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Ahmed Elsheikh, Osama Ali, Musa Ahmed, and Manahil Ahmed

The Nubia Voice Conference, Philadelphia, PA


May 28-29/2016

Length in Miles

5,000
4,000
3,000
2,000
1,000
0

Africa
~4258 miles long
The Nile basin
countries include
Burundi, Congo,
Egypt, Eritrea,
Ethiopia, Kenya,
Rwanda, South
Sudan, Sudan,
Tanzania, Uganda

USA

8b
>11
>60
Amazon

Mississippi

Nile

1. Hydropower
Cheap energy
Clean energy

http://s.hswstatic.com/gif/hydropower-plant-parts.gif

http://cdn2.yourstory.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/yourstory-renewable-energy.jpg
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2. Flood Control
Flood effects reduction
Land improvement

https://www.ok.gov/conservation/Agency_Divisions/Conservation_Programs_Division/Flood_Control_Programs/

3. Transportation
People and goods
transportation

2nd cataract

http://davidgibbins.com/journal/2013/8/4/pharaoh-the-illustrated-london-news-and-the-1884-5-nile-expedition

4. Clean drinking water

http://media1.fdncms.com/pique/imager/clean-drinking-water-should-be-a-humanrig/u/zoom/2600937/opinion_suzuki1-1.jpg

5. Irrigation
An area of 8,800 km
It is composed of thousands of kilometers
of canals that distribute water from the
Algazera
Blue Nile to farms between the two
Scheme
rivers
The soil has high clay content which
keeps down losses from seepage

Alguneid
Scheme

Elmanaqil
Extension

1. The local people migration


A destruction of ~ 103
Nubian villages
Nubian people exodus
Nubian Languages denigrate
The Nubian history and
heritage will be abolished

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2. Archaeological sites destruction


~ 25 archaeological sites
Most of the sites contains
unrevealed mysteries
Human evolution

(Kuper and Kropelin, 2006)

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http://www.sudarchrs.org.uk/resources/map-of-sudan/

3. A microclimate change
A change in air moisture
percentage
A change in air temperature
and air movement

https://www.openpermaculture.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/photodune-5383836-river-s-704x468.jpg
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The Nubian villages are within the low density region


Population Density, 2013

4. Economic development

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http://dlca.logcluster.org/download/attachments/853801/Sudan%20Population%20Density%20Map.png?version=1&modificationDate=1377200935000&api=v2

5. Earthquakes
Water load
Induced earthquakes

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http://scfh.ru/en/news/siberian-scientists-help-unravel-the-mystery-of-cannon-earthquakes-in-egypt/

6. Interruption of Sediment rejuvenation


Prevention of sediments
transfer process
Excessive usage of
fertilizers

http://www.bartlett.ucl.ac.uk/sustainable/sustainable-news/images/changing_environment__c__istockphoto
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6. Fish population decline


Small species are
blocked behind the
dam (Stott and
Smith, 2001)
Dams obstruct fish
migration
Fish death at the
dam gates

Before the dam

After the dam

http://d2ouvy59p0dg6k.cloudfront.net/img/original/image2_1024px.jpg

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Cost and Benefits of Installing a


Wind turbine
How big are they and how much
power does one generate?
Whats the cost?

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1-1- Home or Farm Scale Wind Turbine


A 10 kilowatt machine is enough to power a typical
American home
Wind turbines under 100 kilowatts

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1.2. Home or Farm Scale Wind Turbine


A 10 kilowatt machine (the size needed to power a
typical American home) costs ~ $50,000-$80,000
Wind turbines under 100 kilowatts cost ~ $3,000 ~
$8,000 per kilowatt of capacity
Wind turbines have significant economies of scale.
Smaller farm or residential scale turbines cost less
overall
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2.1. Commercial Wind Turbines (Wind Farms)


More than 100kw and up to 3kw

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2.2. Commercial Wind Turbines (Wind Farms)


The cost for a utility scale wind turbine ranges from
$1.3 million to $2.2 million per MW
Most of the commercial-scale turbines installed today
are 2 MW in size and cost roughly $3-$4 million
The installation cost for a commercial-scale wind
turbine will fluctuate significantly based on the
number of units, construction, location , as well as
other factors
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Capital Cost Breakdown

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Rock Port, Missouri is the United States' first


community that is capable of being 100% wind
powered
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The First %100 Wind-Powered in US


-

The 1,300 residents of Rock Port currently use approximately


13 million kilowatts of electricity per year. But now, due to
four new wind turbines, the city predicts that wind energy will
account for 16 million kilowatts each year .
The Missouri Joint Municipal Utilities purchases surplus
electricity not used by Rock Port for use in other areas.
The 5-megawatt (MW) wind project built on agricultural lands
within the city limits of Rock Port includes four 1.25 MW
turbines
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Global Wind Generation I


An annual growth rate of about %30 between 1996 and 2008 ,
which make it one of the worlds fastest growing energy resources
in terms of both coverage and technological innovation

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Global Wind Generation II

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Global Wind Generation


Typical New Wind Farm Cost

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Wind Energy Development in Africa I

Regional Coverage of
Projects by Stage of
Development (% of
projects)

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Wind Energy Development in Africa II

Eight African countries are in the top 27 counties with the


highest potential wind energy, including: Somalia, Sudan, Libya,
Mauritania, Egypt, Madagascar, Kenya, and chad
Mauritanias potential is four times of its annual energy
consumptions in tons of oil equivalent.
Sudans potential is equivalent to 90 percent of its annual energy
needs
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Wind Energy Development in Africa III


Cost of the Electricity Generation by
Technology (2008 USD/Mwh)

( Solar cost is relatively high)

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Wind Energy Development in Ethiopia


The $29m Ashegoda Wind Farm is expected to generate
120MW of electricity easing Ethiopia dependence on
hydropower. And to mitigate the impact of dry seasons on
countrys dams.
The 84-turbine farm is more than 780km north of the capital
Addis Ababa.
Ethiopia plagued by frequent blackouts- planed energy
mix to boost generating capacity from 2,000MW to
10,000MW within the next three to five years.
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Wind Energy Development in Egypt


National Energy Targets were declared
on the end of year 2007
Diversity of Energy Resources
Liberalization of Energy Market
Energy Mix

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Sudan Wind Speed Map


Sudan is blessed with
significant wind
energy resources.
The average monthly
average wind speed
has been measured at
8 meters/second in
the northern region of
the country and along
the Res Sea coast.
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Wind Energy Development in Sudan I


Less than a third of Sudans population had access to
electricity in 2011.
About two-thirds of the electricity is generated from
hydropower resources, while one-fourth comes from
fossil fuels (diesel and fuel oil).

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Wind Energy Development in Sudan II


The Sudanese Government developed renewable
energy power projects with Layhmeyer International,
Germany
The first three projects planned at the following
locations with a total capacity of 300MW , using
foreseen turbine size of 800-2500 kw:
1-Dongola, capacity: 100 MW
2-Red Sea Coast, capacity: 180 MW
3-Nyala, capacity: 20 MW
http://www.lahmeyer.de/en/projects/energy/wind-energy/single/article/wind-energy-development-of-three-wind-farms-in-sudan.html
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Wind Energy Development in Sudan III

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The Maroe Dam & the three projected Dams


Cost and Output
The Meroe Dam

1,250MW Cost =2,500,000,000

The Kagbar Dam


The Dal Dam

300MW

300MW

The Sheraik Dam

Cost = $600,000,000

Cost = $600,000,000

300MW Cost = $ 600,000,000

(This doesnt include the displacement cost)


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Three Dams If Replaced with Wind Farms

The Kagbar Wind Farm


Cost = $400,000,000

200 units X 2MW

The Dal Wind Farm


Cost = $400,000,000

200 units X 2MW

The Sheraik Wind Farm


Cost = $400,000,000

200 units X 2MW

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What is Solar Energy?

Solar Energy is, simply, energy provided by the sun.


Electricity can be produced directly from photovoltaic, PV, cells.
When sunshine hits the PV cell, the photons of light excite the
electrons in the cell and cause them to flow, generating
electricity.

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Facts on Solar Energy I


Solar power is the most exciting use of solar energy. It is how
solar energy is converted into electricity.
The oil crisis of 1970 revealed the delicate nature of fossil fuels
as a source of energy for the world. As such research in
alternative, renewable energy technology like that of solar and
wind energy gained momentum.
Solar energy is one of the most widely used renewable source of
energy. One can use renewable energy technologies to convert
solar energy into electricity.
Space missions by various countries use solar energy to power
their spaceships.

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Facts on Solar Energy II


With new advancements in scientific researches, solar energy
could be more affordable in future with decreasing costs and
increasing efficiency.
Solar energy is the preferred for temporary power For e.g.:
temporary fairs, mining sites, Olympics.
A home solar panel system consists battery that can stores
electricity that can be used at any later time
Though solar energy is used on a wide scale, it only provides a
small fraction of the worlds energy supply.
Large investment is one the primary reason why solar energy is
not still not used by many people all over the world.

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Global Solar Energy

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Solar Energy Map of Africa

Irradiance is a measurement of solar power and is defined as the rate at


which solar energy falls onto a surface (Watts per square meter W/m) .
Irradiance is a measure of power - the rate that energy is falling, not the
total amount of energy
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Solar Energy in Sudan


Solar Energy- Powered Pumps Project for Irrigation in the
Northern Sudan

VS

Providing electricity in the traditional manner and depending


entirely on diesel powered water pumps:
Affects the environment
Very expensive.
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Solar Energy Cost Trend

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Solar VS Wind

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The Archaeological sites destruction and social


damage can not be compensated by the
economical benefits of the new dams.
The wind energy & Solar Energy could be an
excellent alternatives that will cost much less.
The wind energy & Solar Energy are future
assets, while dams are from the past.
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The high cost of dam projects and the


construction duration do not make economical
sense.
The future is to invest in the new and clean
energy (wind and solar).
Long term comprehensive energy mix plans.
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Stott, R., and Smith, L., 2001, River Recovery Project, Restoring Rivers And Streams
Through Dam Decommissioning And Modification, Outdoor Recreation Council of
BC, p. 48.
Tahmisciolu, M., S., Anul, N., 2007, and Ekmekci, F., Positive And Negative Impacts Of
Dams On The Environment: Journal of International Congress On River Basin
Management, p. 759- 769.
http://www.greenoughsolarfarm.com.au/solar-energy/what-solar-energy
http://1.bp.blogspot.com/A1LFXFlCQ4g/UbZIMWItNYI/AAAAAAAABEE/qWkEcTawpCI/s6
40/DNI+world+map.jpg
http://www.conserve-energy-future.com/various-solar-energy-facts.php
http://cleantechnica.com/2014/12/13/sudan-government-invest-213-million-wind-energyproject
/

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