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Tungabhadra Project: Gravity Based Micro Irrigation

Several agencies and researchers have thoroughly studied the


problems facing the TBP command area over the years. Tail-end
deprivation is well known and well documented as huge tracts of command
area in tail-end is deprived of irrigation water and have low productivity.
About 40% of the tail-end areas suffer from either full or partial water
deprivation leading to low agricultural productivity. In addition, an estimated
96,215 hectares is affected by water logging, salinity, alkalinity as per the
Annual Report: 2009-2010 of the Command Area Development Authority,
Tungabhadra Project, Munirabad, thereby causing reduced crop
production.
A number of approaches were adopted over the decades to solve
these problems, for example, lining the canals with precast slabs,
participatory irrigation management (PIM), formation of Water Users
Cooperative Societies (WUCS), cement concrete lining with a estimated
cost of Rs 1,844 Crores (as per the Detailed Project Report of
Modernization of Canal System of Tungabhadra Project, 2011-12) from
2008-9 onwards. However despite all these intervention there is marginal
impact on deprivation and large parts remain without irrigation water. As
the irrigation duty is only 0.42 lps/ha in the entire TLBC command and
much worse for most of the command area, there is just not enough water
with the conventional methods for farmers to grow financially attractive
crops. There is clear need to adopt effective solutions and new technology.
Gravity Based Micro Irrigation Concept: Gravity based Micro-irrigation
treats the potential head available because of unique topographical
features as a useful natural resource in addition to the quantity of water.
Both of these natural resources- water quantity and potential head, are
preserved and supplied through pipelines to agricultural fields in the form of
pressurized pipe flow, suitable for micro-irrigation, to fulfill the irrigation
water needs of the command area. There is possibility of covering about
80% of command area through this method. In view of the prevalent
situation adoption of gravity based micro-irrigation at large scale remains a
potential solution that can fulfill the water needs of the existing culturable
command area and can also expand it, by covering non-irrigated areas
within the Gross Command Area.

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Major Pipeline Projects:


The Goldfields Water Supply Scheme: The scheme was designed and
built under the supervision of CY O'Connor between 1898 and 1903 to
pump fresh water from the Darling Range near Perth 560 km east to the
arid Goldfields. The scheme was designed with eight separate sections to
overcome the difficulty of pumping water uphill over such a great distance.
A dam, the pipeline and eight pump stations were the main components of
the scheme. Cost of scheme was 2,655,220, ($5,310,440) in 1903,
Number of pipes used 60,000, Amount of water 5.6 million gallons daily,
(25.5 million kilolitres).
Pipeline: The pipes were made of steel plates imported flat from Germany
and America. Two steel plates were bent to form semi-circles and joined
using the innovative locking bar system invented by Mephan Ferguson.
The locking bar replaced the practice of riveting the plates together. This
new system minimized the risk of leakage as no holes were drilled into the
pipes and it also reduced internal friction as there were no rivet heads to
slow the flow of water inside the pipes. Where possible the pipeline was
built alongside the route of the existing railway line to enable the pipes to
be easily transported. The length of the train carriages determined the
length of the pipes (28 feet or 8.5 metres). The pipes were laid in trenches
to reduce contraction and expansion caused by temperature extremes.
Lengths of pipe were joined as they were laid using a process that packed
the joint with lead, known as caulking. Over 60,000 joints were required
and this process was done by hand until a caulking machine that produced
consistent joints and saved time and labour was invented.
Mundaring Weir: A dam, known as Mundaring Weir, was built on the
Helena River to store water to be pumped to the Goldfields. O'Connor's
assistant, TC Hodgson considered 17 sites before choosing this one. In
1898, during the excavation of the weir foundations, a huge boulder was
unexpectedly revealed. When it was removed a deep fault in the bedrock
was found. Overcoming these problems delayed construction for one year.
The concrete wall was completed in June 1902. A construction camp on
the site was home to around 300 workers and their families during the
building of the weir.
The Wimmera Mallee Pipeline Project: The Wimmera Mallee Pipeline
Project (WMPP) is the largest water infrastructure project in Australia,
replacing 18,000 kilometres of inefficient earthen channel with 9,159
kilometres of pressurized pipeline and associated structures. Construction
of this great engineering feat commenced in November 2006 with the last
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pipe being laid in April 2010 - well ahead of the ten year timeframe
originally proposed and within the $688 million project budget. Official
opening of the Wimmera Mallee Pipeline took place on 15 April 2010. The
pipeline project is supplying water to 36 towns and over 7,000 rural
communities with high quality and reliable water supply.
Virginia Pipeline Scheme: This scheme in Northern Adelaide Plains,
South Australia was Completed in 1999. This waste-water reuse scheme
includes 150 km of pipeline distribution network to supply recycled water to
200 square kilometres of horticultural land. The Virginia Pipeline project
was one of the first of its type in South Australia, and consequently, a
similar scheme has been completed, south of Adelaide. This scheme
Plays a significant role in reducing pollution into marine environment by
70%. Provides opportunity to secure access to water, a particularly limited
resource in the context of a semi-arid climate where existing groundwater
resources were facing overuse. Provides about 250 vegetable growers
with reliable supply of water, to a quality suitable for irrigation use.
Estimated volume of recycled water is 22,500 ML per year which
represents over 50% of annual plant flow. (Source: Kracman, Martin, &
Sztjanbok, 2001)
Northern Mallee Pipeline: This project in Northern Mallee, Victoria was
Completed in 2002. The project makes provision of an alternative water
distribution system: Conversion of earthen channels to 2500 km pipelines
for stock and domestic water supply system in agricultural region. Project
commenced in 1991 and completed 2002. It has several benefits such as:
Security of water supply on farms for stock, and increased, effectiveness of
pesticides & spray units, Increased flexibility of water systems on farms,
Increase productivity of land through channel decommissioning, Improved
quality of farm life and increased financial security. Estimated volume of
water recovered is 50, 000 ML per year. The project also helps in increased
environmental flows with an allocation of 34,000ML per year. (Source:
WIDCORP, 2006)
The Tungamah Pipeline- Lake Mokoan project: The project situated near
Benalla, Victoria was completed in 2006-07. A water recovery scheme
involving decommissioning of Lake Mokoan and installation of 360km of
pipelines to replace 520km highly inefficient earthen channels. The
Tungamah pipeline links the Tungamah domestic and stock system
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between Shepparton and Yarrawonga. The project envisages to provide


reliable water supply to irrigators. Estimated volume of water recovered is
18,000 ML per year for environmental flows to the Snowy River. Also help
to restore flows to Broken and Goulburn Rivers.

Performance of Micro-Irrigation Schemes


Several pilot projects have been taken up in Karnataka and other parts of
India during last two decades. Performance of these projects demonstrates
efficacy, efficiency and effectiveness of micro irrigation systems. However review
and study of the existing pilot projects on micro irrigation indicates that not only
the technology has been fully demonstrated but also reasonably large pilot
projects have been successfully completed. Some of these schemes are reviewed
below:
Shiggaon Lift Irrigation Scheme: Shiggaon Lift Irrigation Scheme is
proposed to irrigate 9900 ha dry lands in 30 villages of Shiggaon, Savanur
and Hanagal Taluks in Haveri district. The villages coming under this
scheme are poverty offended drought area. Agriculture is the economic
activity of the Haveri district. Low annual rainfall of the order of 532 mm
coupled with large variance in annual rainfall and uncertainty within a year
causes the agriculture a risky venture. Hence the proposed scheme
envisages diversion of 42.45 M. Cum (1.5 TMC) of water by constructing a
diversion weir across Varada River near Halasur village of Savanur taluk,
Haveri district, lifting of water to higher lands and providing Sprinkler
Irrigation facility. Thus providing irrigation and stabilizing the agricultural
production and improving per capita income and standard of living of the
people.
Shiggaon LIS is proposed to irrigate dry lands in villages of Shiggaon,
Savanur and Hanagal taluks of Haveri district. The Jackwell is located at
Longitude 75017'00?E and Latitude 140 51'00?N near Halasur village of
Savanur Taluka. The project site (Head works) is approachable by Road
and is at a distance of 21km along NH-4 from Shiggaon, the Taluk head
quarters. The total water allocated for the proposed project is 42.45 M.Cum
(1.5 TMC) but the current utilization of water for the proposed project is
31.696 M.Cum (1.12 TMC) by adopting Sprinkler Irrigation with piped
conveyance system as suggested by EAC, MoEF and thereby saving 10.77
M.Cum (0.38 TMC) of water. Further, the quantum of saved water will be
utilized for irrigating balance area through sprinkler irrigation at later stages.
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The scheme also envisages construction of 6 Bandaras and to provide


drinking water facility and sub soil replenishment by filling of existing MI
tanks with in the command area. The proposed project doesnt envisage
displacement of the families/houses for the project activities. The total land
required for the project is 45 ha which is dry in nature and will be acquired
as per Land Acquisition Act, 1894. Land resources conservation achieved
is 94%. The total cost of the project is ` 238 Crores and the Benefit cost
ratio is 1.28.
AP Micro Irrigation Project (APMIP): After successfully completing pilot projects,
Andhra Pradesh has taken up micro irrigation at large scale having an area of 1.5
lakh acres under Andhra Pradesh Micro Irrigation Project (APMIP). Plans and
survey number wise details for an ayacut of about 80,000 acres in Alimineti
Madhava Reddy Project (AMR Project) under packages 77, 78, 79, 80 and
Distributary Nos.16 & 7/A are furnished to Andhra Pradesh Micro Irrigation
Project (APMIP) authorities for implementation of Micro Irrigation by Kharif in
2007. The above area has been allocated to 11 M.I companies by the APMIP
authorities. For the entire ayacut of 2 lakh acres developed under the lift
irrigation projects of Pulivendula Branch Canal, Lingala and Gandikota in
Rayalaseema region, use of micro-irrigation systems such as sprinklers and drips
has been made mandatory. As in the case of other lift schemes, the government
of A.P. has taken a policy decision to make sprinklers and drips a must for the
farmers of these three lift schemes to ensure optimum utilisation of the scarcely
available water.
Government of A.P. estimates that under micro-irrigation system one tmcft
(thousand million cubic ft) of water can irrigate 15,000 acres instead of 10,000
acres under traditional system. It also clarified that all the ayacut under these
three lifts would switch over to micro-irrigation systems from January 2009. The
AP Government announced 90 per cent subsidy purchase of micro-irrigation
systems and related equipments. The pilot micro-irrigation projects being
implemented under AMR Canal in Nalgonda and Pulivendula Branch Canal in
Kadapa were considered successful.
All India Experience: A number of pilot projects as well as full scale micro
irrigation projects are implemented all over India. These projects have invariably
resulted in success on the basis of a number of parameters. Evaluation Study of

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Centrally Sponsored Scheme on Micro Irrigation, Conducted by NABARD


Consultancy Services Private Limited, (NABCONS), March 2009 are as follows:
1) Major impact of drip irrigation was found tobe crop diversification.
2) Savings of irrigation water due to sprinkler was found to vary from 40 to 65
percent for horticulture crops, ground nut and cotton it was 35-40 percent
and for vegetables it was 30 to 47 percent.
3) Adoption of micro irrigation resulted in significant reduction of labour
(irrigation, weeding, harvesting) and aided convenience by eliminating
drudgery in form management.
4) Savings in irrigation water due to micro irrigation resulted in directly
reduction of power consumption.
5) Adoption of micro irrigation resulted in significant increase in yields in all
major crops. The impact of micro irrigation technology on yield was
pervasive.
6) Micro irrigation technology also reported by the beneficiaries to have
resulted in improved quality of produce and therefore resulting in
realization of higher prices.
7) Gross Value of Produce (GVP) per hectare increased with adoption of micro
irrigation, which varied from crop to crop and state to state.
Internationally there are several success stories including that of Israel which has
over 50% of total area under micro irrigation. At this stage it is possible to adopt
the technology at large scale without any need for taking up another pilot project,
as the technology has been amply demonstrated and also successfully working for
last several decades.
Tungabhadra Project: Gravity Based Micro-Irrigation: TLBC Bed Level at Offtake Sluice is +472.44 m and at Tail-end +362.02 m. Thus a potential head
of 110.42 m (363.40 Feet) is available along the Main Canal itself. In
addition there are bed level differences of about 50-70 meters along the
distributaries. For example D-36 has +433.75 m total head at offtake and
+384.44 m at tail-end. Thus 49.31 m additional head is available along D36. Further potential head becomes available along the minors.
Tungabhadra Reservoir Project command area thus offers a unique
opportunity in view of its topographical features in combination with suitable
canal hydraulic particulars, making it possible to convert open channel
based irrigation system into gravity based pressurized pipe flow system
suitable for micro irrigation like drip and sprinkler in large portion of the
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command area, without any need for electric power and pumping
machinery.
Upstream Pipeline: The system envisaged here consists of a Pipeline starting from
Bhoruka Reservoir located at Km 17 (Mile 10) on TLBC and moving South-East and
subsequently running parallel to Raichur Gangavathi State Highway. The Pipeline
extends upto D-36. Location of the pipeline is shown in google map below:

Design data for u/s Pipeline is as follows: The Pipeline has a length of 58.20 Km,
diameter 4.00 m, flow velocity 1.775 m/sec. and discharges 22.07 Cumecs (779.40
Cusecs) of water to irrigate 1,16,908 Acres Ayacut at a duty of 150 Acers per
cusecs. The Pipeline intake has +474.77 m total head and exit elevation is +393.00
m, thus a potential head of 81.77 m (268.27 Feet) is available along this Pipeline.
The pipe flow calculations are made using Hazen-William Equation with a friction
factor of 141 for concrete pipes of diameter larger than 1.20 m. Ground level
profile along the Pipeline alignment is also shown in the above figure. Calculation
results are shown in figures below:
U/s Pipeline: Ground Level Profile:
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Ground Level in m

480 471

Pipeline_us Gound Level

454454
452
445443444449
445
437438

460
440

425 424
424
417 417
416
415
414 412414
412
407407
404403
403407
402
394
393

420
400
380
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Distance in m

U/s Pipeline- Dynamic Pressure Head:


80
68
67
70
61 61
60
59
55
54 54
54
60
49
49
48
47
47
47
46
50
39
38
37
33 31
40
28 29 28
22
22
22
30
14
14
20
10 4
0

Pressure Head in m

Pipeline_us: Dynamic Pressure Head

10

20

30

40

50

60

Distance in m

82
81
90
73
72
71 72
80
68
68 68
63
63 61
61
70
60
59
58
58
51
51
60
50
50
38 37
40
30 32 31
30
26
23
21 21
30
20
10 4
0

Pressure Head in m

Pipeline_us: Static Pressure Head

10

20

30

40

50

60

Distance in m

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Head Loss in m

1.00

Pipeline_us: Head Loss

0.80
0.60
0.40
0.20
0.00
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Distance in m

Ground Level in m

Sub-Distributary From Upstream Pipeline: This Pipeline is selected to


demonstrate that in worst case scenario also enough pressure head is available.
The Pipeline has a length of 14.00 Km, diameter 0.90 m, flow velocity 1.50 m/sec.
and discharges 0.945 Cumecs (33.33 Cusecs) of water to irrigate 5,000 Acres
Ayacut at a duty of 150 Acers per cusecs. The Pipeline intake has +461.374 m total
head and exit elevation is +434.00 m, thus a potential head of 27.374 m (89.81
Feet) is available along this Pipeline. The pipe flow calculations are made using
Hazen-William Equation with a friction factor of 141. Ground level profile along
the Pipeline alignment is also shown in the above figure. Calculation results are
shown in figures below:
445
435
425
415
405
395
385
375
365
355
345

407
393

413

413

414

417

422

427

423

423

426

11

12

434

435

434

13

14

15

398

US_PIPE_SD: Ground Level

10

Distance in Km

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80

68

Pressure Head in m

70

US_PIPE_SD: Dynamic Pressure Head

62
52

60

46

50

45

44

40

40

35

29

33

33

30

30

22

21

22

13

14

15

20
10
0
1

10

11

12

Distance in Km

80

68

Pressure Head in m

70

US_PIPE_SD: Static Pressure Head

63
54

60

48

48

50

47

44

39

40

34

38

38

35

27

26

27

12

13

14

15

12

13

14

15

30
20
10
0
1

10

11

Distance in Km

1.20

US_PIPE_SD: Head Loss

Head Loss in m

1.00
0.80
0.60
0.40
0.20
0.00
1

10

11

Distance in Km

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Downstream Pipeline: Another major pipeline is proposed from KM 167.372


(Mile 106.50) towards Tungabhadra River in the South-East Direction as shown in
the figure below. The Pipeline intake is just upstream of balancing reservoir and
as well as canal drop.

The Pipeline has a length of 35 Km, diameter 4.00 m, flow velocity 1.50 m/sec.
and discharges 18.57 Cumecs (656 Cusecs) of water to irrigate 1,31,221 Acres
Ayacut at a duty of 200 Acers per cusecs. The Pipeline intake has +419 m total
head and exit elevation is +369.00 m. The pipe flow calculations are made using
Hazen-William Equation with a friction factor of 141 for concrete pipes of
diameter larger than 1.20 m. Ground level profile along the Pipeline alignment is
also shown in the above figure. Calculation results are shown in figures below:

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Pressure Head in m

PIPE-DS: Pressure Head


70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

Distance in Km

430
Ground Level in m

420

PIPE-DS: Ground Levels

410
400
390
380
370
360
350
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
Distance in Km

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PIPE-DS: Static Pressure Head


Pressure Head in m

70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

Distance in Km

The main conclusion can be drawn from above calculations that just beyond 5 Km
head reach of this Pipeline, there is about 10-15 meters pressure head is
available. Dynamic pressure head reaches upto 60 m and static head upto 63 m. It
can also be seen that the Pipeline passes through the undulating ground and it is
possible to refine the alignment after detailed survey and contour maps are
prepared. Also, the results indicate that there is enough pressure head available
above the hillocks and all the high grounds and hillocks can be covered under this
system. This offers an opportunity that entire gross command area can be
brought under pressurized pipe flow irrigation.
Pipeline D-36: This calculation is made to demonstrate that the concept of gravity
based micro-irrigation can be applied to individual distributaries also as entirely
independent system. This also offers opportunity for phased implementation of
this concept.

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Ground Level in m

The Pipeline has a length of 39.010 Km, diameter 3.00 m, flow velocity
1.272 m/sec. and discharges 8.95 Cumecs (316.23 Cusecs) of water to irrigate
47,434 Acres Ayacut at a duty of 150 Acers per cusecs. The Pipeline intake has
+433.75 m total head and exit elevation is +384 m. Thus the Pipeline has a
potential head of 49.75 m (163.22 Feet). The pipe flow calculations are made
using Hazen-William Equation with a friction factor of 141 for concrete pipes of
diameter larger than 1.20 m. Ground level profile along the Pipeline alignment is
also shown in the above figure. Calculation results are shown in figures below:
445
435
425
415
405
395
385
375
365
355
345

D-36: Ground Level

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36
Distance in Km

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Pressure Head in m

45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

42 40
33

20

22 22

25 24

28

26 27

37 36 39

42

38

35
31

28 29

34
30

34
32

33 33
25

D-36: Dynamic Pressure Head

13 13
7 7
1 2 1 1 2

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
17 18 19in20
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36
Distance
Km

Pipe Diameter in m

D-36: Pipe Diameter

3
3
2
2
1
1
0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

Pressure Head in m

Distance in Km

90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

D-36: Static Pressure Head

1 3 2 2 3

9 9

15 16

23 25 26

30 29

34 32

34 35 37

41

51 50 48 48 51 48

56 56 55

55

79
60 62

84

65

45

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36
Distance in Km

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Calculation results clearly indicate that over 10 m pressure head is available at 8


Km from Distributary Off-take. Maximum head available reaches upto 42 meters.

Ground Level in m

Sub-Distributary 36/6: Additional head available is for Sub-Distributary 36/6. The


Pipeline has a length of 7.63 Km, diameter 1.10 m, flow velocity 1.000 m/sec. and
discharges 0.944 Cumecs (33.33 Cusecs) of water to irrigate 5,000 Acres Ayacut at
a duty of 150 Acers per cusecs. The Pipeline intake has +422.445 m total head and
exit elevation is +364.000 m. Thus the Pipeline has a potential head of 58.445m
(191.75 Feet). This is much larger than D-36 head 49.75 m (163.22 Feet).
395
390
385
380
375
370
365
360
355
350
345

390

391

388

386

388
382
374

370

D-36/SD6: Ground Level

364

Distance in Km

Pressure Head in m

60

D-36/SD-6: Dynamic Pressure


Head 55
49

50

45

40

37

36
31

30

32

30

32

20

10
0
1

Distance in Km

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Pressure Head in m

70

D-36/SD-6: Static Pressure


Head
52

60

48

50
40

58

36

40
32

31

34

34

30

20
10
0
1

Distance in Km

The main conclusion can be drawn from above calculations that just beyond 8 Km
head reach of this Pipeline, there is about 10-15 meters pressure head is
available. It can also be seen that the Pipeline passes through the undulating
ground and it is possible to refine the alignment after detailed survey and contour
maps are prepared. Also, the results indicate that there is enough pressure head
available above the hillocks. This offers an opportunity that entire gross command
area can be brought under pressurized pipe flow irrigation.

Small Scale Gravity Based Micro-Irrigation: Conditions and requirements for


large scale schemes described above are completely different from small scale
schemes considered here. A number of potentially promising locations are
available on TLBC system suitable for Small Scale Gravity Based Micro-Irrigation.
These locations offer unique geographical features of the command area in
combination with suitable canal hydraulics, making it possible to convert open
channel based irrigation into gravity based pressurized pipe flow suitable for
micro irrigation like drip and sprinkler, without any need for electric power and
pumping machinery. For example, just downstream of Bhadruka Reservoir and
Hydel Power Station there is a small command area that can be completely
converted to pressurized flow on pilot basis, as 17.85 meters head is available.
Additionally between Km. 0.00 to 30 many places offers suitable conditions. Other
potential locations are three mini Hydel Power Stations at Sirwar (Km. 174.00)
with 9.37 Meters head, Ganekal (Km. 182.00) with 11.66 Meters head and

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Kalmala (Km. 199.00) with 7.62 Meters head appear to-be suitable sites and may
be taken up on pilot basis.
For the purpose of feasibility study for small scale schemes, location of
Bhoruka Reservoirs offers suitable conditions. Here Distributaries No. 9, 10 and
10A have command areas of 675, 183 and 563 Acres respectively. These
distributaries have designed discharges of 25.12, 12.53 and 20.00 cusecs
respectively and duties of 27, 15 and 18 Ac/Cusecs respectively.

Figure x: Areas near Three mini


Hydel power stations at Kms. 174,
182 and 199 With Available Head of
9.37, 11.66 & 7.62 Meters Head offer
suitable sites for gravity based
pressurized Micro Irrigation.

Figure 4: downstream of Bhadruka


Power Station there is small
command area that can completely
converted to pressurized flow on
pilot basis.

Pipeline D9_D10_D10A: This Pipeline takes off from Bhoruka Reservoir located at
Km 17 (Mile 10.00) of the Tungabhadra Left Bank Main canal. The Pipeline
replaces Distributaries No. 9, 10 and 10A, those have very high water
consumption as their duties are only 25.12, 12.53 and 20.00 Acers/Cusecs
respectively. Length of the Pipeline is 6.75 Km and initial diameters 0.90 m (3
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Feet) from Km 0.00 to Km 4.00, and 0.60 m (2 Feet) from Km 4.00 to Km 6.75. The
Pipeline has a duty of 50 Ac/Cusecs, discharge 0.8046 Cumecs (28.42 Cusecs), and
ayacut 1421 Acres.

Ground Level in m

465

458

458

452

447

444

444

445
425

442

433

D9_D10_D10A: Ground Level

405

385
365
345
1

Pressure Head in m

Distance in Km
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

37
27

26

28

26

21
17

16

D9_D10_D10A Dynamic Pressure Head


1

4
5
Distance
in Km

Pressure Head in m

50
40

D9_D10_D10A: Static Pressure Head

30

31

28

42
33

31

23

20

17

17

10
0
1

Distance in Km

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Indicative Estimate:
U/s Pipeline including

Rs 500 Crores.

Full TLBC Command:

Rs. 2,000 Crores

Cost of per Acre:

Rs. 40,000/-

Gross Command Area:

7,50,000 Acres

Localized Area:

6,05,000 Acres

New Irrigated Area:

1,20,000 Acres

Conclusions: These gravity based systems potentially offer several advantages


over the present flood irrigation system. Gravity based flow is highly reliable as
there is no need for electricity, which is very irregular. Gravity based system is
cheap as there is no need for expensive electricity and hence no energy cost. Low
capital cast for gravity based systems as no electrical motors, pumping sets etc.
Low maintenance cost as no machinery is required. Very robust and reliable
system as it has fever moving parts. Potentially huge saving (40 to 60%) in scarce
water resources. Accurate volumetric measurements becomes practical and
feasible. Water logging problem can be avoided as there is controlled water
application. Soil salinity problems can be avoided. Formers can enjoy assured
water supply and improve their productivity and diversification for achieving
economic prosperity. Farmers can enjoy flexibility in water use and can use this
flexibility to produce economically and commercially attractive crops. The system
completely eliminates rigidity of timing, quantity and method of water availability.
Completely avoids the need for expensive soil reclamation and subsoil drainage.
Only possible way to convince the head reach water users to willingly agree to
reduced water consumption because this makes economic sense.
Objectives for gravity based micro irrigation system may be listed as below:
Gravity based Micro-Irrigation Systems uses Natural Topographical Situations.
Complete Adoption of Volumetric based Water Supply. Introducing flexibility in
Water Availability to Individual Water Users. Fixed Quota of Water allocated with
full freedom to use it as per their best needs. Prevent the need for drainage of
polluted standing water and avoid fresh water supply.

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Tranche 1: The following works are suggested tobe taken up in Tranche 1, in view
of very tight time schedules and other constraints:
1) Bhoruka Small Scale Gravity Based Micro-Irrigation.
2) Further investigations and topographical survey for large scale schemes.
3) Preparation of Detailed Project Reports.
4) Preparing documentations for obtaining permissions from Central Water
Commission etc.
Dr M K Khaishagi,
Irrigation, O&M Engineer
26th May 2012.

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