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Lauren Gibbons

Standard Enthalpy of Alcohols:

Data Collection and Observations:

Table 1: Observations of both the Temperature Change of 250 ml of Water heated from the
Combustion Alcohols of Different Carbon Lengths as well as the total amount of alcohol
combusted.

Mass of Initial Final Temperature Final Mass Initial Change in


H20 in Temp Temp Change of Alcohol mass of Mass (g)
can burner in alcohol
(± (± (°C) (g) burner (g)
(±.01 g) 0.1°C) 0.1°C)
Propanol: 250.00 26.30 77.19 50.89 251.45 247.88 3.57

Trial 1
Trial 2 250 25 60.53 35.52 241.96 238.54 2.52
Trial 3 250 26.1 82.3 56.2 236.176 232.707 3.469
Butanol 250 26.50 85.41 58.9 257.87 254.36 3.51

Trial 1
Trial 2 250 26 49.77 23.77 254.21 252.13 2.08
Trial 3 250 25.4 76.9 51.5 251.956 249.060 2.896
Ethanol 250 26.8 61.17 34.37 230.70 228.45 2.25

Trial 1
Trial 2 250 26.7 50.64 23.94 232.68 230.73 1.95
Trial 3 250 26.5 69.7 43.2 248.772 245.876 2.896
Methanol Trial 1 24.3 54.38 30.08 241.88 239.12 2.76
Trial 2 250 26.4 62.3 35.9 239.12 236.02 3.1
Trial 3 250 26.3 64.9 38.6 244.600 241.162 3.438
Pentanol 250 25.8 65.93 40.13 227.35 225.47 1.88

Trial 1
Trail 2 250 26.4 52.44 26.04 239.54 238.08 1.46
Trial 3 250 26.6 62.7 36.1 238.200 236.460 1.740
Caption 1: In this experiment we burned alcohol underneath a coke can filled with 250 ml of water. By
measuring the change in temperature, as well as the change in mass, we will be able to find the
enthalpy, or the heat energy involved in a chemical reaction, for the different lengths of carbon chains.
To find the final temperature....
Graph:

The Temperature Change for 250 ml of Water when heated by 3.57 g of Propanol.

Caption: In this graph the initial temperature as well as the final temperature was found. However, as
the maximum temperature could not be reached, a line that best fits the rate at which the substance
cools down was created. From there, the final and maximum temperature was found through the y
intercept of the best-fit line.

Table 2: The Enthalpy per Mole of the Alcohols with differing Carbon Chains

Trial 1 DH Trial 2 Trial 3 Average


(kJ*mol-1)
(kJ*mol-1) (kJ*mol-1) (kJ*mol-1)
Propanol -895.28 -885.39 -1017.64 -932.82
Butanol -1299.39 -884.89 -1377.03 -1187.10
Ethanol -735.57 -591.18 -718.31 -682.69
Methanol -365.02 -387.86 -376.03 -376.30
Pentanol -1966.75 -1643.33 -1911.60 -1840.56
Caption 2: Using the measurements collected in the table above, we were able to find the enthalpy of
the alcohols using the equation Q = mcDT, where Q is the heat, m is the mass of solution, c is the
specific heat capacity or 4.18 kJ/kg*K and T is the temperature change. The enthalpy is negative, as the
reaction is exothermic. A sample calculation is given below.

Sample Calculations (Propanol Trial 1):

Q = mcDT

Q= (250.00g)(4.18 J *g-1*C-1)(77.19-26.30°C)/1000

Q= 53.18 k*J = -DH

Mr= moles burned/ Molar Mass

Mr= 3.57 g proponal/ 60.11g = 0.0594 mol

Enthalpy per moles = DH/moles


-53.18kJ/0.0594 = -895.28 kJ* mol-1

Uncertainties: (Using Propanol, trial 1 as a standard)

Procedural Uncertainty for Propanol: = range of values/2

= -1017.64 - -885.39/2

= -66.125

Equipment Uncertainty for Propanol: = ± .1 C

= ±.01 g

Highest Possible Value for Propanol Trial 1:

Q = mcDT

Q= (250.0 + 0.01g)(4.18J*g-1*C-1)((77.19+0.10)—(26.30-0.10))/1000

Q= -53.39 k*J = -DH

Mr= 3.57 g propanol/ 60.11g = 0.0594

Enthalpy per moles = DH/ moles

-53.39kJ/0.0594= -898.82 kJ*mol-1

Lowest Possible Value for Propanol Trial 1:

Q=mcDT

Q= (250.0-0.01g)(4.18 J*g-1*C-1)((77.19-0.10)—(26.30+0.10))/1000

Q=52.97 k*J= -DH

Mr= 3.57 g propanol/60.11g= 0.0594

Enthalpy per moles = DH/moles


-52.97 kJ/0.0594 = -891.75 kJ* mol-1

Range/2 = -898.82 kJ* mol-1— -891.75kJ*mol-1/2

= -3.535 kJ *mol-1

Final Propanol Value = -895.28 kJ* mol-1 ± 3.535 kJ* mol-1

Conclusion and Evaluation:

In this experiment, we sought to find an answer to our research question: How does the length of a
carbon change of alcohols affect the enthalpy of the combustion of alcohols. Specifically, 5 different
alcohols were used; methanol, CH3OH, ethanol, CH3CH2OH, propanol, CH3CH2CH2OH, butonal,
CH3CH2CH2CH2OH and pentanol, CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2OH, each with differing lengths of carbon
chains. However, to understand how the length of the carbon change affects the enthalpy, it was
necessary to have an understanding of the concept of enthalpy.

Energy that is contained in chemical bonds that can be converted into heat is known as enthalpy. As it
is impossible to measure the actual heat content, or enthalpy of the alcohols, we measure the enthalpy
change for the reaction, DH. As energy cannot be created or destroyed, but only converted, the heat
created from the combustion of alcohols is transferred to the water overhead. The heat transferred from
the combustion of alcohols equals the mass of the water multiplied by the specific heat capacity then
multiplied by the temperature change of the water. The specific heat capacity is the amount of heat
required to raise the temperature of 1g of a substance by 1K. For water it is 4.18J*g-1*C-1. In this
experiment, a simple calorimeter was created to best accurately measure the heat, or enthalpy change
for alcohols.
In all of the experiments, the enthalpy change was negative, as was expected. The reaction that has
occurred was an exothermic reaction, meaning that the enthalpy in the reactions was greater than the
enthalpy of the products. After completing the trials and calculations, the enthalpy change gradually
increased as the carbon chain increased as well. Referring to Table 2, for pentanol, the longest of the
carbon chains, the enthalpy change was -1840.56 kJ mol -1. Butanol, the second largest, had an enthalpy
change of -1187.10 kJ mol -1. . With decreasing carbon chains, the enthalpy change decreased as well,
as propanol had .932.82 kJ mol -1 , ethanol had an enthalpy change of -632.69 kJ mol -1 and methanol,
the smallest carbon chain had the smallest enthalpy change with -376.30 kJ mol -1. It can be gathered
then that the longer the carbon chain the higher the enthalpy change.

However, throughout the experiment there were uncertainties. The heat that was transferred to the
water might not have been the total amount. Heat might have been lost to the surroundings despite the
precautions and insulation of the foil. There could have also been an incomplete combustion of the
alcohols, leading to the formation of soot and carbon monoxide. If repeated again, several factors
would need to be controlled.