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Chapter 9-Senses

Sense:
ability to perceive stimuli

Sensation:
conscious awareness of stimuli received by
sensory neurons
Sensory receptors:
sensory nerve endings that respond to stimuli by
developing action potentials
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Types of Senses
General senses:
- receptors over large part of body
- somatic provide info. about body and envt
- visceral provide info. about internal organs,
pain, pressure
- touch, pressure, pain, temp., and itch
Special senses:
smell, taste, sight, hearing, and balance
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Types of Receptors

Mechanoreceptors:
- detect movement
- Ex. touch, pressure, vibration

Chemoreceptors:
- detect chemicals
- Ex. Odors

Photoreceptors:
detect light
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Thermoreceptors:
detect temp. changes
Nociceptors:
detect pain

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Types of Touch Receptors


Merkels disk:
detect light touch and pressure

Hair follicle receptors:


detect light touch
Meissner corpuscle:
- deep in epidermis
- localizing tactile sensations
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Ruffini corpuscle:
- deep tactile receptors
- detects continuous pressure in skin
Pacinian corpuscle:
- deepest receptors
- associated with tendons and joints
- detect deep pressure, vibration, position

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Pain
What is it?
unpleasant perceptual and emotional
experience

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Types of Pain
Localized:
- sharp, pricking, cutting pain
- rapid action potential
Diffuse:
- burning, aching pain
- slower action potentials

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Pain Control
Local anesthesia:
- action potentials suppressed from pain
receptors in local areas
- chemicals are injected near sensory nerve

General anesthesia:
- loss of consciousness
- chemicals affect reticular formation
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Referred Pain
What is it?
- originates in a region that is not source of pain
stimulus
- felt when internal organs are damaged or
inflamed
- sensory neurons from superficial area and
neurons of source pain converge onto same
ascending neurons of spinal cord

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Olfaction
What is it?
- sense of smell
- occurs in response to
odorants
- receptors are located
in nasal cavity and
hard palate
- we can detected
10,000 different smells
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How does olfaction work?


1. Nasal cavity contains a thin film of mucous where
odors become dissolved.
2. Olfactory neurons are located in mucous.
Dendrites of olfactory neurons are enlarged and
contain cilia.
3. Dendrites pick up odor, depolarize, and carry odor
to axons in olfactory bulb (cranial nerve I).
4. Frontal and temporal lobes process odor.
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Figure 9.3b

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Taste
Taste buds:
- sensory structures that detect taste
- located on papillae on tongue, hard palate,
throat

Inside each taste bud are 40 taste cells


Each taste cell has taste hairs that extend into
taste pores
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How does taste work?


1. Taste buds pick up taste and send it to taste
cells.
2. Taste cells send taste to taste hairs.
3. Taste hairs contain receptors that initiate an
action potential which is carried to parietal
lobe.
4. Brain processes taste.

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Types of Tastes

Sweet
Sour
Salty
Bitter
Umami

Certain taste buds are more sensitive to certain


tastes.

Taste is also linked to smell.


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Vision
Accessory Structures
Eyebrow:
- protects from sweat
- shade from sun

Eyelid/Eyelashes:
- protects from foreign objects
- lubricates by blinking
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Conjunctiva:
thin membrane that covers inner surface of
eyelid
Lacrimal apparatus:
produces tears
Extrinsic eye muscles:
help move eyeball
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Figure 9.8

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Anatomy of Eye
Hollow, fluid filled sphere
Composed of 3 layers (tunics)
Divided into chambers
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Fibrous Tunic
Outermost layer
Sclera:
- firm, white outer part
- helps maintain eye shape, provides attachment
sites, protects internal structures

Cornea:
- transparent structure that covers iris and pupil
- allows light to enter and focuses light
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Vascular Tunic
Middle layer
Contains blood supply
Choroid:
- black part (melanin)
- delivers O2 and nutrients to retina
Ciliary body:
helps hold lens in place
Suspensory ligaments:
help hold lens in place
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Lens:
- flexible disk
- focuses light onto retina
Iris:
- colored part
- surrounds and regulates pupil
Pupil:
- regulates amount of light entering
- lots of light = constricted
- little light = dilated
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Nervous Tunic
Innermost tunic
Retina:
- covers posterior 5/6 of eye
- contains 2 layers

Pigmented retina:
- outer layer
- keeps light from reflecting back in eye

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Sensory retina:
- contains photoreceptors (rods and cones)
- contains interneurons
Rods:
- photoreceptor sensitive to light
- 20 times more rods than cones
- can function in dim light
Cones:
- photoreceptor provide color vision
- 3 types blue, green, red
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Rhodopsin:
photosensitive pigment in rod cells
Opsin:
colorless protein in rhodopsin
Retinal:
- yellow pigment in rhodopsin
- requires vitamin A
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Effects of Light on Rhodopsin


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Light strikes rod cell


Retinal changes shape
Opsin changes shape
Retinal dissociates from opsin
Change rhodopsin shape stimulates response
in rod cell which results in vision
6. Retinal detaches from opsin
7. ATP required to reattach retinal to opsin and
return rhodopsin to original shape
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Figure 9.13

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Retina Structures Continued


Rods and cones synapse with bipolar cells of
sensory retina
Horizontal cells of retina modify output of
rods and cones
Bipolar and horizontal cells synapse with
ganglion cells
Ganglion cells axons converge to form optic
nerve

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Nervous Tunic (Retina)


Innermost layer
2 parts of retina: sensory and pigmented
Keeps light from reflecting back into eye
Rods:
photoreceptors that detect amount light

Cones:
- photoreceptors that detect colors
- 3 types: red, blue, green
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Macula:
small spot near center of retina
Fovea centralis:
- center of macula
- where light is focused when looking directly
at an object
- only cones
- ability to discriminate fine images

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Optic disk:
- white spot medial to macula
- blood vessels enter eye and spread over retina
- axons exit as optic nerve
- no photoreceptors
- called blindspot

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Chambers of Eye
Anterior chamber:
- located between cornea and lens
- filled with aqueous humor (watery)
- aqueous humor helps maintain pressure, refracts
light, and provide nutrients to inner surface of
eye
Posterior chamber:
- located behind anterior chamber
- contains aqueous humor
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Vitreous chamber:
- located in retina region
- filled with vitreous humor: jelly-like substance
- vitreous humor helps maintain pressure, holds
lens and retina in place, refracts light

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Functions of Eye
Light Refraction
Bending of light
Focal point:
- point where light rays converge
- occurs anterior to retina
- object is inverted

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Focusing Images on Retina


Accommodation:
- lens becomes less rounded and image can be
focused on retina
- enables eye to focus on images closer than
20 feet

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Near vision
Distant vision

Ciliary muscles in the


ciliary body contract, moving
ciliary body toward lens.

Ciliary muscles in the


ciliary body are relaxed.
Tension in suspensory
ligaments is high.

Tension in suspensory
ligaments is low.

FP

FP

Lens flattened
Lens thickened

(a)

(b)

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Neuronal Pathway for Vision


Optic nerve:
leaves eye and exits orbit through optic
foramen to enter cranial cavity

Optic chiasm:
where 2 optic nerves connect
Optic tracts:
route of ganglion axons
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Figure
9.16b

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Eye Defects
Myopia:
- nearsightedness
- image is in front of retina
Hyperopia:
- farsightedness
- image is behind retina
Presbyopia:
- lens becomes less elastic
- reading glasses required
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Clinical Focus 9A

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Astigmatism:
- irregular curvature of lens
- glasses or contacts required to correct
Colorblindness:
- absence or deficient cones
- primarily in males
Glaucoma:
- increased pressure in eye
- can lead to blindness
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Hearing and Balance


External (Outer) Ear
Extends from outside of head to eardrum
Auricle:
fleshy part on outside
External auditory meatus:
canal that leads to eardrum
Tympanic membrane:
- eardrum
- thin membrane that separates external and
middle ear
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Middle Ear
Air filled chamber

Malleus (hammer):
bone attached to tympanic membrane
Incus (anvil):
bone that connects malleus to stapes
Stapes (stirrup):
bone located at base of oval window
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Oval window:
separates middle and inner ear

Eustachian or auditory tube:


- opens into pharynx
- equalizes air pressure between outside air
and middle ear

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Inner Ear
Set of fluid filled chambers
Bony labyrinth:
- tunnels filled with fluid
- 3 regions: cochlea, vestibule, semicircular
canals
Membranous labyrinth:
- inside bony labyrinth
- filled with endolymph
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Endolymph:
clear fluid in membranous labyrinth
Perilymph:
fluid between membranous and bony labyrinth
Cochlea:
- snail-shell shaped structure
- where hearing takes place
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Scala vestibuli:
- in cochlea
- filled with perilymph
Scala tympani:
- in cochlea
- filled with perilymph
Cochlea duct:
- in cochlea
- filled with endolymph
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Spiral organ:
- in cochlear duct
- contains hair cells
Tectorial membrane:
- in cochlea
- vibrates against hair cells
Hair cells:
attached to sensory neurons that when bent
produce an action potential

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Vestibular membrane:
wall of membranous labyrinth that lines scala
vestibuli
Basilar membrane:
wall of membranous labyrinth that lines scala
tympani

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How do we hear?
1. Sound travels in waves through air and is
funneled into ear by auricle.
2. Auricle through external auditory meatus to
tympanic membrane.
3. Tympanic membrane vibrates and sound is
amplified by malleus, incus, stapes which
transmit sound to oval window.
4. Oval window produces waves in perilymph of
cochlea.
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5. Vibrations of perilymph cause vestibular


membrane and endolymph to vibrate.
6. Endolymph cause displacement of basilar
membrane.
7. Movement of basilar membrane is detected by
hair hairs in spiral organ.
8. Hair cells become bent and cause action
potential is created.
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Balance (Equilibrium)
Static equilibrium:
- associated with vestibule
- evaluates position of head relative to gravity
Dynamic equilibrium:
- associated with semicircular canals
- evaluates changes in direction and rate of head
movement
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Vestibule:
- inner ear
- contains utricle and saccule
Maculae:
- specialized patches of epithelium in utricle
and saccule surround by endolymph
- contain hair cells
Otoliths:
- gelatinous substance that moves in response
to gravity
- attached to hair cell microvilli which initiate action
potentials
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Semicircular canals:
- dynamic equil.
- sense movement if any direction
Ampulla:
base of semicircular canal
Crista ampullaris:
in ampulla
Cupula:
- gelatinous mass
- contains microvilli
- float that is displaced by endolymph movement
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