is a specific shape of social infrastructure. Therefore, we can realize the
presence of organization in every aspects of our day to day life. We cannot imagine anything
to accomplish without organization now a day (Robbins and Judge, 2013).Today, the
development that we see has been possible by the help of organization. Typically, modern

society is fully dependent on organization to maintain the flow of development and for its
survival. Basically, an expert and experienced manager must have enough knowledge
regarding social organization and about its influence. Nandos and Dominos are very famous
worldwide. They deliberately follow their distinct organizational structure. Leadership and
Motivation theories are also very essential for the survival of a business. Without proficient
leadership practice, an organization cannot reach to its target or goal (Walker, 1986). Overall,
clear understanding of organizational behavior is one of the key point for a manager to drive
his/ her business to the goal.

Different organizational structures and culture of Nandos and


Dominos
There are several departments of an organization. Positioning chart of the responsible
individuals of those departments is called organizational structure of that organization
(Robbins and Judge, 2013. It is also called outline of functional activities of an organization.
In the organizational structure, authority and responsibility, duty, position, power, and
working procedure etc. are clearly indicated. As a result, anyone can get an idea about the
size and nature, nature of work, authority and responsibility, position of individuals of an
organization (Harrington, 1991). Different organizational structures and cultures of Nandos
and Dominos are shown by below chart.

Organizational
structure

Informal organizational
structure

Formal organizational
structure

Line
organization

Line and
staf

Functional

Committee

Matrix

Formal organizational structure:


Formal organization has some fixed rules and regulations of the structure. It is typically a set
of written rules and everybody of the organization is bound to follow those rules strictly
(Robbins, Campbell and Judge, 2010). There is little scope to alter the rules or sometimes it is

really impossible. There are various advantages of formal organization. People usually cannot
break the rules in a formal organization. As result, there is a small chance of creating a mess.
Besides, where discipline is very important, there is no alternative of formal organization, for
example; army, navy etc. The main disadvantage of formal organization is, people always feel
pressure in this organization. They cannot work spontaneously. They consider work as a
burden and they are obliged to do that. As a consequence, there is no spontaneous
participation is not seen in a formal organization. There are a very few application of this
structure in Nandos but it is quite common in Dominos.
Informal organizational structure:
Informal organization is a specific type of organization where two or more people can
communicate more friendly on mutual effort without any deliberate structures of authority.
Understanding among higher authority and subordinates, kinship, friendship, good relation,
regional factors etc. are the base of informal organization (Lichtenstein and Brain, 2006). In a
real life scenario, there is no existence of the informal organization. This type of
organizational structure are quite noticeable in Nandos. The main advantages of the informal
organization is; people feel free for working and thus they work spontaneously (Harrington,
1991). They do not feel the task as a burden. On the opposite, maintaining discipline is
sometimes very difficult in informal organization. There is a high chance for creating a mess
in it.
Organizational Culture:
Organizational culture is the set of behavior of people within the organization. It means the
people attach to their actions. Organizational culture of Nandos and Dominos.include its
values, norms, visions, working language, rules, regulations, systems, symbols, thoughts,
beliefs and habits of the people who are part of an organization (Lichtenstein and Brain,
2006). Organizational culture is also an approach of collective and collaborative behaviors
with each other in the organization.
Robert E. Quinn and Kim S. Cameron at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor said; there
are four types of organizational culture: those are:
Clan: Clan is an oriented cultures with a strong focus on mentoring, nurturing, and more
specifically doing things together. It is almost family like.

Adhocracy: Adhocracy culture is dynamic and entrepreneurial in nature. It gives more


importance to risk-taking, innovation, creativity and doing things first.
Hierarchy: Hierarchy oriented cultures are more likely structured and controlled. This
culture focusses on efficiency, stability and specially doing things right.
Market: This type of cultures is results oriented. Market culture focusses on competition,
achievement, and getting the job done.

Relationship between an organizations structure and culture and the


effects on business performance for Nandos and Dominos
To achieve organizational objective, a formal organization is compulsory. A formal
organization like in Dominos distributes task into different groups so deliberately and
ensures that two people are not working in a same task unnecessarily. As a result, people in
Dominos can perform their assign task more smoothly and effectively. On the other hand,
sometimes informal organization is also necessary. As because people feel free and friendly
working in an informal organizational structure. In some way organizational culture defines
the structure of an organization but the structure of the organization also partially defines the
culture of an organization (Fincham, Rhodes and Fincham, 1999). Divisional Organizational
structure always has a greater flexibility. It is because of having a low level of management.
This makes it competitive. As a result, it becomes very easy to adjust to customers wants and
needs so quickly and giving the best performance. Matrix organizational structure is a bit
different from the traditional thinking about the loss. Matrix organizational defines the idea of
a hierarchy or individuals use of organizational power for making the decision (Robbins,
Campbell and Judge, 2010).

Factors which could influence individual behaviour at work (Nandos)


Typically visible activities of an individual is called his/her behavior (Allport, 1955). There
must be some reason behind the behavior of an individual in Nandos. However, the factors

which influence individual behavior at work in Nandos can be categorized into three groups.
Those are:
A. Individual variables: Factors of individual variables are:
1. Perception
2. Attitude
3. Aptitude
4. Intelligence
5. Personality
6. Age
7. Sex etc.
B. Situational variables: Sometimes in some cases, people are influenced by the situational
variables. Factors of Situational variables are
1. Working environment
2. Supervision
3. Plant layout
4. Types and models of job.
C. Organizational and social variables: Some organizational and social traditions, customs
etc. are mainly responsible for changing individual behavior. Those are:
1. Rules of the organization.
2. Training facilities
3. Types of leadership.
4. Types of motivation etc.
Behavior is a complex thing. To handle all employers in the organization better understanding
about individual behavior is so crucial. It makes thing easy to operate and control them
efficiently. This is because, giving same motivation to the all individual does not give

expected result (Verbeke, Volgering and Hessels, 1998). It is possible to make everybody
satisfy in a same manner.

Effectiveness of different leadership styles


Leadership is one of the most important functions of management (Giuliani and Kurson,
2002). People live together as a social being. They solve various problems together. Nobody
is equal to a team. Their knowledge, experience, attitude, expatriate, strategy is not equal. To
achieve the desired goal in a perfect time, appropriate leading of a leader is compulsory
(Giuliani and Kurson, 2002). Leadership transforms potentials into reality. Leadership is
actually application of power with a great efficiency. A leader with his leading qualities
derives all efforts of the individuals in an organization towards the goal of the organization.
To bring effectiveness in the leadership, a leader must have some qualities, such as; technical,
human conceptual and diagnostic skills. There are basically two types of leadership of
Nandos and Dominos - inter-personal relationship oriented leadership and test oriented
leadership. There are many other leadership styles into this two style (Hiebert and Klatt,
2001). Those are; personal, impersonal, democratic, autocratic and free rein leadership. Thus,
analyzing the situation, a compatible leadership style should be selected for the organization

How different organizational theories underpins the practice of


management.
From the ancient time to this modern era, to operate an organization there obviously some
management techniques have been applied. By the passes of time, the area of it has become
very wide. There are many organizational theories have emerged, such as; classical, neoclassical, administrative and scientific etc. Various scholars contributed a lot for the
development of this field. The nature and management function is not completely same to
every organization (Winkler, 2010). Therefore, there might be an application of different
organizational theory should be applied in different organization considering all aspects. It
helps to ensure a smooth management practice of the organization. Organizational theories
help to operate and control organizational activities in a right and appropriate manner
(Giuliani and Kurson, 2002).

Effectiveness of these policies


Management is actually getting things done through others. Management approaches are
influenced by various other disciplines, such as; economics, sociology, political science,
anthropology even sometimes by literature. Management policies is obvious for smooth
operation for every organization (Lichtenstein and Brain, 2006). In Nandos and Dominos,
management policies have a great effectiveness. These policies ensures high performance and
growth as well as profitability. Therefore, Nandos and Dominos always show a great interest
for implementing all necessary management practices.

Different leadership styles and the effectiveness of these leadership


approaches in context of Nandos and Dominos
Various types of leaders and the potential impacts of leadership style on motivation in
Nandos and Dominos which are discussed as follows.
i. Autocratic: In this leadership style, leader is the all in all. It is something like Do as I
say. There is no alternative of leader decision. There is a strong rule and regulation set by
the leader Workers have very little scope for their own choice. This type of leadership style
give too mental pressure to the workers. Workers do not usually motivated working in to this
leadership (McGregor, Bennis, Schein and McGregor, 1966).
ii. Bureaucratic: This type of leaders relies on policy set by the higher authority. There
might have a systematic structure and strategy of the bureaucratic leadership. Bureaucratic
leaders are more comfortable as because the lead the follows in accordance with the policy of
the organization.
iii. Democratic: Democratic leadership style encourages all individuals within the
organization to participate in the decision making activities. Everybody is given priority to
this leadership. Here, leader is not only a boss rather he is a mentor. In this leadership,
decision is made on mutual understanding. It creates a friendly environment (O'Leary and
DuBrin, 2000).
iv. Charismatic: Charismatic leadership is the most valued leadership. It gives high priority
on creativity and motivation of the workers.

v. Situational: Situational leadership style ensues best leader as per situation demands. When
the problem arises, there is a fruitful decision will be taken by the leader. It is the main theme
of situational leadership.
vi. Transactional: It is a leadership style where give and take policy reflects. If you follow
the leader, you must get something in return. Promotion, reward, changes in duties etc. are
given priority.
vii. Transformational: Transformational leadership represents knowledge, expertise, and
creativity of the leaders. They want to bring a significant change to the organization.
Transformational leaders are more committed to contribute to the organization using their
knowledge and expertise in accordance to the vision of the organization.

Impact of these leadership styles in periods of change


Leadership has a direct influence on the organization and its success (Steers, Porter and
Bigley, 1996). Leaders drive the people within the organization to the objective. Leader
confirms the full utilization of the resources and capacity of the workers. Leaders always
focus on the mission and vision of the organization and work to cope with that. Nandos is so
strict while in change and same policy is also taken by Dominos. They follow their
traditional leadership practice while in change.

Different motivational theories and their application within workplace


Various scholars have developed various motivation theories.
1. Need hierarchy theory- Abraham Maslow:
Abraham Maslow, a US psychologist, wrote an article about a theory of human motivation
on psychological review in 1943. He separated human needs in five categories- physiological
need, safety need, social need, self-esteem need and self-actualization need. Maslow showed
that people first desire food, clothing, residence etc. and then safety. Next people seek social
support. After full filling these needs people want to get luxury and self-expression and try to
be famous (O'Leary and DuBrin, 2000).
2. Two factors or motivation hygiene theory- Herzberg:
Herzberg divided peoples wants into two category where at first people seek motivational
elements and second, people seek hygiene for working.

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3. Valence expectancy theory- Victor Vroom:


Vroom, by valance expectancy theory, showed that, if expectation of the workers is full filled,
they feel more satisfied in the workplace.
4. Achievement motivation theory- Mc. Clelland:
Mc. Clelland believes that workers success highly depends on his past working history and
success. He also believes that, if a worker is trained well as per necessity, he perform much
well than before.
5. X and Y theory- Doglas Mc. Gregor:
Mc. Gregor divided workers positive and negative side by X and Y theory. By X theory, he
showed that people are usually unwilling to perform the task. They are not sincere to the
work. If they get a chance, they must avoid responsibility. On the other hand, by Y theory, h
showed that, workers are always devoted to work. They are always loyal to their job
(McGregor, Bennis, Schein and McGregor, 1966).

Relationship between motivation theory and the practice of


management
Motivation has a great importance on human resources management. For this reason, by
motivation, it is easy to use full capacity of workers within the organization to achieve the
desired goal of the organization. Who can perform this task very well is truly a very good and
successful manager (Chung, 1977). Nandos always try to motivate the people within it to get
more output. On the other hand, Dominos always try to make a connection with motivational
theory and management practice of the organization. It is one the key point for its success in
the market (O'Leary and DuBrin, 2000).

Nature of groups and group behavior within Nandos


A group is a collection of many people. People are more likely working in a group in Nandos
because of the nature of human behavior. To achieve organizational objective, group can
contribute a lot. People in a group feel more confidence among them and can perform better
to the work in Nandos. They think that there is somebody beside them for assistance and
giving support. As a result, they do not feel any pressure and fear to the work. Even
sometimes, workers can complete a tough job working in a group (Isaac, Zerbe and Pitt,

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2001). People usually conduct and maintain a friendly behavior in the group while working in
Nandos. It is not very uncommon that, there is a chaos to the group. However, leaders are
mainly responsible to resolve the chaos and create a friendly environment to the group
activities.

Factors that lead to effective teamwork and the influences that


threaten success
Teamwork is very crucial to achieve an organizational goal (Steers, Porter and Bigley, 1996).
Employers are divided into several group in Nandos and Dominos. Each group is called a
team and each team is assigned a specific task. There are some factors which can hamper or
inhibit the development of effective teamwork in an organization. Those factors are: absence
of trust and fear of conflict. If there is absence of trust among the team member, there it is
impossible to achieve the goal. Another factor is conflict. It is conflict that can split the team
and create a mess (McGregor, Bennis, Schein and McGregor, 1966).

Impact of technology on team functioning within a work team and


organization
Technology is dynamic. It makes the work easier. Team members have to use various
technologies to accomplish their given task in both Nandos and Dominos. It has a great
impact on team functioning. Technology helps the employees to work faster than before in
the team (Hiebert and Klatt, 2001). They can contribute more effectively in the teamwork
with the help of technology. It also sometimes can change the nature of the work (Isaac,
Zerbe and Pitt, 2001). For example; in early age banking activities, when teller machine is not
invented, bankers had to use a long time to accomplish such particular task. Therefore, after
the invention of the teller machine, the task has become so easy. Thus, technology impacts on
team functioning within Nandos and Dominos.

Conclusions and recommendations


Organization is a function of regularity by which a task can be accomplished which is
planned earlier (Robbins and Judge, 2013). Basically, the whole world is a very good
example of a big organization. In this modern era, we all are in the shade of organization. We
all are dependent on organization by any means. Therefore, organizational behavior is totally
a social system. Organizational structure, culture, leadership practice, motivation system etc.

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are some part of that system (Harrington, 1991). Organizational behavior is nothing just
understanding the people within an organizational shade. What Nandos and Dominos do is
just they implement a good management practice which has make these organization more
successful.

References

Robbins, S. and Judge, T. (2013). Organizational behavior. 1st ed. Boston: Pearson.
Walker, W. (1986). Changing organizational culture. 1st ed. Knoxville: University of

Tennessee Press
Harrington, J. (1991). Organizational structure and information technology. 1st ed.

New York: Prentice Hall.


Robbins, S., Campbell, T. and Judge, T. (2010). Organizational behaviour. 1st ed.

Harlow [u.a.]: Financial Times/Prentice Hall.


Lichtenstein, S. and Brain, M. (2006). Organisational strategy, structure and culture:

influences on organisational knowledge sharing.


Giuliani, R. and Kurson, K. (2002). Leadership. 1st ed. New York: Hyperion
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McGraw-Hill.
Winkler, I. (2010). Contemporary leadership theories. 1st ed. Heidelberg: Physica-

Verlag.
McGregor, D., Bennis, W., Schein, E. and McGregor, C. (1966). Leadership and

motivation. 1st ed. Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press.


Steers, R., Porter, L. and Bigley, G. (1996). Motivation and leadership at work. 1st ed.

New York: McGraw-Hill.


O'Leary, E. and DuBrin, A. (2000). Leadership. 1st ed. Indianapolis, IN: Macmillan

USA.
Chung, K. (1977). Motivational theories and practices. 1st ed. Columbus, Ohio: Grid.
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application of expectancy theory. Journal of Managerial Issues, 13(2), pp.212--226.


Sanzotta, D. (1977). Motivational theories & applications for managers. 1st ed. New

York: AMACOM.
Allport, F. (1955). Theories of perception and the concept of structure. 1st ed. New

York: Wiley.
Fincham, R., Rhodes, P. and Fincham, (1999). Principles of organizational behaviour.
Oxford University Press New York, NY.

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Verbeke, W., Volgering, M. and Hessels, M. (1998). Exploring the conceptual


expansion within the field of organizational behaviour: Organizational climate and
organizational culture. Journal of Management Studies, 35(3), pp.303--329.