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Christian D.

Mr. Kevin Watson
7 June 2016
AP Assignment – Definition of Terms

(A) contraction – action of acquiring a disease
(B) transmission – the passing of a communicable disease from an infected
host individual or group to a particular individual or group
(C) prevention – the act of preventing a person or a group of people from
obtaining a disease

1) Acinetobacter
a) Acinetobacter outbreaks usually occur in ICUs and healthcare places that
house the very ill. Those with weakened immune systems, chronic lung
disease, or diabetes may be more prone to Acinetobacter infections. Also,
hospitalized patients with invasive devices are at greater risk of infection.
b) Acinetobacter can be spread to vulnerable people via personal contact or
by coming into contact with contaminated surfaces.
c) It can be prevented by following infection control procedures – such as basic hygiene and
environmental cleaning.

2) Burkholderia cepacia
a) Those with certain health problems – such as weakened immune systems
or chronic lung disease (mainly cystic fibrosis) – typically are more prone
to contract B. cepacia; and it is known as a cause of infections in
hospitalized patients.
b) It can be transmitted from contaminated medicines and devices,
contaminated mouthwash (2005, in many states), over-the-counter nasal
spray was once contaminated with it, and it’s linked to nosocomial
infections among ICU patients and associated with exposure to sublingual
(under-tongue) probes. It can be spread to people via person-to-person
contact, contact with contaminated surfaces, and/or exposure to B.
cepacia in an environment.
c) It can be prevented via antibiotics; also careful attention to infection control
procedures – such as hand hygiene – can help in prevention.

3) Clostridium difficile
a) C. difficile is found in feces; thus, people get infected when exposed to
surfaces contaminated with feces, followed by touching their mouths.
b) Healthcare workers spread it to patients when their hands are
contaminated. The elderly – along with people who have other illnesses, or
those taking antibiotics – are prone to infection.

doctors need to not overprescribe antibiotics to their patients. Pseudomonas aeruginosa. etc.c) Frequent hand hygiene and taking antibiotics until the bottle is empty are the most effective means of prevention. 6) Gram-negative bacteria (a) Infections by these bacteria include those caused by Klebsiella. Acinetobacter. however. and those who have been taking antibiotics for a long period of time are most prone to contraction. (c) Hand hygiene. ventilators or wounds. it can enter the body via catheters. b) It is not known how it is transmitted from persons or environment to persons. Health care facilities should also practice infection control and prevention. (b) Infections by these bacteria are spread almost exclusively in healthcare settings. secretions. and continuing to look into abortions in an attempt to decrease infection risks associated with abortions. It is commonly contracted by patients in healthcare settings. Hepatitis B is contracted via sexual contact. etc. Also. and E. (b) Direct contact is the mode of transmission. these bacteria are most commonly transmitted by the hands of healthcare professionals and/or caregivers. and vertical transmission from mothers to their babies. especially regular hand hygiene. Hepatitis C is contracted via sharing needles or other equipment to inject drugs along with having sex with someone else infected with the virus. IVs. and enforcing regular. 5) Enterobacteriaceae (carbapenem-resistance) (a) One can contract it via contaminated body fluids. 4) Clostridium sordellii a) Women are most prone to contracting it following the end of pregnancy. c) The CDC is supporting the FDA in identifying transmission. (c) Organizations such as the IDSA are encouraging drug companies to research and develop new drugs to stop these infections. blood and body fluid transmission. Patients whose care requires devices. protective equipment being worn when in contact with a CRE patient. coli. or excretions. (b) The virus is transmitted when healthcare personnel treats a patient with unrecognized hepatitis A and has diarrhea. syringes. Other similar Clostridium species are spread from person to person and sometimes contaminated surfaces are involved in this transmission. evaluating current data. environmental cleaning and disinfection of all surfaces in a healthcare setting. 7) Hepatitis (a) Hepatitis A is contracted via oral-fecal route.) . Hepatitis B is spread a healthcare setting when body fluid from an infected person enters the body of an unaffected person (typically via needles. and this almost always happens in healthcare settings.

Occurs in patients who are already sick and receiving treatment. The person must be exposed to the bacteria. pneumonia from entering the respiratory tract). 8) Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) . It is mainly thought to pass from person to person through the tiny droplets created through sneezing or coughing. Having unprotected sex or sharing needles during drug injections is how HIV is often transmitted. 10) Klebsiella . Cough etiquette is encouraged. Properly sterilizing medical equipment is also a method of prevention. and cleaning surfaces can prevent the spread of the bacteria. . There is often a particular season associated with more active cases of influenza.Influenza is contracted from a virus.Hepatitis C is transmitted via sharing drug needles and via unprotected intercourse with a carrier (c) Prevention of Hepatitis usually involves sterilizing medical equipment. wearing protective coverings such as gloves.HIV is contracted by coming into contact with bodily fluids or equipment which are contaminated.It is mainly transmitted through bloodborne pathogens but can also be carried through semen.Carrying out proper infection control procedures such as the use of personal protective equipment can prevent the spread of HIV. 9) Influenza . and the method of contraction affects which infection the bacteria can cause (ex. . The use of birthcontrol such as condoms can prevent the spead of HIV during sexual intercourse. .Is not spread through the air. vaginal fluids. . .The influenza vaccine is the best method of prevention.It is considered a community-based infection and is transmitted is households and community settings such as parks. . .Hand washing. It can also be transmitted by solid surfaces. People connected to machines such as ventilators or catheters are at more risk. and even breast milk.

hand hygiene. . and is especially at risk to quickly spread in healthcare facilities and other settings such as schools.Prevented by washing hands with soap or alcohol-based hand sanitizers and careful cleaning of medical equipment. Can spread on workers' hands and on equipment that is not cleaned properly.Transmitted through person to person contact. Children.Patients on breathing machines or with catheters are at high risk for transmission.Spread by contact with another person who has the bacteria on his or her skin or a contaminated object. . .Contracted by common strains of bacteria. It can also be found in medications.Caused by a staph bacteria and is mainly a skin infection. Can be transmitted through food or drink. Common among people in hospitals or nursing homes.Prevented by isolation of infected persons to private rooms in healthcare facilities. . and dust. • Mycobacterium abscessus . . .11) Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus . Can be contracted in water that is not properly treated. 13) Pseudomonas aeruginosa . People are also warned to avoid receiving injections by others who are not licensed. soil. disinfecting equipment.Contracted from a group of viruses.It can cause lung infections in people who have cystic fibrosis and other lung diseases.Bacteria found in water. and it typically occurs in hospitals and people with weak immune systems.Washing your hands after caring for a patient with an infected site is most important. or people with an already existing illness are at risk for severe infection. elderly persons. 12) Norovirus . . . Often enters the body throgh open wounds. the use of gloves. It can also be transmitted through open wounds or injection sites if the skin is not disinfected.

. . prevention comes from ensuring proper treatment of water in pools or hot tubs. 16-17) Vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus and Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus .Prevention of contracting the bacteria comes mainly from following infection control practices. .Contracted from specific staph bacteria. . . or who were previously infected.Prevention comes with environmental controls such as exhaust ventilation and high-effieciency air filters. 15) Tuberculosis (TB) . People with catheters or have recently had surgery are at risk.Transmitted more easily though people with chronic conditions including diabetes or vascular disease.Contracted through specific types of bacteria which are resistant to antimicrobials. Transmission comes from close contact with carriers of infectious tuberculosis and particularly from coughing.Can be prevented in hospitals with attention to infection control practices. Outside of hospitals. Contracted by persons with existing health problems such as kidney disease or diabetes. Prevention also comes with the use of respiratory protection equipment. Avoiding contact with other persons' wounds is also encouraged.Caused by a specific bacteria. . 14) Staphylococcus aureus . Is not spread through the air. .Transmission is most likely to occur from infected patients who have not been placed in isolation and who are not on properly effective therapy for the bacteria.Transmitted through catheters or wounds following surgery. ventilators. . 18) Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) . catheters. More serious infections occur in people with weakened immune systems who are most likely in the hospital.Prevention comes from infection control practices: washing hands and wearing gloves before and after coming into contact with infected patients. heart valve infections. . Most infections occur in hospitals. or transmitted into the bloodstream through puncture wounds or drug abuse. Contraction is well recognized as a risk to patients and workers in healthcare facilities. It is spread through the air and can be carried long distances through the air.Contracted through bacteria found on the skin or in the nose.Transmitted from hand to hand contact with caregivers of infected patients or from contact with surfaces that are contaminated.

To prevent the spread of the bacteria. clean areas of the house frequently.. keep your hands washed especially after using the restroom or having contact with infected persons. wear gloves if caring for wounds. .