0 Up votes0 Down votes

68 views10 pagesAn introduction to Laplace transform

Jun 09, 2016

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd

An introduction to Laplace transform

© All Rights Reserved

68 views

An introduction to Laplace transform

© All Rights Reserved

- Hidden Figures: The American Dream and the Untold Story of the Black Women Mathematicians Who Helped Win the Space Race
- Hidden Figures Young Readers' Edition
- The Law of Explosive Growth: Lesson 20 from The 21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership
- The E-Myth Revisited: Why Most Small Businesses Don't Work and
- The Wright Brothers
- The Power of Discipline: 7 Ways it Can Change Your Life
- The Other Einstein: A Novel
- The Kiss Quotient: A Novel
- State of Fear
- State of Fear
- The 10X Rule: The Only Difference Between Success and Failure
- Being Wrong: Adventures in the Margin of Error
- Algorithms to Live By: The Computer Science of Human Decisions
- The Black Swan
- Prince Caspian
- The Art of Thinking Clearly
- A Mind for Numbers: How to Excel at Math and Science Even If You Flunked Algebra
- The Last Battle
- The 6th Extinction
- HBR's 10 Must Reads on Strategy (including featured article "What Is Strategy?" by Michael E. Porter)

You are on page 1of 10

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

COLEGIO SAN AGUSTIN

Prepared by: Engr. Vicente Y. Buenconsejo, Jr., PECE, MT

Pierre Simon Marquis De Laplace (1749-1827), great French mathematician develop the

theory of potential and contributions to celestial mechanics, astronomy in general, special

functions, and probability theory. Napoleon Bonaparte was his student for a year.

3 Main Steps

1. The given hard problem is transformed into a simple equation called subsidiary equation.

2. The subsidiary equation is solved by purely algebraic manipulations.

3. The solution of the subsidiary equation is transformed back to obtain the solution of the

given problem.

These process is made easier by tables of functions and their transforms, whose role

is similar to that of integral tables of calculus. The switching from operations of calculus to

algebraic operations on transforms is called OPERATIONAL CALCULUS. For engineers,

Laplace transform method is practically the most important operational method.

Let f (t ) = given function defined for all t 0.

Multiply f (t ) by e st and integrate with respect to t from 0 to . We have;

F ( s ) = e st f (t )dt

0

where:

F (s ) = Laplace transform of the original function and will be denoted by L(f).

f (t ) = original function

(1)

F (s ) = L(f) =

e st f (t )dt

Remember that:

f depends on t

F depends on s

The original function f (t ) in (1) is called the inverse transform or inverse of F ( s ) and will be

denoted by L1 (F).

f (t ) = L1 (F)

Notation:

Original functions are denoted by lowercase letters

Transforms by the same letters in CAPITALS

So that:

F ( s ) denotes the transform of f (t )

Y ( s ) denotes the transform of y (t )

Example 1.

f (t ) = 1 when t 0. Find F ( s ) .

From (1) by integration:

F ( s ) = L(f) =

e st f (t )dt

e st dt

1 st

e ( s )dt

s 0

1

= e st [0

s

1 s ()

e s (0) }

= {e

s

1

= {0 1}

s

1

F (s ) = L(1) =

ans.

s

f (t ) = e a when t 0. Find F (s ) where a is constant.

Solution:

F (s ) = L(f) =

F (s ) = L( e at ) =

e st f (t )dt

e st e at dt =

e st + at dt =

e ( s a )t dt

1 ( s a )t

e

()( s a )dt

s a 0

1

1

=

[e ( s a ) t ]0 =

[e ( s a ) e ( s a ) 0 ]0

sa

sa

1

[0 1]

=

sa

1

F (s ) = L( e at ) =

ans.

sa

L{af (t ) + bg (t )} = aL{ f (t )} + bL{g (t )}

PROOF: By definition;

0

L{af (t ) + bg (t )} = aL{ f (t )} + bL{g (t )}

Application of theorem 1:

Example 3:

1

f (t ) = (e at + e at ) . Find F (s ) .

2

Solution:

1

1

1

L{ (e at + e at )} = L(e at ) + L(e at )

2

2

2

1 1

1 1

= (

)

)+ (

2 sa

2 s+a

1 1

1

= (

+

)

2 sa s+a

1 s+a+sa

= [

]

2 ( s a )( s + a )

1

2s

= [ 2

]

2 (s a 2 )

1

s

L{ (e at + e at )} = 2

ans.

2

s a2

Example 4:

f (t ) = a + bt + ct 2 a, b, c = cons tan ts . Find F (s ) .

Solution:

L(a + bt + ct 2 ) = aL(1) + bL(t ) + cL(t 2 )

1

1

2!

= a ( ) + b( 2 ) + c ( 3 )

s

s

s

a b 2!c

= + 2+ 3

ans.

s s

s

Example 5:

f (t ) = e a bt . Find F (s ) .

Solution:

L(e a bt ) = L(e a e bt ) = e a L(e bt )

1

= ea (

)

s+b

ea

=

s+b

ans.

Practice Problems:

1. Find the Laplace transforms of the following functions. Show the details of your work.

a. t2 - 2t

b. (t2 3)2

c. cos 2t

d. sin 4t

e. e3a-2bt

TRANSFORMS OF DERIVATIVES:

Laplace transforms replaces operations of calculus by operations of algebra on

transforms.

The differentiation of f (t ) is replaced by multiplication of L(s ) by s .

(1)

where:

L( f ' ) = Laplace transform of the first derivative of f (t )

L( f ) = Laplace transform of f (t ) ; also F (s )

f (0) = value of the function at time t = 0

And:

L( f '' ) = sL( f ' ) f ' (0)

L( f '' ) = s 2 L( f ) sf (0) f ' (0)

Similarly;

L( f ''' ) = s 3 L( f ) s 2 f (0) sf ' (0) f '' (0)

Or in general;

L( f n ) = s n L( f ) s n 1 f (0) s n 2 f ' (0) f n 1 (0)

Example 1:

f (t )

= t 2 . Derive L( f ) .

Solution:

1. Take the derivatives

f (t ) = t 2

f ' ( t ) = 2t

f '' ( t ) = 2

f ( 0) = 0 2

f '' (0) = 2

f (0) = 0

f ' ( 0) = 0

L( f '' ) = L( 2) = 2 L(1)

L( f '' ) = s 2 L( f ) sf (0)] f ' (0)

L( 2) = s 2 L( f ) s(0)] (0)

2

s

2

= s 2 L( f )

s

L( f ) =

2

s3

Example 2:

Derive the Laplace transform of cos wt .

Solution:

1. Differentiate f (t )

f ( t ) = cos wt

f ' ( t ) = w sin wt

f '' ( t ) = w 2 cos wt

f ( 0) = 1

f ' ( 0) = 0

f '' (0) = w 2

L( f '' ) = L( w 2 cos wt )

But: f (t ) = cos wt

w 2 = constant

L( f '' ) = w 2 L(cos wt ) = w 2 L( f )

L( f '' ) = s 2 L( f ) sf (0) f ' (0)

w 2 L( f ) = s 2 L( f ) s(1) (0)

s = s 2 L( f ) + w 2 L( f )

L( f ) =

s

s + w2

2

L(cos wt ) =

s

s + w2

2

Assignment:

1. Derive L(sin wt ) using transforms of derivative.

2. f ( t ) = sin 2 t

Given the Differential Equation:

(5)

y '' + ay ' + by = r (t )

where:

a & b = constants

r (t ) = input (driving force) applied to the mechanical system

y (t ) = output (response of the system)

1st Step: Transform (5) by means of (1) and (2) writing Y = L( y ) & R = L(r )

y '' + ay ' + by = r (t )

[ s 2Y sy (0)] y ' (0)] + a[ sY y (0)] + bY = R

( s 2 + as + b)Y = ( s + a) y (0) + y ' (0) + R

2nd Step: Solve the subsidiary equation algebraically for Y. Multiply the subsidiary equation by:

(6)

1

= Q(Transfer _ function)

coeff of Y

1

= [( s + a ) y (0) + y ' (0) + R]Q

( s + as + b)

Y = [( s + a ) y (0) + y ' (0)]Q + RQ

[( s 2 + as + b)Y ]

(7)

Y = RQ

Y L( output

Q= =

)

R L( input )

3rd Step: Reduce (7) usually by partial fraction, to a sum of terms whose inverse can be found

from the table so that;

y (t ) = L1 (Y ) of (5) is obtained.

Example 1:

Solve: y" y = t

y ( 0) = 1

y ' ( 0) = 1

Solution:

1. From the table and (2) get the subsidiary equation

y" y = t

s 2Y sy( 0 ) y' ( 0 ) Y =

1

s2

1

s2

1

( s 2 1)Y = s + 1 + 2

s

s 2Y s (1) (1) Y =

1

and (7) becomes;

s 1

2

1

Q

s2

s +1

1

Y = 2

+ 2 2

s 1 s ( s 1)

s +1

1

1

Y =

+[ 2

2]

( s 1)( s + 1) ( s 1) s

Y = ( s + 1)Q +

Y =

1

1

1

+ 2

2

( s 1) ( s 1) s

y (t ) = L1 (Y ) = L1{

1

1

1

} + L1{ 2

} L1{ 2 }

( s 1)

( s 1)

s

y (t ) = et + sinh t t

ans.

Diagram:

Given Problem

Subsidiary Equation

y" y ' = t

y ( 0) = 1

y ' ( 0) = 1

( s 2 1)Y = s + 1 +

t space

1

s2

s space

Problem

Solution of Subsidiary

Equation

y (t ) = et + sinh t t

Y =

t space

1

1

1

+ 2

2

( s 1) ( s 1) s

s space

Practice Problems:

1. y"+2 y '+ y = e t

2. y '+3 y = 10 sin t

3. y '+0.2 y = 0.01t

4. y" y '2 y = 0

y (0) = 1

y ( 0) = 0

y (0) = 0.25

y ( 0) = 8

y ' ( 0) = 1

y ' ( 0) = 7

Theorem:

Integration of a function corresponds to division of its transform by s

F (s)

s

Or if we take the inverse transform

t

1 F ( s )

0 f ( )d = L { s }

where:

t

L{ f ( )d } =

0

f (t ) = f ( )d

0

Example:

L( f ) =

Solution:

1

s ( s + w2 )

2

Find f (t ).

s>0

L1 (

1

1

) = sin wt

2

s +w

w

2

Note that:

f (t ) =

F ( s)

}

s

1

= L1{ 2

}

s ( s + w2 )

f ( )d = L1{

F ( s)

}

0

s

t

1

= f ( )d = L1{ 2

}

0

s ( s + w2 )

f (t ) =

f ( )d = L1{

1

1

) = sin wt

2

s +w

w

Then;

L1 (

( w sin w )d

0

=

=

=

=

f (t ) =

1 t

sin wd

w 0

1 1 t

[

sin w ( w)d ]

w w 0

1

[ cos w ]t0

w2

1

[ cos wt ( cos w(0))]

w2

1

[1 cos wt ]

ans.

w2

L( f ) =

1

s ( s + w2 )

2

Find f (t ).

Solution:

f (t )

f ( )d = L1{

1

}

s ( s + w2 )

2

L1 (

1

1

) = 2 [1 cos wt ]

2

s( s + w )

w

2

=[

0

1

(1 cos w )]d

w2

=

=

=

=

f (t ) =

Practice Problems:

1

1. L1 ( 5

)

s + s3

1

2. L1 ( 3

)

s s

1 t

(1 cos w )d

w2 0

1

sin w t

[

]0

2

w

w

1

sin wt sin w(0)

{[t 0] [

]}

2

w

w

w

1

sin wt

[t

]

2

w

w

1

[ wt sin wt ]

ans.

w3

- 307105405-Laplace-Transform.pdfUploaded byPrateekBansal
- SIGNALS &LINEAR SYSTEMSUploaded byKatari Sreenu
- MathematicsUploaded byChinnamanur Rajamani Muthukrishnan
- ArticleUploaded byNalini Jakhar
- Simulation and Analysis of power system transientsUploaded bydeepak_27
- 1321700067Introduction to Partial Differential EquationsUploaded bysabih105
- MA201Uploaded bykargo
- HW1 ScannedUploaded bychennkit
- The Bad Truth About Laplace's TransformUploaded byAlex Mark
- Assignment 3Uploaded byVenkatGolla
- Coursenotes Laplacetransforms LatexUploaded bypravallika vysyaraju
- 9783319008783-c2Uploaded byRincónPrietoAndrés
- ch24Uploaded bygatzke
- complete_syllabus_btechECE.pdfUploaded byFaisal Jabar
- Transfer Function [Control Engg]Uploaded bypatel_vicky87
- 212066 19phase1Uploaded byYelquis Antonio Ucros Quintero
- Signal Very ImportantUploaded bydalbaas
- Maths I -IV Sem SyllabusUploaded bysatyas991
- 292345702-Laplace-Transform-Example-Solution.pdfUploaded byBhoszx Carl Dorado
- Tutorial 4Uploaded byRam Balaji S
- Review DerivativesUploaded bykendiggy
- DtrigUploaded byOluwakayode Philip Farotade
- Remember When Applying Topkis TheoremUploaded byRaffael Russo
- signals.docxUploaded byramesh
- Shop Mathematics Advanced Shop Mathematics v2Uploaded byRené Wester
- Tutorial Part1Uploaded byzafer
- Appendix 4 - Kinematic Derivations for DMO-PSI and EOM (1)Uploaded byFrancico Javier Ondo Bitegue
- Dpp Booklet 12th CompleteUploaded byYash Gupta
- Solomon DUploaded byHanna Hewitt
- genrUploaded byYomi Akin

- cs229-notes1Uploaded bySummrina Kanwal
- Scheme of Work (SOW) Mathematic 2013/2014Uploaded byMohd Hanis
- MathsUploaded byYash Mangal
- Violations of Lp ConditionsUploaded byWANJIRUKAMAU
- 7.8 Inverse Functions and RelationsUploaded bykcarvey
- StaticsUploaded byReymark de Villa
- A1bUploaded byTanmoy Pal Chowdhury
- Cambridge 3U Year 12 AnswersUploaded byDarius Zhu
- 7-Jan2015Uploaded byJason
- Active vibration suppression techniques of a very flexible robot manipulatorUploaded byMohd Ashraf Ahmad
- Curso Basico De Algebra LinealUploaded byPaulina Lefimil
- Add Maths Module (PCB 2009)Uploaded byRosmini Abdul Rahman
- Calculator infinityUploaded byrezart
- TuckerUploaded byDavid Wilson
- Fmin SearchUploaded byhshokri70
- Basic-Calculus.docUploaded byEllaine Miranda
- Exercises 5&EstimationUploaded bySriram Raghunath
- Complete Advanced Level Mathematics - Pure MathematicsUploaded byJerome JAckson
- LECTURE 26 & 27 - Indeterminate BeamsUploaded byHowell Tungol
- Chapter 3Uploaded bycharliewerner
- TI33K01A12-50EUploaded byakanksha
- HandbookUploaded byMostafa Ahmadi
- EC6303 Signals and SystemsUploaded bySaffanah Shaukath
- Particle relabelling symmetries and Noether's theorem for vertical slice modelsUploaded byFábio Duarte
- Paper 45Uploaded bygpapatha
- HW1 (1)Uploaded bySurajkumar Harikumar
- exercises inclind plane with solutions.docxUploaded byالغزيزال الحسن EL GHZIZAL Hassane
- ROBUST VISUAL TRACKING BASED ON SPARSE PCA-L1Uploaded byCS & IT
- Median ElevatorUploaded byAsgar Ali
- 9.5- Testing Convergence at Endpoints(1)Uploaded byasoni98

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.