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Introduction

Name: Shrushti Shah


Class: 11th B
Roll no. : 43
Subject: Biology
Topic: How cigarettes affect your health?

Certificate
The work done in this file is
satisfactorily performed by
Ms ____________ studying in
_____________
Class _______ Division _______ Roll No
_____ during the academic
year_______.

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Principals

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Acknowledgem
ent
I owe a great many thanks to great many people who helped and
supported me during this project.
My deepest thanks to lecturer, Mrs. Bulbul, the guide of the project for
guiding and correcting my various documents with attention and care. She
has taken pain to go through the project and make correction as and when
needed.
I express my thanks to principle maam, Mrs. Anjali Bowen for extending
her support.

Why I chose
this topic?
I chose the topic How cigarettes affect your health? because its the most
common and well known thing among people. And through this project I
could help my friend to stop smoking. Through this topic we can spread
awareness about smoking and help people to quit smoking. Even if the
person has started smoking at an early age due to any reason, he /she can
still try to stop smoking.

Index
1) What is a cigarette?
2) Smoking.
3) How smoking affects your health?
4) Physical Addiction.
5) Side effects of smoking.
6) How to quit smoking?
7) Case study.
8) Reference.

What is a
cigarette?
A cigarette is a small roll of finely cut tobacco leaves wrapped in a cylinder
of thin paper for smoking. The cigarette is ignited at one end and allowed
to smoulder; its smoke is inhaled from the other end, which is held in or to
the mouth and in some cases a cigarette holder may be used as well. Most
modern manufactured cigarettes are filtered and include reconstituted
tobacco and other additives.
The term cigarette, commonly used, refers to a tobacco cigarette but can
apply to similar devices containing other herbs, such as cloves or cannabis.
A cigarette is distinguished from a cigar by its smaller size, use of
processed leaf, and paper wrapping, which is normally white, though other
colors are occasionally available. Cigars are typically composed entirely of
whole-leaf tobacco.
Rates of cigarette smoking vary widely, and have changed considerably
over the course of history - since cigarettes were first widely used in the
mid-20th century. While rates of smoking have over time leveled off or

declined in the developed world, they continue to rise in developing


nations.
Cigarettes like other tobacco products do carry serious health effects with
them. Nicotine, the primary psychoactive chemical in tobacco and therefore
cigarettes, is addictive. About half of cigarette smokers die of tobaccorelated disease and lose on average 14 years of life. Cigarette use by
pregnant women has also been shown to cause birth defects, including
mental and physical disabilities.

Smoking
In the early times, people could buy cigarettes and smoke pretty much
anywhere even in hospitals! Ads for cigarettes were all over the place.
Today we're more aware about how bad smoking is for our health. Smoking
is restricted or banned in almost all public places and cigarette companies
are no longer allowed to advertise on TV, radio, and in many magazines.
Almost everyone knows that smoking causes cancer, emphysema, and
heart disease; that it can shorten your life by 10 years or more; and that the
habit can cost a smoker thousands of dollars a year. So how come people
are still lighting up? The answer, in a word, is addiction.
Once You Start, It's Hard to Stop.
Smoking is a hard habit to break because tobacco contains nicotine, which
is highly addictive. Like heroin or other addictive drugs, the body and mind
quickly become so used to the nicotine in cigarettes that a person needs to
have it just to feel normal.
People start smoking for a variety of different reasons. Some think it looks
cool. Others start because their family members or friends smoke.

Statistics show that about 9 out of 10 tobacco users start before they're 18
years old. Most adults who started smoking in their teens never expected to
become addicted. That's why people say it's just so much easier to not start
smoking at all.

How smoking
affects your
health?
There are no physical reasons to start smoking. The body doesn't need
tobacco the way it needs food, water, sleep, and exercise. And many of the
chemicals in cigarettes, like nicotine and cyanide, are actually poisons that
can kill in high enough doses.
The body is smart. It goes on the defense when it's being poisoned. Firsttime smokers often feel pain or burning in the throat and lungs, and some
people feel sick or even throw up the first few times they try tobacco.

The consequences of this poisoning happen gradually. Over the long term,
smoking leads people to develop health problems like heart disease,
stroke, emphysema, and many types of cancer -including lung, throat,
stomach, and bladder cancer. People who smoke also have an increased
risk of infections like bronchitis and pneumonia.
These diseases limit a person's ability to be normally active, and they can
be fatal.

Smokers not only develop wrinkles and yellow teeth, they also lose bone
density, which increases their risk of osteoporosis, a condition that causes
older people to become bent over and their bones to break more easily.
Smokers also tend to be less active than nonsmokers because smoking
affects lung power.
Smoking can also cause fertility problems and can impact sexual health in
both men and women. Girls who are on the pill or other hormone-based
methods of birth control increase their risk of serious health problems, such
as heart attacks, if they smoke.
The consequences of smoking may seem very far off, but long-term health
problems aren't the only hazard of smoking. Nicotine and the other toxins in
cigarettes, cigars, and pipes can affect a person's body quickly, which
means that teen smokers experience many of these problems:

Bad skin. Because smoking restricts blood vessels, it can prevent


oxygen and nutrients from getting to the skin - which is why smokers
often appear pale and unhealthy. Studies have also linked smoking to an
increased risk of getting a type of skin rash called psoriasis.

Bad breath. Cigarettes leave smokers with a condition called


halitosis, or persistent bad breath.

Bad-smelling clothes and hair. The smell of stale smoke tends to


linger - not just on people's clothing, but on their hair, furniture, and cars.
And it's often hard to get the smell of smoke out.

Reduced athletic performance. People who smoke usually can't


compete with nonsmoking peers because the physical effects of smoking
impair sports performance.

Greater risk of injury and slower healing time. Smoking affects the
body's ability to produce collagen, so common sports injuries, such as
damage to tendons and ligaments will heal more slowly in smokers than
nonsmokers.

Increased risk of illness. Studies show that smokers get more


colds, flu, bronchitis, and pneumonia than nonsmokers. And people with

certain health conditions, like asthma, become sicker if they smoke


because teens who smoke as a way to manage weight often light up
instead of eating, their bodies also lack the nutrients they need to grow,
develop, and fight off illness properly.

Immune Cells. Smoking weakens the immune system by depressing


antibodies and cells that are in the body to protect against foreign
invaders. There is an association between smoking and the increased
incidence of certain malignant diseases and respiratory infections,
according to the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI).
There is also a significant decrease in immune cells that normally help
the body. But this process can be reversed if a smoker gives up
cigarettes. Smokers who stop show increased levels of natural killer cell
(NK) activity that targets cancerous cells in the body.

Infections. Many cancer-causing chemicals from cigarette smoke


travel throughout a smoker's bloodstream to reach the organs of the
body and damage the immune response. Carbon monoxide is carried
through the body by smoke, interfering with oxygen levels. Less oxygen
reaches the brain, heart, muscles and other organs. Lung function is
reduced because of the narrowing of the lung airways and excess mucus
in the lungs. Lung irritation and damage result from invading substances,
leading to lung infection. Blood pressure and heart rate are affected
negatively by smoking chemicals carried through the blood. The immune
system does not work as well and smokers become more prone to
infections, such as pneumonia and influenza. It takes smokers longer
than nonsmokers to get over illnesses.

Lung Tissue. Smoking can cause the body's immune system to


attack lung tissue and result in severe respiratory disorders, according to
research at the University of Cincinnati, Ohio. Health scientists examined
mice to study the link between cigarette exposure, the immune system
and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD), a serious lung
disease characterized by emphysema and severe inflammation of the
lung tissue. After lung cells were damaged from cigarette smoke in the
lab research, the cells signaled the immune system when the damaged
cells needed to be destroyed. The research shows that smoking actually
activates certain parts of the immune system, which works against the
lungs and attacks the tissue; it was reported in the March 2009 issue of

the "Journal of Clinical Investigation." The researchers found a strong


correlation between cellular stress signals, activation of the immune
system and development of diseases similar to COPD.
Researchers compared the results with tissue samples from humans who
included nonsmokers, smokers with COPD and smokers who did not
have COPD. They found that patients who had never smoked had no
trace of the lung cells that triggered the immune system to attack lung
tissue. Current and former smokers who developed the disease had
evidence of those lung signals.

Physical
Addiction
Being physically addicted means a person's body actually becomes
dependent on a particular substance (even smoking is physically addictive).
It also means building tolerance to that substance, so that a person needs
a larger dose than ever before to get the same effects.
Someone who is physically addicted and stops using a substance like
drugs, alcohol, or cigarettes may experience withdrawal symptoms.

Common symptoms of withdrawal are diarrhea, shaking, and generally


feeling awful.
Psychological Addiction
Psychological addiction happens when the cravings for a drug are
psychological or emotional. People who are psychologically addicted feel
overcome by the desire to have a drug. They may lie or steal to get it.
A person crosses the line between abuse and addiction when he or she is
no longer trying the drug to have fun or get high, but has come to depend
on it. His or her whole life centers on the need for the drug. An addicted
person - whether it's a physical or psychological addiction or both - no
longer feels like there is a choice in taking a substance.
Signs of Addiction
The most obvious sign of an addiction is the need to have a particular drug
or substance. However, many other signs can suggest a possible addiction,
such as changes in mood or weight loss or gain. (These also are signs of
other conditions too, though, such as depression or eating disorders.)

Signs that you or someone you know may have a cigarette addiction
include:
Psychological signals:

Use of drugs or alcohol as a way to forget problems or to relax.


Withdrawal or keeping secrets from family and friends.
Loss of interest in activities that used to be important.
Problems with schoolwork, such as slipping grades or absences.
Changes in friendships, such as hanging out only with friends who
use drugs.
Spending a lot of time figuring out how to get cigarette.
Stealing or selling belongings to be able to afford cigarette.

Failed attempts to stop taking cigarette or drinking.


Anxiety, anger, or depression.
Mood swings.
Physical signals:

Changes in sleeping habits.


Feeling shaky or sick when trying to stop.
Needing to take more of the substance to get the same effect.
Changes in eating habits, including weight loss or gain.

Side effects of
smoking
Dangers of Smoking with Nicotine:
One of the main dangers of smoking is due to Nicotine. Nicotine is found
naturally in tobacco. It has no odor and no color. It is, however, both

physically and psychologically addictive, and it causes those who use it to


want to smoke one cigarette after another.
Nicotine enters the body as tiny droplets resting on particles of tar in
cigarette smoke. Inhaled into the lungs, the drug passes quickly into the
bloodstream, reaching the brain within about 10 seconds. In another 5 to
10 seconds the nicotine has spread to all parts of the body.
The nicotine raises both the heart rate and blood pressure. The smoker
quickly feels more alert and relaxed. In less than 30 minutes, however,
about half of the nicotine has left the bloodstream, and the smoker starts
feeling less alert, more edgy.
So he or she reaches for another cigarette to get a new hit of nicotine.
Over time, the smoker starts needing more cigarettes throughout the day to
satisfy the craving.
Dangers of Smoking with Tar:
There are other dangers of smoking as well. The tar from tobacco smoke
starts to accumulate on the bronchial tubes leading to the lungs. The hot
smoke burns the tiny hair like projections (called cilia) that trap harmful
particles before they enter the lungs.

Carbon Monoxide:
One more of the dangers of smoking are Carbon monoxide. Smoking also
increases the level of carbon monoxide in the lungs. This poisonous gas is
quickly absorbed into the blood, reducing its capacity to carry oxygen.
As a result, the smoker has to exert more physical effort to attain a given
task than does a nonsmoker. The heart in particular must work harder,
particularly during rigorous exercise. Increased levels of carbon monoxide
in the blood can impair vision, perception of time, and coordination.
Oxides of nitrogen:
Animal experiments showed that nitrogen oxides lungs. It is believed that

nitrogen oxides are some specific chemicals in tobacco that causes lung
disease and efizem.
Hydrogen cyanide:
The lungs have some hairs (cilia) that help to clean lungs by removing the
foreign substances. Hydrogen cyanide prevents the development process
of clearing. The substances of cigarette smoke remains in the lungs.
Ammonia:
Ammonia is a powerful chemical found in household products, it is used to
preserve human bodies in the morgue, which is also harmful to the lungs.

How to quit
smoking?
There are many different methods that have successfully helped people to
quit smoking, including:
Quitting smoking cold turkey.

Systematically decreasing the number of cigarettes you smoke.


Reducing your intake of nicotine gradually over time.
Using nicotine replacement therapy or non-nicotine medications to
reduce withdrawal symptoms.
Utilizing nicotine support groups.
Trying hypnosis, acupuncture, or counseling using cognitive
behavioral techniques.
You may be successful with the first method you try. More likely, youll have
to try a number of different methods or a combination of treatments to find
the ones that work best for you.
Medication therapy
Smoking cessation medications can ease withdrawal symptoms and
reduce cravings, and are most effective when used as part of a
comprehensive stop smoking program monitored by your physician. Talk to
your doctor about your options and whether an anti-smoking medication is
right for you. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved options
are:
Nicotine Replacement Therapy
Nicotine replacement therapy involves "replacing" cigarettes with other
nicotine substitutes, such as nicotine gum or a nicotine patch. It works by
delivering small and steady doses of nicotine into the body to relieve some
of the withdrawal symptoms without the tars and poisonous gases found in
cigarettes. This type of treatment helps smokers focus on breaking their
psychological addiction and makes it easier to concentrate on learning new
behaviors and coping skills.
Non-Nicotine Medication
These medications help you stop smoking by reducing cravings and
withdrawal symptoms without the use of nicotine. Medications such as
Bupropion (Zyban or Wellbutrin) and Varenicline (Chantix) are intended for
short-term use only.

Bupropion (Zyban or Wellbutrin) is a prescription anti-depressant in an


extended-release form that reduces symptoms of nicotine withdrawal. It
does not contain nicotine. This drug acts on chemicals in the brain that are
related to nicotine craving. Bupropion works best if it is started a week or 2
weeks before you quit smoking. The usual dosage is one or two 150 mg
tablets per day.
Varenicline (Chantix) is a newer prescription medicine developed to help
people stop smoking. It works by interfering with nicotine receptors in the
brain. This means it has 2 effects: it lessens the pleasurable effects a
person gets from smoking, and it reduces the symptoms of nicotine
withdrawal. Varenicline should be started a week before your Quit Day.
Non-medication therapies
There are several things you can do to stop smoking that dont involve
nicotine replacement therapy or prescription medications:
Hypnosis
A popular option that has produced good results. Forget anything you may
have seen from stage hypnotists, hypnosis works by getting you into a
deeply relaxed state where you are open to suggestions that strengthen
your resolve to quit smoking and increase your negative feelings toward
cigarettes. Ask your doctor to recommend a qualified smoking cessation
hypnotherapist in your area or refer to the American Society of Clinical
Hypnosis (ASCH) for guidelines on selecting a qualified professional.

Acupuncture
One of the oldest known medical techniques, acupuncture is believed to
work by triggering the release of endorphins (natural pain relievers) that
allow the body to relax. As a smoking cessation aid, acupuncture can be
helpful in managing smoking withdrawal symptoms. Ask your doctor for a
referral or search for a local practitioner at the American Association of
Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine (AAAOM).

Behavioral Therapy
Nicotine addiction is related to the habitual behaviors (the rituals) involved
in smoking. Behavior therapy focuses on learning new coping skills and
breaking those habits. The American Lung Association offers afree online
smoking cessation program that focuses on behavioral change. To find a
local behavioral therapist, check with your doctor or search at
the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies (ABCT).
Motivational Therapies
Self-help books and websites can provide a number of ways to motivate
you to quit smoking. One well known example is calculating the monetary
savings. Some people have been able to find the motivation to quit just by
calculating how much money they will save after they quit. It may be
enough to pay for a summer vacation.
Filters
Filters that reduce tar and nicotine in cigarettes do not work. In fact, studies
have shown that smokers who use filters tend to smoke more.
Smoking deterrents
Other methods have been used to help stop smoking, such as over-thecounter products that change the taste of tobacco, stop-smoking diets that
curb nicotine cravings, and combinations of vitamins. At this time there is
little scientific evidence that any of these work.

Case study
(I) Basic Information
Name: Monang Patel

Age: 17 years

Sex: Male

Address: 601,602 C wing Shiv Darshan Apt. Kandivali (W)


Phone no: 9123456789
Language: Guajarati
Marital Status: Unmarried

Religion: Hindu
Ref by:

(II) Chief Complaints


1) Lack of concentration.
2) Disputes with friends.
3) Severe headaches.
4) Client is a chain smoker.
(III) History of present illness (HPI) [ODP]
The client is facing problems with his studies due to lack of concentration.
But he tries working on it and is gradually improving. The next problem that
the client is facing is his disputes with friends. These conflicts always
bother him due to which he started smoking. The client started smoking
after the 10th std. board exams. He started using cigarette due to peer
pressure and depression. Due to excess of smoking the client suffer from
severe headaches.

(IV) Psychiatric history


There has been no psychiatric history either in the client or any of his family
members.
(V) Medical History

The client by far has never been hospitalized but has suffered from
jaundice in standard VII due to eating of junk food. The client has also
suffered from chicken pox in standard VIII. He usually gets severe
headaches and even feels like puking after smoking when he doesnt have
any food intake.
(VI) Family History
The client lives in a joint family of 6 members. The client is very close to his
mother and shares everything with her. His mother expects him to
understand their perception and follow their opinion rather than doing
things by him wish. His father is very friendly with him but the client doesnt
share his problems as much as he does with his mother. The client finds
his brother as a supporter and helper when needed. He has clear bonding
with his brother. The client is also very close to his grandparents.

Shivram Patel

68
yrs

Bharat Patel
Businessman

Vatsal Patel
Student

67
yrs

46
yrs

20
yrs

(VII) Development and social history

Pushpa Patel

46
yrs

17
yrs

Urmila Patel
Homemaker

Prenatal & Postnatal: The client was a full term normal baby. The
milestones were perfect according to the age.
Social history: The client is enthusiastic and positive about going to new
places and meeting new people. He has an understanding nature, gets
easily attached to new people and values others feelings. He easily loses
confidence while talking to new person if betrayed before by someone else.
(VIII) Childhood history
The client was stubborn during his childhood. He was always pampered by
his family. He was a mischievous and naughty student in his school. The
client had a habit of nail biting.
(IX) Educational history
The client studied in St. Annes High School till 10th std. Now the client is
in Vartak College and has opted for science stream. The client had been an
average student in his academics.
(X) Current living situation
The clients current living situation is very good. He is given all the
amenities that he wishes from his parents.
(XI) Drug and alcohol addiction
The client has smoking addiction. He started smoking after the 10th std
boards. He tried smoking due to peer pressure. He didnt like smoking at
first but due to peer pressure he kept trying and eventually learned to love
it. Usually the client has 15 16 cigarettes per day. If he doesnt smoke for
a day, hell have a headache as hes addicted to smoking.
The client tried to stop smoking but most of the failed to do so, cause of the
peers around him.
Other than cigarette, the client also has hookah but mostly hes switched to
smoking through cigarettes.
(XII) Mental status examination

1) Appearance: Neatly dressed.


2) Behavior & Psychomotor activity: Well behaved and
all the psychomotor activities were normal.
3) Attitude towards examiner: Co-operative.
4) Mood: There were lots of mood swings.
5) Speech: Clear and specific.
6) Perception: Optimistic towards all the situations
provided by the examiner.
7) Orientation & Memory: Poor memory
8) Concentration & Attention: Was getting distracted
and there was lack of concentration.

Reference

1) www.google.com
2) www.esmokingsideeffects.com
3) www.causesofsmoking.net
4) http://www.helpguide.org/mental/quit_smoking_cessation.htm