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Most of the systems encountered in chemical engineering are distributed parameter systems. Even

though behavior of some of these systems can be adequately represented by lumped parameter models,

such simplifying assumptions may fail to provide accurate picture of system behavior in many situations

and variations of variables along time and space have to be considered while modeling. This typically

results in a set of partial dierential equations (PDEs) or ordinary dierential equations with boundary

conditions specied (ODE-Boundary value Problems or ODE-BVP). This is illustrated through examples

in this sub-section.

Example 10

Consider the double pipe heat exchanger in which a liquid flowing in the inner tube is heated by steam

flowing countercurrently around the tube (Figure 10). The temperature in the pipe changes not only with

time but also along the axial direction . While developing the model, it is assumed that the

temperature does not change along the radius of the pipe. Consequently , we have only two

independent variables, i.e. and . To perform the energy balance,we consider an element of length

as shown in the figure. For this element, over a period of time

----(75)

[accumulation of the enthalpy during the time period

= [flow in of the enthalpy during

where

amount of heat transferred from the steam to the liquid per unit time and per unit heat transfer

area.

average velocity of the liquid(assumed constant).

Dividing both the sides by (

and

, we have

----(76)

----(77)

Boundary conditions:

Initial condition

----(78)

given

when

----(79)

This results in a ODE-IVP, which can be solved to obtain steady state profiles

----(80)

for specified heat

This results in a ODE-IVP, which can be solved to obtain steady state profiles

DynamicSimulation

----(81)

with

----(82)

----(83)

This results in a Partial Differential Equation (PDE) model for the distributed parameter system.

Example 11

Now, let us consider the situation where the some hot liquid is used on the shell side to heat the tube

side fluid (see Figure 11). The model equations for this case can be stated as

----(84)

----(85)

----(86)

where subscript

denotes tube side and subscript

conditions become

----(87)

----(88)

----(89)

----(90)

These are coupled PDEs and have to be solved simultaneously to understand the transient behavior.

The steady state problem can be stated as

----(91)

----(92)

----(93)

----(94)

Equations (91-92) represent coupled ordinary differential equations. The need to compute steady state

profiles for the counter-current double pipe heat exchanger results in a boundary value problem (ODEBVP) as one variable is specified at

Before we conclude this section, we briefly review some terminology associated with PDEs, which will be

used in the later modules.

Definition 12

Order of PDE: Order of a PDE is highest order of derivative occurring in PDE.

Definition 13

Degree of PDE: Power to which highest order derivative is raised.

Example 14

Consider PDE

----(95)

Here, the

and

Solutions of PDEs are sought such that it is satisfied in the

domain and on the boundaries . A problem is said to be well posed when the solution is uniquely

determined and it is sufficiently smooth and differentiable function of the independent variables. The

boundary conditions have to be consistent with one another in order for a problem to be well posed.

This implies that at the points common to boundaries, the conditions should not violet each other.

A linear PDE can be classified as:

Homogeneous equations:Differential equation that does not contain any terms other than

----(96)

----(97)

----(98)

they contain terms independent of dependent variables.

The PDEs typically encountered in engineering applications are 2

systems, heat transfer, fluid-flow etc.)

Classification of 2

Consider a 2

as

order PDEs:

----(99)

always be written as

for i

can

j as

Thus,

).

----(100)

are elements of a real symmetric matrix

. Obviously

called

Elliptic: if all eigenvalues are +ve or-ve.

Hyperbolic: if some eigenvalues are +ve and rest are -ve.

Parabolic: if at-least one eigen value is zero.

The classification is global if

are independent of

, else it is local. Typical partial differential

equations we come across in engineering applications are of the form

----(101)

subject to appropriate boundary conditions and initial conditions. This PDE is solved in a three

is denoted by

On

dimensional region , which can be bounded or unbounded. The boundary of

the spatial surface

where

----(102)

is the outward normal direction to

and

We can

Elliptic:

Parabolic:

Hyperbolic:

Elliptic Problems typically arise while studying steady-state behavior of diffusive systems. Parabolic or

hyperbolic problems typically arise when studying transient behavior of diffusive systems.

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