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Signal Processing.

In this module we're going to see what

signals actually are.

We're going to through history, see the

earliest of examples

of discreet time signals, actually it goes

back to Egyptian times.

Then through this history see how digital

signals for

example, with the telegraph signals,

became important in communications.

And today, how signals are pervasive in

many applications

in every day life objects.

For this we're going to see what the

signal is,

what a continuous time analog signal is,

what the discreet

time continuous amplitude signal is and

how these signals

relate to each other and are used in

communication devices.

We are not going to have any math in this

first module,

it's more illustrative and the mathematics

will come later in the class.

>> Hi, welcome to our Digital Signal

Processing class.

In this introduction we would like to give

you

an overview of what digital signal

processing is all about.

And perhaps the best way to do that is to

consider in turn what we mean

when we use the word signal, when we use

the word processing or the word digital.

And you will see that digital signal

processing is

really an intermediate point in a

reflection about physics,

about math and about the reality around us

that started

a very long time ago and continues to this

day.

So let's consider the concept of signal to

begin with.

In general a signal is a description of

the evolution of a physical phenomenon.

This is best understood by example.

Take the weather for instance, the weather

is a

physical phenomenon that we usually

measure in terms of temperature.

So temperature becomes

a signal that evolves overtime and that

represents a measurement of the underlying

physical phenomenon.

We could've chosen another variable.

For instance, we could've chosen rainfall.

related

to the same underlying physical

phenomenon.

Another example, easy to understand is

sound.

Sound can have very many origins take for

instance some musical instrument or a

person singing.

Now when you measure sound

with a microphone for instance, what

you're measuring is

the pressure, the air pressure at the

point of measurement.

The microphone translates the air pressure

into

an electrical signal that represents the

sound.

Now if you want to record the sound on a

magnetic tape for instance, you will have

to convert this electrical signal to a

magnetic

deviation that can be impressed over the

magnetic tape.

And again, these are different

representations of the same underlying

physical phenomenon.

Taking a photograph is a very similar

operation.

In this case, we're mapping the light

intensity of a scene onto gray levels, in

the case of a black and white

photograph, that can be recorded by

photographic paper.

The only difference is that in this case

we're

mapping the signal over space rather than

over time.

To make things more tangible let's go back

to an

experiment that most likely you carried

out in elementary school when you

first learned about experimental

procedures and

analysis of the world around you.

You were probably asked to map the daily

temperature for say,

a period of a month, and to chart it over

graph paper.

And so you dutifully looked at the

thermometer every morning and then at

the end of the month you probably ended up

with a graph like this.

So here we have two concepts

that are fundamental to digital signal

processing.

The first concept is that the temperature

measurements are taken at

discrete moments in time and they

constitute a finite countable set.

the range of temperature is actually

subdivided into

a finite number of possible values which

are

determined by the resolution of the

graduating scale

on the thermometer.

So, we look at the height of the mercury

column

and we chose the tick that is closest to

that level.

But, nonetheless, the number of ticks that

we can chose from is finite.

So the two fundamental concepts here are

the

discretization of time due to the fact

that we

take observations regularly but not

continuously and the discretization

of amplitudes due to the fact that our

measuring

device has a finite resolution.

Now the discretization of amplitude is

usually treated as a precision problem.

We can use more sophisticated instruments

and achieve a better precision.

But the discretization of time is a

veritable

paradigm shift in the way we think about

reality.

So much so that the problem appeared for

the first time over 2500

years ago when the great Greek

philosophers started to think about

why is it that we perceive reality the way

we do.

And the first character in the story here

is Pythagoras, who in 500 BC, maintained

that

most of reality, if not all of reality,

could be described in terms of numbers and

measurements.

Think for instance of the Pythagorean

theorem,

if one draws a right triangle, one can

verify experimentally with the ruler that

the square

built on the hypotenuse is equal to the

sum of the squares built on the sides.

But what Pythagoras said, is that this is

a universal

property that applies to the abstract

class of all right triangles.

And this was really a major change in

the way people started to think about

abstract concepts.

Pretty much the same time Parmenides,

another character in our story, brought

this

metaphysics by planting the seed of

a fundamental dichotomy, a fundamental

difference between

the reality that we can experience with

our senses and an ideal reality that we

will never be able to know.

This of course was later developed by

Plato into

a full fledged philosophical theory of the

ideals.

So that even today when we talk about the

Platonic ideal, we refer

to some form of perfect reality that lies

beyond the veil of appearances.

But more interestingly for us is the fact

that right when this idea started to

appear in

the global consciousness of the time,

there were philosophers

that were ready to point out the potential

pitfalls

of this new abstract models of reality.

And the leader of the pack, so to speak,

was Zeno of Elea whose paradoxes have

survived to this day.

One of Zeno's most famous paradoxes is the

paradox of the arrow, which states that if

you shoot an arrow from point A to

point B, the arrow will never reach its

destination.

And the reasoning goes like so,

well if we modeled reality with the

concepts of geometry then

we know that any segment can be divided

into smaller segments.

So what Zeno said was that the arrow,

after leaving point a, and before

reaching point b, will have to travel

through the mid-point between a and b.

Let's call this point c.

But now after it has reached the midpoint

between A and B

it will also have to pass through the

midpoint between C and B.

Let's call this point D.

And so on so forth, for every interval you

can always find an extra midpoint

and the arrow will have to cross

all of this midpoints before reaching it's

destination.

But because of the geometric modelling

of reality there is an infinite number of

midpoints and so Zeno said, well in order

to cross an infinite number of points, you

will need an infinite amount of time.

Of course today we rebut such an

argumentation

by saying simply that we can express the

length

sub segments and that this sum converges

to one.

But this is a false answer to the problem

because the problem was never with

computing the sum.

The problem was with a model of reality in

which the infinite and the finite are at

odds.

And it took over 2,000 years of

mathematical and philosophical

research to amend that model and come to

today's model.

A model in which the sum of an infinite

number

of terms can indeed converge to a finite

quantity without contradictions.

Now you see the relevance of this problem

to digital signal processing where we are

measuring physical quantities at regular

intervals in time while assuming that

the underlying physical quantity is

actually continuous.

One of the reasons why arriving at this

better

model of reality took over 2,000 years is

that in

the Middle Ages, as you can see from this

picture,

people were concerned with much more

mundane tasks than refining

a mathematical model of reality.

But progress did come in the end and the

two towering figures of the 17th century,

in this sense, are Galileo and Descartes.

Descartes, the inventor of the Cartesian

plane, started by put a name to think.

So if you have a point on the plane like

so, Descartes said, well,

if I use a coordinate system around this

point I can give a name

to this point and I can use algebraic

formulas

to describe geometrical entities and

perform operation on them.

So for instance, a line would map to a

first degree equation.

This allowed Descartes to solve

algebraically, geometric problems that had

baffled Greeks, such as for instance the

trisection of the angle.

Much more importantly for us is the fact

that the Cartesian Plane is the grand

daddy of all vector spaces and you will

see how

useful vector spaces are in the context of

digital signal processing.

Well, Europe in the 17th century was flush

with

money and Europeans had two things on

their minds.

Finding new markets and winning the war of

conquest that came with the appropriation

of new markets.

Calculus, that was invented in those

years, purported to

provide a new answer to both problems, in

the sense that you could use calculus

to find optimal ship routes around the

globe and to find optimal trajectory for

cannonballs.

Galileo, in particular, worked on the

cannonball problem.

And operated by running a series of

experiments in which

the trajectory of balls thrown by a cannon

was experimentally determined.

And then working backwards to derive an

ideal Platonic model of the balls

trajectory.

That is given by this equation where the

initial velocity, expressed as a vector in

the Cartesian plane, is coupled with the

pull of gravity to give a parabolic shape.

So the way science proceeded was by

starting from set of

experimental data points and then work

backwards to find the description

of the underlying phenomenon in the form

of a perfect algebraic equation.

This usually worked very well for

astronomy, which was a main concern

in those days, because the trajectories of

the planets are perfect conic curves.

The invention of calculus and the

availability of models for reality

based on functions of real variables, led

naturally to what we call

continuous time signal processing.

So if you have a function like this which

is

for instance, a temperature function, you

can compute the average,

in continuous time, by taking the integral

of the function

over its support and dividing by the

length of the support.

Without calculus what you would have to do

is take daily measurements say of the

temperature.

And to compute the average you would just

sum this values together and then divide

by the number of days.

Now the question is what is the relation

between these two averages?

What is the error I incur if I use

experimental data rather

than finding the ideal function behind the

data and then computing the integral.

And even if I can do that for certain

and slow like this one, can I do the same

if the signal is fast?

In other words, if I have a set

of measurements for something that appears

to move quite

quickly, do I have any chance even at

recovering the ideal function that lies

underneath the data.

Well it took a long time since the

17th century to answer this question

because one

of the missing pieces of the puzzle was

how to measure this speed of the signal.

The answer came from Joseph Fourier,

the inventor of Fourier analysis.

That showed us how to decompose any

physical phenomenon, any

description of a physical phenomenon, into

a series of sinusoidal components.

A sinusoidal component is like a wave, and

a wave is parameterized by its

frequency, which is really a way of

measuring how fast the wave oscillates.

You can see an example of this sinusoidal

decomposition of

the signal in the spectral analyzer of

your MP3 player.

By splitting a signal into frequency

components you

can see where the energy of the signal is.

And if it is in the high frequencies then

the signal will be moving very fast.

Whereas if it is in the low frequencies it

will be moving very slow.

The next piece of the puzzle that

completes the path from continuous

reality to discreet reality was given by

Nyquist and

Shannon, two researchers at Bell Labs in

the 50s.

Their sampling theorem is really the

bridge that

connects the analog world to the digital

world.

The formula is like so, and it looks

pretty complicated right now but

you will be very familiar with it by the

end of the class.

If you just have a tiny look at it, you

will see that

the formula relates a continuous time

function, the Platonic ideal

we were talking about, to a set of

discrete time measurements.

And this sum really is a weighted sum

where

for each discrete sample we associate a

special shape.

Graphically it looks like so.

the ideal function, and we have a set

of measurements that we indicate with

these red

dots, we can reconstruct the original

functions starting

from the samples just by associating what

we

call a sinc function to each of the

points.

So you scale copies of the same function

at each measured interval and

then when you sum them all together you

obtain the original function back.

All you need for this magic trick to

happen is

that the original function is not too

fast, in

the sense that it doesn't contain too many

high frequencies.

We will see this in more detail during the

class.

If we now go back to the beginning of our

overview, you

remember the second fundamental ingredient

in

digital signals is the discrete amplitude.

What that means is that we have two forms

of discretization of an ideal function.

Take for example this

sine wave.

The first discretization happens in time

and we get a discrete set of samples.

And then the second discretization happens

in amplitude, where each sample

can take values only amongst a

predetermined set of possible levels.

The very important consequence of the

discretization independently of the

number of levels is that the set of levels

is countable.

So we can always map the level of a sample

to an integer.

If our data is just a set of integers now,

it

means that its representation is

completely abstract and completely general

purpose.

This has some very important consequences

in three domains.

Storage becomes very easy because any

memory

support that can store integers can store

signals.

And computer memory comes to mind as a

first candidate.

Processing becomes completely independent

on the nature of the signal because

all we need is a processors that can deal

with the integers.

processors

that can deal with integers very, very

well.

And finally transmission, with digital

signal we

will be able to deploy very effective

ways to combat noise and transmission

errors as we will see in a second.

As far as storage

is concerned, just consider the difference

between attempting to store

an analog signal, which requires a medium

dependent support for

each kind of application, and the task of

storing a

digital signal, which requires just a

piece of computer memory.

In analog storage the medium evolved as

technology evolved.

And for instance when it came to sound we

had wax

cylinders in the beginning, and then you

had vinyl, and then

reel-to-reel tapes, and then compact

cassettes, and so on and so forth.

Each medium was incompatible with its

predecessor

and required specialized hardware to be

reproduced.

Today everything is stored in general

purpose support systems, like memory card

or a hard drive, and is completely

independent on the type of

content that is recorded.

If you consider for instance the evolution

of memory

supports, this is a famous picture from

the internet.

Just one microSD card will contain all the

information

that was contained in countless floppy

discs and CDs from just a few years back.

But what does not change, although the

support changes and the capacity improves

with time, what does not change is the

format

of the data which will remain the same

across media.

When it comes to processing again, the

fact that the representation of the data

is

completely decoupled from the origin of

the data

will allow us to use general purpose

machines.

Here on the left you have three three

analog processing devices.

A thermostat on top with its temperature

sensitive coil,

can be

used to measure movement or time, and a

discrete electronics amplifier.

Each of these devices had to be designed

and

built to process just one type of analog

signal.

Conversely, on the right, you see just a

piece of C code that implements a digital

filter.

Now this filter can be used to process a

temperature signal or a sound signal and

its structure or its implementation will

not change.

Finally, let's consider the problem of

data

transmission which is probably the domain

where

digital signal processing has made the

most difference in our day to day life.

So if you have a communication channel and

you try to send information from

a transmitter to a receiver you are faced

with a fundamental problem of noise.

So let's see what happens inside the

channel.

You have a signal

that will be put into the channel.

The channel will introduce an attenuation.

It will lower the volume of the signal, so

to speak.

But it will also introduce some noise,

indicated here as sigma of t.

And what you will receive at the end is

an attenuated copy of your original

signal, plus noise.

This is just facts of nature that you

cannot escape.

So, if this is your original signal what

you will get at the end is an attenuated

copy scaled by a factor of G, plus noise.

So how do you recover the original

information?

Well, you try to undo the effects

introduced by the

channel but the only thing you can undo is

the attenuation.

So you can try and multiply the received

signal by a gain

factor that is the reciprocal of the

attenuation introduced by the channel.

So if you do that you introduce a gain

here at the receiver and what you get is,

let's start again with the original

signal, attenuated copy,

some noise added and then let's undo the

attenuation.

Well what happens unsurprisingly is that

the gain factor has

introduced by the channel.

So you get a copy of the signal that is

yes,

of a comparable amplitude to the original

signal, but

in which the noise is much larger as well.

This is typical situation that you get in

second

generation or third generation copies of

say a tape.

Or if you try and do a photocopy of a

photocopy, just

to give you an idea of what happens with

this noise amplification problem.

Now, why is this very important?

This is important because if you have a

very long

cable, so for instance, if you have a

cable that goes from Europe

to the United States, and you try to send

a telephone conversation over there.

What happens is that you have to split the

channel into several

chunks and try to undo the attenuation of

a chunk in sequence.

So you actually put what are called,

repeaters along the

line that regenerated the signal to the

original level every say,

ten kilometers of cable or so.

But unfortunately the cumulative effect of

this chain of receiver, is that some

noise gets introduced at each stage and

gets amplified over and over again.

So for instance, if this is our original

signal which again, gets

attenuated and gets corrupted by noise in

the first segment of the cable.

After amplication you would get this,

which is in that before.

Then this signal is injected into the

second section of the cable.

It gets attenuated.

New noise gets added to it and when

you amplify it you get double the

amplified noise.

And after N sections of the cable you have

N times the amplified noise.

This can lead very quickly to a

complete loss of intelligibility in a

phone conversation.

Let's now consider the problem of

transmitting a digital

signal over the same trans oceanic cable.

Now, a digital signal as we said before,

is composed of samples whose values belong

to a

countable finite set of levels and so

their

Now transmitting a set of integers means

that we can encode

these integers in binary format and

therefore we end up transmitting

basically just a sequence of zeros and

ones, binary digits.

We can build an analog signal associating

say the level plus five

volt to the digit zero and minus five volt

to the digit

one and we will have a signal and we will

have a

signal that will oscillate between these

two levels as the digits are transmitted.

What happens on the channel is the same

as before, we will have an attenuation, we

will have the addition of noise and

we will have an amplifier at each repeater

that will try to undo the attenuation.

But on top of it all, we will have what is

called a

threshold operator that will try to

reconstitute

the original signal as best as possible.

Let's see how that works.

If this is what we transmit, say an

alternation of zero and one mapped to

these two

voltage levels, the attenuation and the

noise

will reduce the signal to this state.

The amplification will regenerate the

levels and will amplify the noise.

So, the noise is much larger than before.

But now we can just threshold and say, if

the

signal value is above zero we just output

five volts.

And vice versa, if it's below zero we will

output minus five volts.

So the thresholding operator will

reconstruct a signal like so.

So you can see that at the end of the

first repeater we actually

have an exact copy of the transmitted

signal and not a noise corrupted copy.

The effectiveness of the digital

transmission schemes

can be appreciated by looking at the

evolution

of the throughput, the amount of

information

that can be put on a transatlantic cable.

In 1866,

the first cable was laid down and it had a

capacity of

eight words per minute which corresponded

to approximately five bits per second.

In 1956 when the first digital cable was

the capacity all of the sudden sky

rocketed to three mega bits per second.

So, ten to the power of six.

Six order of magnitudes larger than the

analog cable.

And in 2005 when a fiber cable was laid

down another six

order of magnitude were added for a

capacity of 8.4 terabits per second.

Similarly and literally closer to home, we

can look

at the evolution of the throughput for

in-home data transmission.

In the 50s the first voice-band modems

came out of Bell Labs.

Voice-band meaning that they were devices

designed

to operate over a standard telephone

channel.

Their capacity was very low, 1200 bits per

second, and they were analog devices.

With the digital revolution in the 90s

digital modems

started to appear and very quickly reached

basically the ultimate

limit of data transmission over the

voice-band channel which was

56 kilobits per second at the end of the

90s.

The transition to ADSL pushed that limit

up to over 24 megabits per second in 2008.

Now, this evolution is of course partly

due

to improvements in electronics and to

better phone lines.

But fundamentally its success and its

affordability are

due to the use of digital signal

processing.

We can use small yet very powerful and

cheap general purpose processors

to bring the power of error correcting

codes

and data recovery even in small home

consumer devices.

In the next few weeks we will study

signal processing stun, starting from the

ground up.

And by the end of the class will have

enough tricks in our bag to fully

understand how an ADSL modem works.

And so after this very far reaching and

probably rambling introduction, it's time

to go back to basics and we will

see you in module two to discover what

discreet time signals are all about.

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