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TI Journals Agriculture Science Developments www.tijournals.com
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Agriculture Science Developments
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Agric. sci. dev., Vol(5), No (3), September, 2016. pp. 28-32

ISSN:

2306-7527

Copyright © 2016. All rights reserved for TI Journals.

Effects of Priming Treatments on Germination and Seedling Growth of Anise (Pimpinella anisum L.)

Batool Mahdavi *

Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Agriculture College, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan, Iran.

*Corresponding author: b.mahdavi@vru.ac.ir

Keywords

Abstract

Germination percentage

Seed priming is a pre-sowing strategy for influencing seedling development by modulating pre-germination

Chitosan

metabolic activity prior to emergence of the radicle and generally enhances germination rate and plant

Pretreatment

performance. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of seed priming on the germination and

Seedling vigour

seedling growth of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.). Seeds were treated by priming with chitosan solutions of 0, 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.5% for 3 h (untreated dry seeds were taken as control). The results showed that each priming treatment had increased the germination percentage, germination rate, seedling vigour index, seed length and weight of shoot and root compared with control. Priming with 0.05 up to 0.2% concentrations of chitosan produced the highest germination and seedling growth compared with control. Therefore, it seems that seed priming with chitosan low concentration could be used for improving

germination and seedlings growth of anise.

  • 1. Introduction

Anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) is belonging to Apiaceae family and widely cultivated for fruit and essential oil. Anise is native to Mediterranean region and cultivated under field conditions in a vast number of countries, especially in Southern Europe and Southeast Asia, but also in the United States, China and Chile [6]. Today, this plant use due to the antimicrobial, antifungal, insecticidal, and antioxidtaive effect on human health [10]. Several approaches including hardening, seed priming, seed soaking and seed coating have been employed to precondition seeds in order to improve germination and seedling growth of various seeds [3]. Seed priming treatments have been employed to accelerate germination, seedling growth and yield in most seeds under normal and stress conditions [2]. The priming-induced increase in the rate of seed germination has been associated with the initiation of germination-related processes [22], repair processes [21] and increase in various free radical scavenging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase have also been demonstrated [9]. chitosan that is a linear β-(1,4)-glucosamine polymer produced by deacetylation of chitin and is an important structural component of several plant fungi cell walls [16]. In agriculture, chitosan has been used in seed, leaf, fruit and vegetable coatings, as fertilizer and in controlled agrochemical release, to increase plant productivity [15], to protect plants against microorganisms [7] and to stimulate plant growth [8]. Zhou et al. [24] suggested that chitosan increase the energy of germination and germination percentage in peanut. In maize, seed priming with two different acidic chitosan solutions improved the germination and seedlings growth [19]. The aim of present study was to determine the effect of different priming treatments on germination and seedling growth of anise.

  • 2. Methodology

    • 2.1 Priming treatments and germination tests

Experiment was conducted in Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan, Iran. It was carried out in germinator in a randomized complete block design in factorial arrangement and with three replications. The seeds of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) were soaked for 3 h at 25◦C in different solutions (0, 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.5% dissolved in 1% acetic acid solution) of chitosan and then were air-dried. Untreated dry seeds were taken as control. Seeds were placed on the 9-cm glass Petri dishes in two layers of Whatman no. 1 filter paper, with 50 seeds per dish. The Petri dishes were placed in a germinator at 20±1◦C.

Computation of germinated seeds was done daily until the end of the eighth day. After that, number of total germinated seed, length and weight of hypocotyl and radicle were measured. The germination percentage was calculated according to Ruan et al. [18].

 

n

Germination percentage=

100

 

N

where n: number of germinated seed on the seventh day and N: number of seeds. Germination rate was calculated according to the formulae of Ramana et al. [17].

Rate of germination =

number of seeds germinated

number of seeds germinated

...

days of first count

days of final count

Seedling vigour index was calculated according to Ajithkumar et al. [1]. Seedling vigour index = (mean root length + mean shoot length) ×(germination percentage /10)

  • 2.2 Data analysis

All data were analyzed using SAS software. When analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant treatment effects, Least significant differences (LSD) test was applied to compare the means at P<0.05.

Germination rate

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Effects of Priming Treatments on Germination and Seedling Growth of Anise (Pimpinella anisum L.)

Agriculture Science Developments Vol(5), No (3), September, 2016.

  • 3. Results and Discussion

The results demonstrated that the effect different priming treatments were significant for germination percentage, germination rate, seedling vigour index, length and weight of shoot and root (Table 1).

  • 3.1 Germination percentage and rate

The present study indicates that priming treatments significantly increased germination percentage and rate compared with control (Fig. 1). Germination percentage and rate increased with chitosan concentration increment up to 0.2%. Whereas, this parameters decreased at 0.5% chitosan concentration. The lowest germination percentage and rate observed in control (Fig. 1) results were reported by Shao et al. [19] who observed that seed treated with chitosan increased the germination percentage of maize seedling. Chandrkrachang [4] reported that chitosan priming could increase the germination rate of cucumber, chili, pumpkin, and cabbage. Katchadat [11] found low chitosan concentration could increase the germination percentage of soybean seed. However, the high dose concentration of chitosan might be toxic to the seeds.

90 a 80 ab ab bc 70 bc bc c 60 50 40 30 20 10
90
a
80
ab
ab
bc
70
bc
bc
c
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
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0
0.01% Ch 0.05% Ch 0.1% Ch
Treatments
0.2% Ch
0.5% Ch
Germination percentage

12

10

8

6

4

2

0

 

a

a

 

a

a

 
 

b

b

b

Control

0

0.01% Ch 0.05% Ch 0.1% Ch Treatments

0.2% Ch

0.5% Ch

Figure 1. Effect of priming different treatments on seed germination percentage and rate of of anise. Ch= Chitosan. Means in each column followed by similar letter(s) are not significantly different at 5% probability level, using LSD test.

  • 3.2 Seedling vigour index

With the increasing chitosan concentaration up to 0.2%, seedling vigour index increased compared to control (Fig. 2). The highest amount of seedling vigour index was obtained with 0.2% chitosan, although no significant difference with 0.1% chitosan. The lowest was amount of seedling vigour index observed in control respectively (Fig. 2). These results agree with Manjunatha et al. [14] in pearl millet, they affirmed that

chitosan treatment enhances seed germination and seedling vigour in pearl millet. Also, Shao et al. [19] showed that chitosan priming increased seedling vigour index in maize.

  • 3.3 Seedling Growth

The results indicated that length and dry weight of shoot increased with increasing chitosan concentrations up to 0.2% (Fig. 3). Seeds pretreated with 0.1% chitosan showed maximum length and weight of shoot, although no significant difference with 0.1% chitosan. (Fig. 3). All levels of chitosan increased the length and weight of root compared to control (Fig. 4). The highest length of root observed at 0.2% chitosan, although no significant difference with 0.1%, 0.05% and 0.01% chitosan (Fig. 4). The highest dry weight of root obtained at 0.2% chitosan, although no significant difference with 0.1% chitosan (Fig. 4).These results agree with Lee et al., [13] in soybean and Kim et al, [12] in sweet basil, they affirmed that chitosan treatment increased seedling growth in these plants. Cho et al., [5] reported that chitosan treatment increased length, thickness and total weight of sunflower hypocotyls compared with control. Also, Sheikha and AL-Malki, [20] observed chitosan increased that the length and weight of shoot and root of beans. Uthairatanakij et al., [23] suggested that chitosan may induce a signal to synthesize plant hormones such as gibberellins and enhance growth and development by some signaling pathway related to auxin biosynthesis.

Seedling vigour index

Shoot length (cm)

Batool Mahdavi *

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Agriculture Science Developments Vol(5), No (3), September, 2016.

600

500

400

300

200

100

0

 

a

 

ab

 
 

bc

 

cd

e

cd

de

a ab bc e cd de Control 0 0.01% Ch 0.05% Ch 0.1% Ch 0.2% Ch

Control

0

0.01% Ch 0.05% Ch

0.1% Ch

0.2% Ch

0.5% Ch

Treatments

Figure 2. Effect of priming different treatments on seedling vigour index of of anise. Ch= Chitosan. Means in each column followed by similar letter(s) are not significantly different at 5% probability level, using LSD test.

2.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

 

a

a

 

b

 
 

bc

bc

bc

c

Control

0

0.01% Ch 0.05% Ch

0.1% Ch

0.2% Ch

0.5% Ch

Treatments

7 a 6 ab abc bc 5 bcd cd d 4 3 2 1 0 Control
7
a
6
ab
abc
bc
5
bcd
cd
d
4
3
2
1
0
Control
0
0.01% Ch 0.05% Ch
Treatments
0.1% Ch
0.2% Ch
0.5% Ch
Dry shoot weight (mg)

Figure 3. Effect of priming different treatments on length and dry weight of shoot of anise. Ch= Chitosan. Means in each column followed by similar letter(s) are not significantly different at 5% probability level, using LSD test.

Root length (cm)

Dry root weight (mg)

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Effects of Priming Treatments on Germination and Seedling Growth of Anise (Pimpinella anisum L.)

Agriculture Science Developments Vol(5), No (3), September, 2016.

5

4.5

4

3.5

3

2.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

 

a

 
 

ab

ab

 

bc

abc

bc

c

Control

0

0.01% Ch 0.05% Ch 0.1% Ch Treatments

0.2% Ch

0.5% Ch

2

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

 

a

 

ab

 
 

bcd

bc

b

cd

d

d
a bcd bc cd d Control 0 0.01% Ch 0.05% Ch 0.1% Ch 0.2% Ch 0.5%

Control

0

0.01% Ch 0.05% Ch

0.1% Ch

0.2% Ch

0.5% Ch

Treatments

Figure 4. Effect of priming different treatments on length and weight of root of anise. Ch= Chitosan. Means in each column followed by similar letter(s) are not significantly different at 5% probability level, using LSD test.

4.

Conclusion

The results showed that seed priming with chitosan improved the germination of anise seed and improved seedling growth. Priming with 0.05 up to 0.2% concentrations of chitosan produced the highest germination and seedling growth compared with control. However, further studies are needed to determine effects of chitosan in germination of anise.

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chloroand 4-chlorobenzoate on tomato seed germination. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 30: 1053–1059. Ashraf M, Foolad MR. 2005. Pre-sowing seed treatments shotgun approach to improve germination, plant growth and crop yield under saline and non-saline

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Journal Arid Agriculture, 5: 11-16 Chandrkrachang S. 200). The application of chitin and chitosan in agriculture in Thailand. In: Suchiva VK, Chandrkrachang S, Methacanon P, Peter MG

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Embong MB, Hadziyev D, Molnar S. 1977. Essential oils from species grown in Alberta. Anise oil (Pimpinella anisum). Canadian Journal of Plant Science,

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Farouk S, Ghoneem KM, Ali Abeer A. 2008. Induction and expression of systematic resistance to downy mildew disease in cucumber plant by elicitors. Egyptian Journal of Phytopathology, 1-2: 95-111.

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Farouk S, Mosa AA, Taha AA, Ibrahim Heba M, EL-Gahmery AM. 2011. Protective effect of humic acid and chitosan on radish (Raphanus sativus L. var.

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Agriculture Science Developments Vol(5), No (3), September, 2016.

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