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Agric. sci. dev., Vol(4), No (4), December, 2015. pp.

52-57

TI Journals

ISSN:

Agriculture Science Developments

2306-7527

www.tijournals.com

Copyright 2015. All rights reserved for TI Journals.

Assessment of Some Factors Affecting the Mechanical Properties of


Potato Tubers
Hadi Mohammad Gharibani *
Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran.

Mansour Rasekh
Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran.

Sina Feyzollahzade Ardebili


Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.
*Corresponding author: hadi_tarkan@yahoo.com

Keywords

Abstract

Deformation
Impact Properties
Mechanical Properties
Potato
Rupture Force

In this study some of the mechanical properties of two varieties of potato, including rupture force and
deformation at the rupture point were determined in the factorial experiment in a completely randomized
design with three elements, including two varieties of potato (Agria and Sabalan), four loading speed (10,
60,110 and 160 mm/min) and three tumor size (less than 110 grams, 110 grams and more than 210 g). The
results showed that the main effect of tumor rupture force and deformation at the point of rupture is
significant at the 1% level and Binary interaction of tumor size and variety for rupture force is significant at
the 1% level, While it is not significant for deformation at the rupture point and the main effect of variety on
deformation at the rupture point is significant at the 1% level. In this study also impact properties of two
varieties of potatoes in a completely randomized design factorial experiment were determined with two
factors, including two varieties (Agria and Sabalan) and four bumpers (cardboard, foam, wood and iron).
The results showed that the main effect of the bumpers on the large diameter of bruising, the small diameter
bruising and the area of bruising is significant at 1% level. While the main effect of variety for the large
diameter of bruising, the small diameter of bruising and area of bruising is not significant.

1.

Introduction

Potato is one of the world's major food products as simple or puree frequently as vegetable and also pulverized in the flour form and used as
sauces in cooking and high digestibility, containing vitamin C, amino acids, protein, thiamin and nicotinic acid. Seed potatoes, consumption of
fresh and processed (fries and chips) and industrial products (starch and its derivatives) are examples of uses of potatoes [7]. Potato production
in the world in 1995 was 280,679,000 tons. 5/51% of world production of potatoes is about European countries, 31.9% Asian, 13.5% of
American States, 6.2% African countries and 5.0% on the Pacific countries. Damages of potato in the United States are expressed about 11% for
harvesting damage and 37% to 57% for storage damage [3].
The mechanical properties of agricultural products has the effective role on determination of quality, reduction of the damages that caused by
shipping and designing equipment for processing. Various factors such as biological factors, environmental factors, conditions and method of
planting, harvesting and storage effect on the various properties of the product. Determination of this properties is essential in order to be used in
designing of equipment on post-harvest processes such as grading, removing, packing, shipping, processing on factories and etc. Is'haq Beigi
(2007) investigated the physical and mechanical properties of five potato varieties [2]. Uniaxial and Triaxial tests were used to determine the
mechanical properties of potato includes enough energy for deformation and tangential elastic modulus. The results showed that only the
tangential elastic modulus of the Agria and the Cosima variety is significant at the 5% difference level (two-sided t-test) in lateral stress levels in
the same position (20% relative deformation). Due to larger values of mean tangential elastic modulus of Agria, it was concluded that the Agria
potato tuber is more rigid than the Cosima potato tuber. In a study by Baritelle et al., (1999), the method of freezing-defrosting of potato tubers
were used to increasing the speed of color changing resulted by the impact [6]. In this study, four varieties of potato after hitting were exposed
on freezing-defrosting process. After the freezing tumor at -15 C for 3 hours, Premorse Layers of the damaged section were placed for 210
minutes at 32 C. Transferring the scanned images to an image processing software, determined the number of black layers for each sample.

2.

Methodology

In this study the mechanical properties of potato tuber in factorial experiment on a completely randomized design were investigated with three
factors including the two varieties (Agria and sabalan), three tuber sizes (less than 110 grams, 110 grams and more than 210 g) and four loading
rate (10, 60, 110 and 160 mm per minute) with seven repeats under the semi-static uniaxial compressive loading. To test the pressure of the
pressure tester STM-20 manufactured Kshsh- Sntam engineering design was used. The test apparatus used in this study was equipped with a load
cell BONGSHIN DBBP-100 model. In order to pressure test the press-traction tester STM-20 manufactured by Santam engineering design was
used. The used test device in this experiment was equipped with a DBBP-100 model BONGSHIN load cell. The compression tests were carried
out on potato tubers of tangency between the two jaws of device and start testing that issued by a computer linked to the device. Both of jaws are
flat plate and lower jaw was fixed and upper jaw was movable. The samples were under pressure until the samples were fractured or reduction of
rupture force in the force-deformation curve was created. Load and deformation at rupture point were obtained and stored directly using the
force-deflection diagram of the experiment (figure 1) and the corresponding force-deformation data.

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Assessment of Some Factors Affecting the Mechanical Properties of Potato Tubers


Agriculture Science Developments Vol(4), No (4), December, 2015.

350

Rupture Force (N)

300
250
200
150
100
50
0
0

10

15

20

25

Deformation (mm)
Figure 1. The Force-Deformation curves for samples of potato tubers under compressive loading

In this study impact properties of potato tubers (large diameter of bruise, small diameter of bruise, the area of bruises) in a completely
randomized design factorial experiment with two factors including two varieties (Agria and Sabalan) and four types of bumpers (carton , foam,
wood and iron) and four repeat of impact test were investigated. To create intentional bruises on potato tubers, impact test device available in the
Biophysics properties laboratory on Agricultural Technology and Natural Resources Faculty of mohaghegh Ardabili University were used that
previously in a study was design and was built [1] (figure 2 ). In this method each potatoes tubers through a metal wire along the center of steel
cylinder were attached to a ball bearing, at the height of 5.1 meters and the impact test was performed and one joule of energy was entered in the
form of impact on the entire tumor. For this purpose, using equation (1) [5], and considering that U = 1 (J), the height of each node should be
released, was calculated. Then angle of a (figure 2) were obtained of trigonometric relationships. A graded plate is embedded on the device that
angles are specified from 0 to 90 on it. By this plate, each samples obtained from the relative angle released to apply one joule energy.

U=mgh

(1 )

where:
U= the gravitational potential energy (J)
m= mass (Kg)
g= gravity Acceleration (9.8 m/s2)
h= Body height (m)

Axis of
rotation

Tuber
Figure 2. Schematic of pendulum impact test machine

After impaction applying, the samples were kept for 24 hours in the freezer to freeze the method is called freezing-defrost method (Baritelle et
al., 1999) Then they were taken out of the freezer to defrost be done and ready to testing. The dimensions of large diameter and small diameter
of bruises were measured by caliper, then the area of bruises was calculated using equation (2) that it is an elliptical area [4]:

S=ab

(2)

where:
a = large diameter of bruises
b = small diameter of bruises
In this study, analysis of variance and impact results of mechanical tests were conducted using a factorial experiment in a completely
randomized design. At the end of each tests, Measurement data with the aid of Excel 2010 software in separate files were classified and storage
then comparing of different levels means treatment with Duncan's multiple range test is done using MSTAT- C software.

Hadi Mohammad Gharibani *, Mansour Rasekh, Sina Faizollahzadeh Ardabili

54

Agriculture Science Developments Vol(4), No (4), December, 2015.

3.

Results and discussion

Variance analysis of variety effect, tumor sizes and speed of loading on the mechanical properties of potato tubers (rupture force, deformation at
the rupture point) are shown in table 1. The main effect of tumor size for all parameters is significant at the 1% level. The main effect of loading
speed and the interaction between tumor size and loading speed is not significant for all parameters. The main effect variety is not significant on
rupture force but it is significant at the 1% level for deformation at the rupture point. The interaction between tumor size and variety is not
significant on deformation at the rupture point but it is significant at 1% level for rupture force. The interaction between variety and loading
speed and also the interaction between tumor sizes and loading speed is not significant for deformation at the point and rupture force.
Table 1. The Analysis results of mechanical properties of potato variance
Deformation at rupture point

Rupture force

Degree of Freedom

352.628 **

2070918.5**

Tumor size

8.375 n.s

25280.245 n.s

Loading rate

5.01 n.s

5349.041 n.s

Loading rate * Tumor size

12.084 n.s

Variety

1.819 n.s

52432.018**

Variety * Tumor size

7.08 n.s

11314.308 n.s

Variety * Loading rate

variety*loading rate*tumor size

144

Error

**

167.39

12144.044

5.516

n.s: non-significant

small
mean
large

900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0

10794.709

rupture force(N)

**: significant at 1% level

n.s

5.893

n.s

Variation Sources

Agria

Patato variety

Sabalan

LSD VALUE =54.89


Figure 3. Results of the interaction effect of tumor size and variety on rupture force

Deformation at rupture
point (mm)

As shown in figure 3 rupture forces of both variety increases significantly with increasing tumor size and the greater tumor size has greater
rupture force. Larger tumors due to their large size, is more resistant to rupture point and rupture force increases with increasing tumor size.
Comparing rupture force of both varieties on Small and medium-size of tumors, shows that Sabalan variety has greater rupture force than the
Agria one but on large size of tumor Sabalan variety rupture force is less than the rupture force of Agria variety. It can be said greatly increasing
rupture force by increasing the size of tubers, in Agria variety is more than Sabalan variety and it is due to large rupture resistant of Agria variety
Compared to sabalan variety.

25
20
15

10
5
0
Small

Mean
Tumor sizes

Large

LSD VALUE=0.8773
Figure 4. Results of the main effect the tumor size results on deformation at the rupture point

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Assessment of Some Factors Affecting the Mechanical Properties of Potato Tubers


Agriculture Science Developments Vol(4), No (4), December, 2015.

Deformation at rupture
point point(mm)

As shown on figure 4 it is clear that increasing on tumor sizes significantly increases deformation at the rupture point and three averages have
significant differences. The reason for this is that the larger tumor size has the greater required deformation to rupture. The average deformation
of the tumors rupture for small, medium and large sizes is equal to 19/28mm, 17/41mm and 14/31mm.

20
15
10
5
0
Agria

Sabalan
Variety

Figure 5. Results of the main effect of deformation on the rupture point

According to figure 5, it is clear that the deformation at the rupture point of Sabalan variety is significantly greater than the Agria variety. This
means that the Sabalan variety has the greater deformability to the breaking point. The reason is that the tissue of Sabalan is more sensitive than
Agria. The mean deformation at the rupture point for Agria and sabalan would-be 18/001mm and 16.004mm, respectively.
The variance analysis and the effects of the Bumper on impact properties of potato (the large diameter of bruise, the bruise small diameter and
the area of bruise) are shown in Table 2. According to table 2, it is clear that the main effect of bruise levels for large diameter, small diameter
and the area of bruising is significant at 1% level. The main effect and the interaction between the surface and variety is not significant for large
diameter, small diameter and the area of bruising.
Table 2. The Analysis results of impact properties variance of potato
Bruising area
767964.262

The small diameter of bruising

**

196.243

The large diameter of bruising

**

288.225

**

Degree of Freedom

Variation resource

Damper surface

24079.179 n.s

8.820 n.s

8.000 n.s

Variety

77046.562 n.s

25.388 n.s

19.902 n.s

Damper surface*Variety

37.971

44.304

24

Error

147252
**: significant at 1% level

n.s: non-significant

Large diemeter of
broising(mm)

Figure7 shows the results of the comparison of bumpers effect on the large diameter of bruising, fig.8 shows the results of the comparison of the
main surface effects on small diameter of bruising and the fig.9 shows the results of the comparison of effects of the bumper on an area of
bruising.
As shown on figure 6, Foam and Carton and also iron and wood surfaces has no significant difference. But the iron and wood surfaces have
significant differences compared to, foam and Carton surfaces. The large diameter of bruising on the Carton and the foam surfaces is less and
about the wood and the iron is more. The reason is that the wood and the iron surfaces are stronger and the carton and the foam surfaces are
softer and partly act as bumper. The maximum average value of bruising related to the wood and it is equal to 44.34mm and the minimum
average value of bruising related to the foam and it is equal to 32.59mm.

50
40

30
20
10
0
Carton

Foam

Wood
type of surface

Iron

LSD VALUE = 6.869


Figure 6. Results of the main effect of surface on the large-diameter of bruising

Hadi Mohammad Gharibani *, Mansour Rasekh, Sina Faizollahzadeh Ardabili

56

Agriculture Science Developments Vol(4), No (4), December, 2015.

As shown on figure7, the iron and the wood surfaces and also the foam and the carton surfaces have no significant difference but the iron and the
wood surfaces compared to the foam and the carton surfaces compared to have significant difference. As the large diameter of bruising, the small
diameter of potato bruising on the carton and the foam surfaces is minimum value and on the wood and the iron surfaces is maximum value,
because the wood and the iron are harder than the foam and the carton. The maximum average value of the small diameter of bruising related to
wood is equal to 36.99mm and bruising related to the foam has the lowest average small diameter and it is equal to 27.19mm.

density(gr/cm3)

40
30

Wood

Iron

20
10
0
Carton

Foam
surface
LSD VALUE = 6.359

Figure 7. Results of the main effect of surface on the small diameter of bruising

Broising Area(mm2 )

As shown on figure 8 the iron and the wood surfaces and the foam and the carton surfaces have no significant differences but the iron and the
wood surfaces have a significant difference compared to the foam and the carton surfaces. The bruising area of potato on the carton and the foam
surfaces is minimum value and on the wood and the iron surfaces is maximum value because the carton and the foam surfaces are softer than the
iron and the wood surfaces. The best case related to the foam that the mean value obtained from the area of bruising is 707.5mm2 and the worst
related to the wood that the mean value obtained from the bruising area is 1312mm2.

1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0

Carton

Wood

Iron

Foam
Surface
LSD VALUE=396

Figure 8. The comparison results of the main effects of the surface area on bruising

4.

Conclusion
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.

Compressive load test can be an appropriate method for determining the mechanical properties of different varieties of potatoes and
similar agricultural products. Because during this test by the force-deformation curve obtained from the pressure loading can be
realized to the strength properties of the basic parameters include deformation at the rupture point, rupture energy and rupture force of
the tested product.
Increasing on tumor size, increases rupture force and deformation at the rupture point.
Loading speed for the mechanical properties of potato Agria and Sabalan varieties (rupture force and deformation at the rupture point)
is not significant.
Deformation at rupture point for Sabalan variety is more than Agria variety.
The large diameter and the small diameter of bruising of potato tubers on carton and foam surfaces has the lowest and for the wood
and the iron surfaces has the highest values. The best case related to the foam that it has less bruising diameter and the worst related to
the wood.
Bruising area of potato tubers on the carton and the foam surfaces is the minimum and for the wood and the iron surfaces is the
maximum value. The best case related to the foam that it has less bruising area and the worst related to the wood
Using foam and carton surfaces as a bumper on packaging and transportation of the potato crop is effective in order to avoid bruising
and damage caused by dynamic loads of this product.

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Agriculture Science Developments Vol(4), No (4), December, 2015.

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[6]
[7]

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