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3: SCOPE OF WORK You are a Project Manager on site where work

for 3K.m. long Tunnel has been undertaken. The site is remote and takes
about 2 days travel to nearest town. Supervisors, Technicians & Skilled
Workers are engaged in dangerous / hazardous work. Absenteeism due
to sickness, quarrels, drinking is adding to less output of work and
chances of accidents on site are increasing. Management has urged to do
something so that time targets can be achieved. Discuss how will you
tackle the problem and increase the output of the work.

Introduction of Main Problem


Absenteeism Due To Sickness

Absenteeism Due To Quarrels & Drinking
Accidents at site
Technical problems

Reasons of Various Problems:

Lack of Manpower Management (or) Planning

Un-Hygienic surroundings & Temporary Accommodation
Lack of Medication
Consumption of Alcohol
Availability of Alcohol
Storage of materials
Roof Spalling
Water seepage

Needs and Their Fulfillment on Site:Lack of Manpower Management (or) Planning: Prepare a proper schedule of the Project and Assign Resources to each
Task i.e. each Activity, Assigning Resources means Identify manpower
required for each Task and what is the availability of manpower and how
much work has been done till date and how much work is to be done.
Identify Type of manpower required i.e. Skilled (or) unskilled .If
manpower is in adequate try to get more manpower or Try to use the
available manpower Fully so that maximum amount of work to complete
and try to complete the Urgent woks such that it does not affect our
project duration, reschedule the project and updated schedule to head

office and inform them weekly work progress so that they can help you
to overcome the manpower problem (or) try to motivate the available
manpower by giving extra benefits if they complete the project in time.
(or) if manpower is very less than required then immediately inform
head office so that they can send some more manpower so that the
project can run smoothly.
Suggestion & Recommendation to Management on Manpower
Management (or) Planning:
Manpower planning involved some of steps if the management and
project manager follow these steps there will be no problem due to the
manpower in the project, because the Tunnel project is a large project
more number of manpower is involved in the project and they are at
different levels and management has monitor all are working properly
are not, if not they have to have do some other arrangement are try to
motivate the manpower so that the project progress smoothly.
Understand the project in all respects and get details of all projects
i.e. site condition, contract conditions, technical specifications,
construction techniques, and time frame.
Working out the labour component in various parameters of the
project by using constants to workout labour requirement.
Classifying and categorizing labour requirement and various jobs
by level of skill, responsibility, nature of work etc.
Determine the duration of each job or task at every stage of
Estimate the number of manpower required in view of the
anticipated of absenteeism and labour turnover and the stability

Manpower management has some principles to follow that should be

known by the project manager and also the management of the company.
The principles are as follows:
Care and skill should be exercised in the selection of employees.
Introduction to the job should be friendly skillful and adequate. Each
employee should be made to feel that his efforts are really appreciated.
Consideration should be given to the effect that each rule and
instruction may have on the feelings of employees.
Employees should have apart in planning those things that affect
their working conditions.
Management should be absolutely fair in every policy and every
Each employee should have a feeling of pride in the
worthwhileness of his work and his company.
Based on the construction programme and various other norms, the
administrative set up is worked out for completion of project. It is
proposed to have two Chief Engineers (Level-1), one for head works and
other for canal & canal structures headed by the Project Manager. Under
the Chief Engineer (Head work) four circle offices will be proposed and
under the Chief Engineer (Canal & Canal Structures) three Circle offices
will be proposed. There will also be one Director (Administration), one
Director (Finance), one Director (Quality Control) and one Director
(Technical) under the Project Manager. There will also be attached
Superintending Engineer (Mechanical) under the each Chief Engineer.
All these offices will be suitably located for effective monitoring and

control over the execution of project. The administrative set up is shown

Un-Hygienic Accommodation surroundings & Temporary
Accommodation:Before Starting of the project Management has to well plan because this
project is long duration so manpower involved will be more it is the one
of the preliminary need for the employees & workers.
Suggestion Methods for Hygiene Factors: Management has to well plan for the temporary shelters in such a way
that number of workers will be involved in the project and how many
shelters are required and for different category of employees will be
working at site and different types of shelters should be constructed with
different facility what all materials required for construction any how
much time required to construct it so that all those thing should be
completed before starting of project, Management should built
temporary shelters for the workers who will be working at site because
the site is at remote area workers cannot be able to say at their home and
come for work it is the preliminary requirement for the workers so
management has to take extra precautions, A site office also be built with
all necessary requirements, drinking water should be good because most
of diseases are spread by water so it is important step to taken care by

Lack of Medication: Management should send a medical team to site and they should stay
there till completion of project. They should be supplied necessary
equipment and medical kits so that they can manage any hazardous

situation i.e. any sudden accidents they can handle the situation, any
epidemic occurred they can overcome that situation. By this work will
be smoothly progressed and number of workers absenteeism will be
reduced. Worker who is sick will be taken care by medical team he will
be recovered quickly and he can start doing the work so that manpower
problem is solved.
Consumption and Availability of Alcohol:This is the major problem with labour because they drink daily after
work so that they get some relief from whole day work and body pains,
but management should try to avoid drinking alcohol or try to get them
in limited dose so that they have it n just go for sleep if they get it in
excess quantities they will be drinking whole night and next day they
will be absenteeism and also after excess drinking they start quarreling
between themselves its a big problem for the project manager. If this
quarreling happens regularly then management has to take some
precaution steps to handle that problem. Such as try to avoid the
availability of alcohol near the site so that the labour cannot consume
much alcohol and this problem is solved and the project may continue
Storage of Materials: This is also a major problem for such a big project and at remote place
materials will be at site well before start of project so store rooms should
be properly built well in advance so that it will not create a problem
while execution of work for that what all employees required and how
many number required should be planned before so that materials are
properly handled by this only the cost of project depends.
Roof Spalling: -

The management should have complete knowledge of what all technical

problem may occurs while execution of project and it has to take proper
precautions and it should be well planned before so that it would not
affect the project duration, what are causes of the problems and how to
overcome the problems. The cause of roof spalling is type of formation
of rock, rock with excess of foliations, joint & poor rock mass leads to
the rock spalling.
Suggestion & Methods to overcome Roof Spalling Problem:Tunnel should be properly scaling to remove loose rock mass & cement
grouting should be done so that the rock will get some extra strength so
that it can hold properly it cannot be fallen down easily tunnel should be
properly provision of steel ribs immediately so that it will be support on
the steel rids and work can be progress smoothly and project manager
should have all this materials well in advance because these materials
are required suddenly.
Water Seepage:The management should have complete knowledge of what all technical
problem may occurs while execution of project and it has to take proper
precautions and it should be well planned before so that it would not
affect the project duration, what are causes of the problems and how to
overcome the problems. The cause of water seepage is mainly due to the
discontinuous rock formation, Ground water table height etc.

Suggestion & Methods to overcome Water Seepage Problem:

While designing the tunnel they should provide proper drainage system
so that if the water is accumulating in the tunnel it will affect the
progress of work, so drainage system should be such that water

accumulated should be quickly drained any from working space so that

it does not affect the work progress or proper grouting should be done so
that the rock will get more strength so that it can stop the water seepage
into the tunnel. This is the easy method to overcome the seepage
problem, the other method to overcome the seepage problem covering
the tunnel section with water proofing membranes it will also not allow
the water to seepage into the tunnel so that work can be progress
Recommendation to Management: TOP MANAGEMENT should be more responsible and it should have to
properly monitor the progress of work and if any urgent needs at site
should be fulfilled as quickly as possible and it should see that the lower
and middle management is working properly are not. If any accidents
are hazardous situation then top management has to urge to do some
help to lower and middle management so that they can overcome the
situation they must send some team so that will help them and work will
be progress smoothly.
Tunnel project is a very large project it will take lot of time to complete
the whole project so management has to be well prepared of all the fore
coming situations i.e. labors problems, absenteeism etc.


1. Determining the objectives.
2. Framing policies & making plans to carry out the objectives &

3. Setting up the organizational framework to conduct the operation

as per plans.
4. Gathering the resources needed to put the plans into effect.
5. Controlling the operations through the organization.
MIDDLE MANAGEMENT is concerned with the task of implementing
the policies & plans chalked out by the top management. Middle
management consists of departmental heads exercise the usual functions
of management in respect of their own departments. They have top plan
the operations, issue instructions to their assistants; collect the resources
required & control the work of the men under them.
1. Understanding the policies framed by top management.
2. Preparing the organizational set-up in their department.
3. Finding out the suitable operative & supervisory personnel &
fixing duties & responsibilities to them.
4. Arranging & issuing instructions to the assistants & operatives.
5. Motivating the personnel for higher productivity.
6. Co-operating with other departments for smooth functioning of
7. Collecting reports, statistical information & other records about the
work turned out in the respective departments & forwarding the
same to the top management.
8. Recommending to the top management new or revised policies for
their departments to obtain better performance.
LOWER LEVEL MANAGEMENT: - It is the lowest level in the
administrative framework & actual operations are performed here.
Foremen supervisors assisted by a no of workers & clerks carryout the
actual operations as per schedule. Their authority & responsibility is

limited & they have to follow the lines drawn by the higher levels of
management. The foremen or supervisors are responsible for carrying
out work orders allotted to their respective departments. They pass on
the instructions of middle management to the workers. The quality of the
workmanship & quality of output will depend upon the hard labor,
discipline & loyalty of the operating personnel.
Motivational Factors: Motivation of Employees in Construction Project: Motivation is the driving force within individuals that drive them
physiologically and psychologically to pursue one or more goals to
fulfill their needs or expectations. Motivators may be intrinsic or
extrinsic. An example of an intrinsic motivator is the self-fulfillment of a
worker as a result of performing a task well.
Motivation of labor in Construction Project: Construction labor can be motivated. This is important because
dwindling productivity is a major problem confronting construction
today. Productivity has decreased every year for the past decade, in part
because of increasing design complexity, more rigorous federal and state
regulations and socio-economic changes affecting the work force. Our
findings indicate that a highly motivated workforce enhances
productivity and project effectiveness.
In construction, the work itself - that is, the building of a structure
for all to behold is a key motivator for all levels of management and the
work force. Therefore, a well-planned project seems to be the first - and
most important - step to achieve good productivity. Unfortunately, on
large industrial projects, craftsmen often receive only minimal amounts
of information about their work. Craftsmen view overcrowded

conditions and crew interference due to extensive rework as

demotivating. Design standardization can help to minimize rework and
improve morale.
Motivational programs: Although some unique motivational programs were found, the vast
majority can be grouped into five primary categories: goal setting,
incentives, positive reinforcement (i.e., recognition for a job well done),
worker participation, and work facilitation. The following presents a
dissertation on each of the five categories discussing first their use in
other industries and then their application to construction.
Absenteeism and Turnover:
The Department of Energy study indicated that the absenteeism
and turnover are a relatively minor concern to workmen. Still, they can
have a major impact on total project productivity. High rates of
absenteeism are a concern, however, to individuals who had to carry
extra workloads to compensate for missing crewmembers.
The low job satisfaction resulted in high absence from work and
high turnover. Thus absenteeism and turnover can be viewed as effects
of motivational Activities or demotivational concerns. The cost of
motivational programs is often justified by the reduced absenteeism and

Bibliography: -

Management in organization by Koontz and Odoneal, McGraw

Hill Publication.