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CH1: Intro.

To Programming
1.1 Electronic Computer
1.2 Intro.to Programming
1.3 Program Development Cycle
1.4 Algorithm Design

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1.2 Introduction to Programming


What distinguishes a computer from
other machines is its programmability
Computer software is a general term
used to describe a collection of
computer program that can be loaded
into main memory and executed in the
CPU of a computer.
Software system is essential part of
computer
simplest way divide two categories; OS
and application software
Alternatively, divide into system
software and application software

Interaction of users and computer hardware


through software system

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1.2 Introduction to Programming


OPERATING SYSTEM(OS)
Software program that responsible for
management and coordination of
activities and sharing of computer
resources
An interface between hardware and user
Provides easy and efficient use of system
resource
OS Evolution
o Single_user batch processing: only
do one task at a time
o Early OSs: manage transition
between job(minimize transition
time between jobs)

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1.2 Introduction to Programming


OPERATING SYSTEM(OS)-Continue..
OS Evolution (Continue)
o Multiprogramming: computer
resources are shared by many jobs
or task (user still need to wait for
their output)
o Timesharing (access computer via
terminals): computer runs a small
portion of one job then move on to
service next user
Examples of OS: MS Windows, Linux OS
such Ubuntu, Solaris etc.
In Embedded system, usually used
special purpose dedicated OS where OS
and application program are combined
to reduce the computer resource
requirement
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1.2 Introduction to Programming


OPERATING SYSTEM(OS)-Continue..
OS Evolution (Continue)
o Multiprogramming: computer
resources are shared by many jobs
or task (user still need to wait for
their output)
o Timesharing (access computer via
terminals): computer runs a small
portion of one job then move on to
service next user
Examples of OS: MS Windows, Linux OS
such Ubuntu, Solaris etc.
In Embedded system, usually used
special purpose dedicated OS where OS
and application program are combined
to reduce the computer resource
requirement
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1.2 Introduction to Programming


APPLICATION SOFTWARE
Refers to programs developed to assist
user completing specific task.
Eg. Web browsers such IE can be used to
access website on internet. Word
processing such MS word for writing
docs and CAD/CAM software for design
and manufacturing and games for
entertainment

PROGRAMMING SOFTWARE
Compilers, assemblers and interpreters
allow users to develop their application
programs

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1.2 Introduction to Programming


PROGRAMMING SOFTWARE
Compilers, assemblers and interpreters
allow users to develop their application
programs
Will be discuss in the next sub-topic

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1.2 Introduction to Programming


COMPUTER PROGRAMMING CAN BE
CLASSIFIED INTO TWO
High-level language
Low-level language
High level language are easier to use and
most software are written in high level
language

High-level language is more portable and


easier to use

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1.2 Introduction to Programming


MACHINE LANGUAGE
Is lowest level of language
Called machine code
Contains instruction and data directly
executed by CPU
Each instruction contains 0s and 1s.
ASSEMBLEY LANGUAGE
Use more meaningful language that
machine code
Higher level than machine language
Example of code add

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1.2 Introduction to Programming


HIGH LEVEL COMPILED LANGUAGE
Is readable English like language
Easier to read and write and can be
understand by normal user
Examples; C, C++ programs
Compiler language
HIGH LEVEL SCRIPTING LANGUAGE
Scripting language can also be called
interpreted language
Examples: matlab, mathematica
The use of code similar to C/C++

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