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KUMPULAN CONTOH MAKALAH TEKNIK MESIN

SAMPLE PAPER ENGINEERING


CHAPTER I
Preliminary
a. Background
Developments in science and technology (Science and
Technology) is rapidly increasing nowadays have an impact on the world
of education with the growing challenges faced by the world of
education. Now the world of education is increasingly required to produce
qualified human resources, which is able to answer and anticipate
developments in science and technology. The world of education should
be able to make it happen, it is necessary to increase and improvements
in education.One effort peningakatan and improvements in education
especially in the field of automotive engineering in particular, one engine
stand Diesel Mitsubishi L 300.Mitsubishi L 300 is the type of vehicles
manufactured by Mitsubishi Diesel type, while the Mitsubishi L 300
stations in the book there is an additional GS (gasoline) that Mitsubishi L
300 GS (Mitsubishi L 300 types of gasoline). Engines Mitsubishi L 300 in
which there are several systems, among other energy-producing drive
systems or the engine (engine), fuel system, lubrication system, cooling
system, charging system and the system of the engine (engine). This
paper will explain how the later analysis and how to cope with reduced
engine power on Diesel Mitsubishi L 300, especially on the engine
(engine). Other things the background for the selection of the matter is:
The machine system is very important in the work process, propulsion and
energy production in a vehicle or car. The machine consists of several
components, if any one of the components undergo wear and tear or
curvature caused by the heat work and then there will be an interruption
in engine power is reduced as caused by several reasons such as worn
piston rings, cylinder head and cylinder block surfaces are curved causing
the gas leak and the engine power produced less than optimal.
b. Formulation of the problem
Why is the engine system is very important in the process of work, drive
and energy production in a vehicle or car?
c. Destination

CHAPTER II
THEORETICAL

Working Principle Motor Diesel


Motor fuels are of two kinds, namely combustion engine (internal
combustion angine) and external combustion engine (external combustion
engines), examples of external combustion engine (external combustion
engine) is a steam engine, turbine and other machines, eg combustion
engine (internal combustion engine) is a Diesel motors, motor gasoline,
and others.Type of car or vehicle is based on the combustion mechanism
used divided into two diesel motors and motor gasoline (internal
combustion engine). Diesel engine combustion mechanism known as
compression ignition. The fuel is compressed until the pressure + 25 s / d
32 kg/cm2 (Daryanto: 1995) in order to reach the point of ignition and fuel
burn by itself, while the gasoline engine using spark ignition
mechanism. Fuel pressure until a certain pressure is: + 15 s / d 22 kg/cm2
(Daryanto: 1995) and then given a spark from the spark plug firing order
terjadiproses.Diesel Motor use diesel fuel in addition to its use more
efficient, diesel fuel is also more environmentally friendly because the
solar mixture of lead (lead) that cause pollution and respiratory disturb
less than gasoline motors, but because xxi pressure ratio compression
ignition mechanism very high and require a more robust construction, in
general, the price of cars by using Diesel engines are more expensive
than the car using gasoline motor for the same class. The wheels of a
vehicle requires a power which allows the vehicle to move, and can cope
with the situation, the air, and so forth. Sources that generate power are
called machine .. combustion engine piston is the name of the machine
that can convert thermal energy, electricity, wind or other power source
into mechanical power. Engine that converts heat energy into mechanical
energy is called motor fuel. Engine (engine) used in automobiles, is one of
a series of components (system) is very important that as a system that
converts the heat generated from the combustion process is then
converted into work through the mechanism of translational motion
straight back and forth (reciprocal) of the piston ( piston) into a rotary
motion (rotation) on the crankshaft
(Cankshaft). Machines energy used in the car to be compact, lightweight
and easy to put on limited space. Machine shall provide a high speed and
power are great, easy to operate and is less of a sound, and therefore
gasoline and Diesel engines are generally more widely used in the vehicle
or car.
Advantages Diesel engines than gasoline motors in general:
a. Diesel engines have a large thermal efficiency, this means that the use
of more fuel economical than gasoline motors.
b. Diesel engines are more durable and do not require an electric ignition
(Electrik Igniter) to support combustion so less difficulty than the gasoline
motor.
c. Speed is lower than gasoline motors.
Diesel motors disadvantage compared with the gasoline motors

general:
a.Tekanan nearly twice the maximum burning gasoline motor 25 s / d 32
kg/cm2 (Daryanto 1995), it causes vibration and sound bigger Diesel
motors.
b.Tekanan higher combustion, the diesel engine must be made of
materials that resist high pressure and the structure of the material is
more powerful, it causes vibration and structure stronger material, this led
to the making to be more expensive than gasoline motors.
c.Motor Diesel fuel injection systems require precise causes are expensive
and require careful care and maintenance than gasoline motors.
DIESEL MOTOR OPERATING PRINCIPLE STEP FOUR:
A. STEP Suction
In step suction, air is introduced into the cylinder. Plunger (piston) evakuman in cylindrical form as in motor
gasoline. Plunger (piston) moves from top dead point towards the bottom dead point and at this stage only the suction
valve opens and allows air into the cylinder and exhaust valves are closed during this suction action.
b. STEP COMPRESS
In the compression stroke, the piston (piston) moves from bottom dead point towards the top dead point, and at the
compression stroke is the second valve is closed. The air is sucked during suction pressure to step up the pressure with
a temperature of about 5000 C to 8000.
C. STEP COMBUSTION
In step combustion, the air contained in the cylinder is driven by a piston (piston) into the combustion chamber at the top
xxiv each cylinder, at the end of step nozzle spraying burning fuel and then a mixture of fuel and air later burned by the
heat pressure generated by the heat generated by the combustion energy mengekspansikan pressure gas very quickly
and plunger (piston) pushed down. The force pushing the plunger (piston) to be forwarded to the shaft bottom
(connecting rod) and then forwarded to the crankshaft (crankshaft) and the change from a straight back and forth motion
of translation into
rotary motion (rotation) untukmemberi power on the machine.

D. STEP WASTE
In step exhaust, piston head from the bottom dead point towards the top
dead point. In this step only the exhaust valve opens and the exhaust
combustion gases expelled through the exhaust valve. Gas will be spilled
out when the piston (piston) reaches top dead point, once the process
begins again step step waste suction, and so on. This process occurs over
and over again. During the machine, completing the four steps (steps
suction, compression, combustion, exhaust) crankshaft (crankshaft) spins
twice and produced a one-time combustion (power), or also called Diesel
four-stroke motors.

CHAPTER III
ANALYSIS OF INTERFERENCE MOTOR STEP FOUR Desel
Disturbances such as low compression, will lead to lower work

ability of the engine causing the engine power is reduced, so it is


necessary to find the cause angguan-tersebut.Analisis disorders cause
reduced engine power interruption:
A. Valve leakage during the compression stroke as well as businesses
move or low compression pressure with air or smoke coming through the
gap between the cylinder head and cylinder block and
air (smoke) out through the gap between the cylinder head gasket, due
to:
1). In the cylinder head:
-Leaks compression caused by the curved surface of the cylinder head,
which caused:
A) Heat engine due to compression pressure is very high and continuous
use of the machine can cause the surface of the cylinder head changes
shape or curved, to overcome by redistributing surface cylinder head by
means frais, if it can not be repaired due to high cylinder head has been
reduced the cylinder head must be replaced with a flat and the height of
the cylinder head is still in the specification or metal coated cylinder head
to cylinder head thickness exceeded specifications of + 1 to 2 mm and
then at frais.
B). Gasket between the cylinder head and cylinder block that is damaged
or leaking gas burning out, which is caused by:
a.Pemakaian machine continuously and high compression pressure and
the location of the gasket between the combustion chamber causing retacracked or broken so that the compressed air leaks out.
b. Demolition of the former engine gasket damaged and not replaced
when the part of the gasket there is glue on the cylinder head and
cylinder block so that the upper or lower surface of the gasket was
reduced due to previously installed very fast and pengencangannya using
a key moment, to deal with is the gasket replaced with a new one.
2) The valve mechanism:
Compression pressure and low noise with the valve mechanism. This
condition is caused by several things, including the following:
2.1.Celah suction and exhaust valves are too big. Cracks due in large
valves:
a) There is wear on the field up and down on the top of the ridge axis
clearance or gap between the lifter cam shaft lxiii loose causing angle
valve opening and closing the valve to be small.
b) The voltage of the valve spring is weak, which causes the valve can not
be returned to the
perfect gap and cause the valve to be great.
c) The end of the valve stem is not flat, worn or damaged. This condition
is due to the suction valve is too large then
suction valve opening becomes shorter, resulting in a new volume of gas
that enters the combustion chamber or cylinder becomes less so with the
compression that uses a small volume will result in a smaller compression

pressure resulting in reduced engine power, in addition to the combustion


in the combustion chamber possible occurrence of abnormal combustion
resulting from new gas flushing of gas combustion is not
perfect. Compression pressure disertAai little noise in the cylinder
head. Ganggguan other machines such interference is when the condition
of the engine is in good condition and when the engine stationary noise
sounded a regular on the cylinder head. This mechanical problem can be
overcome by doing the checking and adjusting the valve gap. To check
lxiv slit valve, open the cylinder head cover and insert a feeler gauge into
the gap between the adjusting screw on the rocker arm and valve stems,
then measure the gap when the slit valve is too loose, it can be
slit valve adjustment done.
-On exhaust camshafts coated metal back that way: In welding, etc., then
the shaft cam shaft cam turner or replaced with new ones.
-The length and spring tension should be checked with the valve spring
tester, if voltage is less than the length and then spring weak specification
should be replaced, because the weak valve springs can not lift the valve
completely then opening the valve becomes less and gas
that enters the combustion chamber a bit.
-Edge digrinda valve stem, if the height is less than the specification of
valve valve replaced.
2.2.Celah suction valves and exhaust valves are too tight, I fix the valve
set appropriate specifications. This condition is caused by several things,
including the following:
a) Cam ridge on the shaft is worn.
b) improper valve adjustment.
c) end of the valve stem is not flat, worn or damaged.
The gap between the end of the valve stem to rocker arm adjusting bolt
should be there, when there is no loopholes valve the valve can not close
tightly against the valve seat. So that the gas is in the cylinder chamber
can not be compressed as compressed gas before (TMB-TMA) most gas
comes out through the valve so that the vacuum in the combustion
chamber or cylinder is reduced. Disorders slit valve on the machine can be
done by adjusting the slit valve rocker arm bolts. How to overcome the
valve is too tight:
a) Cam digrinda specifications or cam shaft replaced when wear exceeds
the limit.
b) Valves are set to specification 0.25 mm suction valve and exhaust valve
0.25 mm.
c) The end of the valve stem digrinda and if the length of the valve stem
is less than the specification changed.
2.3. The leak at the intersection of the surface of the valve head to the
valve seat.
The leak was caused by the surface of the valve and the valve seat is not
flat so persinggungannya LXVI persinggungannya not meeting density,

caused by pemakaiandari engine constantly and the influence of heat,


because the head is inside the fuel valve or compression chamber and
beat the return valve after the valve opening from the valve spring
causing some parts there are terkikis.Kepala eroded valve could be
improved by improving the surface of the valve head with valve refacer or
by disekur between the surface of the valve with the valve seat. Wear or
damage to the valve and valve seat when exceeding the limit then one or
both must be replaced.
2.4. Rubber seal on the valve is damaged or worn,
Rubber seal on the valve is damaged or worn so that the lubricating oil
that lubricates the cylinder head down to the valve and down into the
combustion chamber through the valve head. The gap between the valve
stem and the valve seal is worn, this condition causes a charcoal on the
valve stem and to overcome the inherent charcoal valve head is cleaned
using a wire brush or wire wheel mounted on the grinding machine. Seal
worn replaced because it is made of rubber.
2.5. Conductor valve is damaged or worn
Conductor valve is damaged or worn so that the lubricating oil that
lubricates the cylinder head down to the valve through the valve
conductor worn, this condition causes the valve stem timbulpada and to
overcome the inherent charcoal valve head is cleaned using a wire brush
or wire wheel mounted on grinding machines, then conductor of worn
valve replaced.
- The engine components:
1. Slit or spring-loaded piston ring against the cylinder walls are too
wide. This condition is caused by:
spring piston or piston ring is already weak due to continuous usage and
friction resulting in a gap between the end of the spring piston causes
compression leak widened and also resulted in the lubricating oil of
lubricating oil pan (charter) into the fuel, to overcome a spring piston or
piston ring is weak replaced with a new one because if it is not replaced
piston ring end gap widens between the causes compression and
lubricating oil leak
into the combustion chamber or cylinder.
2. Cylinder has an oval-shaped hole or worn. This condition is caused by:
the use of continuous and friction between the piston and the cylinder
wall so that the heat and cause expansion, so there is a gap on one side of
the cylinder wall and piston ring causing panic in from the lubricating oil
lubricating oil (charter) into the combustion chamber and peyebabkan
compressed air will leak, how to cope: a cylindrical hole in shock that the
metal coated cylindrical hole is drilled or a turner then the size of the
diameter of the cylinder and the cylinder bore enlarged if the piston ring
used must be adapted to the diameter of the cylinder wall.
-Engine power is reduced due to wear and tear experienced some engine
components such as piston ring wear, piston wear, worn cylinder walls,
causing the lubricating oil of lubricating oil pan (charter) to the
combustion chamber is:

1. On the exhaust (muffler) out a little white smoke colored machine with
reduced lubrication of lubricating oil in the system and the smell of
burning lubricating oils (lubricating oils wasteful consumption) that cause
air pollution and interfere with breathing. The entry of lubricating oil into
the combustion chamber exhaust mangakibatkan white. Inspection
performed on your vehicle engine components such as cylinder walls,
piston rings, piston due to wear and tear resulting from the use of vehicles
and the result of ongoing friction that causes such wasteful use of oil that
is there most of lubricating oil into the combustion chamber through the
piston.Lubricant can also go into the combustion chamber through the
streets experiencing valve wear. Lubricating oil into the combustion
chamber it difficult fuel to burn, causing power or engine power is
reduced. Burning of lubricating oil in excessive amounts result in sediment
or crust on the piston and combustion chamber walls, to overcome this
problem, the steps you need to do is replace the piston and piston
rings.Cylinder wall already
experience wear or scratches the cylinder wall is replaced with a new
one.
2. Knocking sound from the engine (knocking), heard at the time was
accelerated.knocking sound from the engine (knocking). Knocking is
caused by a lot of carbon in the crust of the combustion chamber or
cylinder. Carbon crust formed by oil entering the combustion chamber or
cylinder caught fire. The crust of carbon in the combustion chamber or
cylinder co burned during combustion occurs. Carbon crust can increase
the temperature and pressure at which resulted in knocking
combustion. The entry of oil into the combustion chamber is due to the
combustion chamber components, such as piston rings, cylinder walls are
worn due to constant use and due to friction. Carbon or charcoal crust that
is inside the combustion chamber (cylinder) can be solved by replacing
the LXX components that cause the lubricating oil into fuel or worn parts
such as piston rings, cylinder bouring and others. The components of the
experience such as piston ring wear, cylinder bouring can

CHAPTER IV
CLOSING
CONCLUSION
Disorders that often arise in Diesel Mitsubishi L300 engine, including
reduced engine power can be obtained conclusions include the following:
1. How to analyze the disorder and how to cope with reduced engine
power on the machine Mitsubishi L 300 Diesel is by doing the inspection
and corrective action is then performed to specification or the
replacement of parts or components when damage

exceed the specified limit.


2. Inspection procedures and component repair if engine power is reduced
at Mitsubishi L 300 Diesel is a visual inspection as observed scratches on
the cylinder walls and measuring devices by measuring the condition of
each component based on the specifications service, followed by step
repair or replacement of components when damage exceeds the service
limit. From the results of visual inspection and measurement, there
components in the engine Mitsubishi L 300 Diesel have to be replaced or
repaired.