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FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

GOVERNMENT OF MAHARASHTRA

REPORT ON AGRICULTURAL CENSUS


2000-01

MAHARASHTRA STATE

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
PUNE

FOREWORD
I am happy to place on record the 7 th Agricultural Census Report of the Maharashtra
State for the year 2000-01. Operational holding is the basic unit of decision making in
agriculture and therefore, for formulation of any meaningful and effective strategy for
agriculture development, detailed data on structure of agricultural holdings are absolutely
necessary. The Census data fills in this longfelt gap in agricultural statistics. The holdingwise
information is of considerable utility in planning of agricultural production programmes.
The agricultural Census 2000-01 is the seventh one in the State. As in the previous
Censuses , in this Census also it was found that the number of small and marginal holdings
increased and that now they accounted for about two-third i.e.73.42 % of the total operational
holdings in the State, but with a share hardly 39 percent in the total operated area. Another
important feature in this Census was that the average size of holdings has come down from 1.87
ha. in 1995-96 to 1.66 ha. in 2000-01.
The staff of Revenue Department was entrusted with the field work and supervision.
Without their active cooperation, it would have been difficult to complete the Census. I place on
record my deep appreciation and gratitude to them.
The work of computerization was carried out by National Informatics Centre, New Delhi.
I recall with gratitude the valuable services rendered by the staff of NIC ,New Delhi associated
with Agricultural Census computerization and tabulation work.
The Commissioner, Agriculture, Maharashtra State,Pune and Ex.
Commissioner,Agriculture, Maharashtra State, Pune Dr.S.K.Goyal, Dr.K.B.Lavekar, Pune has
taken deep interest in the activity and provided useful guidance from time to time.
Mr.Shankarrao Ghodekar, Deputy Commissioner (Agricultural Census ) and his staff in the
Agricultural Census Cell exerted a great deal in organizing and completing the voluminous
work of Agricultural Census 2000-01.
I hope that this Report will be useful to planners, decision-makers, extension workers and
researchers.

( Nanasaheb Patil )
Agricultural Census Commissioner
and Principal Secretary (Agriculture )
Govt. Of Maharashtra,
Mantralaya, Mumbai-400 032

PREFACE
The seventh Agricultural Census pertaining to the year 2000-01 was conducted with the
purpose of collecting data on number and area of operational holdings throughout the State.
Besides data relating to operational holdings in different size classes, type of holdings,
tenancy status, land use pattern, irrigation status, area irrigated by different sources and area
under different crops was collected.
The results of the Agricultural Census for the State and districts are presented in this report.
The results obtained in respect of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes are also presented .
For the first time, attempt has been made to incorporate tahsilwise information in this
report.
The results of the Agricultural Census data are extensively utilized not only by different
departments, but also by the Research Workers, Economists and those associated with the
agricultural planning and development. The results of Census will be considerably helpful for
policy formulation and to assess the impact of different Agricultural projects.
The talathis to whom the responsibility of field work was entrusted have done the job
during census period . Principal Secretary, Revenue and Forest Department, Agril.Census
Commissioner and Principal Secretary Agriculture,Animal Husbandry, Dairy Development and
Fisheries Department,Divisional Commissioners, Collectors and Deputy Commissioners
(Revenue) gave guidance to the field functioneries Resident Deputy Collectors,Sub-Divisional
Officers,Tahasildars,Revenue Inspectors and other Revenue staff gave necessary support in
getting the work done .
The initial work of planning and organisation of Agricultural Census 2000-01 was
completed during the tenure of Dr. H.D.Nandwate, Ex. Deputy Commissioner, While
successfully monitoring of the field work and computerization was carried by Shri
Shankarrao Ghodekar, Deputy Commissioner, Agricultural Census and Agril Census Officer
/Staff completed the work of compilation of Tables and drafting of this report.
I would, therefore, like to place on record the excellent services rendered by the present
and previous officers and the staff of Agricultural Census Cell.
The NIC, New Delhi, and C-DAC, New Delhi took keen interest and efforts in the
development of computer programme and in giving guidance in electronic processing of the
data.
I am grateful to the officers of Government of India for their guidance and help in the
conduct of Agricultural Census programme in the State.
( Prabhakar K. Deshmukh )
Commissioner, Agriculture,
Maharashtra State, Pune-411001.

Highlights in Agricultural Census 2000-01


Sr.
No. Item

Total Operational
holdings (Number)

Ahmednagar
916724 ( 7.55 )

Total Operated Area


(Ha.)
Schedule Caste
Operational
holdings (Number)
Schedule Caste
Operated Area (Ha.)
Schedule Tribes
Operational
holdings (Number)
Schedule Tribe
Operated Area (Ha.)
Other Operational
holdings (Number)
Other Operated
Area (Ha.)
Institutional
Operational
holdings (Number)
Institutional
Operated Area (Ha.)
Individual
Operational
holdings (Number)
Individual Operated
Area (Ha.)

Ahmednagar
1337248 ( 6.65 )
Ahmednagar
69270 ( 7.33 )

Name of
Lowest district
in state,
district figure
& % to State
Gadchiroli
115396
( 0.95 )
Gondiya
202872 ( 1.00 )
Nandurbar
2582 ( 0.27 )

Ahmednagar
85751 ( 6.91 )
Nasik 115827
( 14.89 )

Nandurbar
4303 ( 0.34 )
Sindhudurg
884 ( 0.11 )

1240563

Nasik 220416
( 14.36 )
Ahmednagar
794295( 7.65 )
Ahmednagar
1139232 ( 6.64 )
Kolhapur 6073
( 18.26 )

Sangli 842
( 0.05 )
Nandurbar
57027 ( 0.54 )
Gadchiroli
94159 ( 0.54 )
Gadchiroli 56
( 0.16 )

1534040

Ahmednagar
21936 ( 11.72 )
Ahmednagar
911720 ( 7.61 )

Gondiya 244
( 0.13)
Gadchiroli
115318 ( 0.96 )

187166

Ahmednagar
1308078 ( 6.65 )

Gondiya
198172 ( 1.00 )

19661312

3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Name of highest
district in state ,
district figure &
% to State

State figures

12137627
20102804
944099

777790

10382484
17141035
33254

11978991

Average size of Operational Holdings 2000-01


Sr.
No

Item

Name of
district
highest
ave. size
in state
Yavatmal
2.70 Ha.

Name of
district
lowest
ave. size
in state
Kolhapur
0.79 Ha.

State
average
size /
holding

Name of district bellow


State average size

Name of district above State


average size

1.66 Ha.

Kolhapur,Satara,Bhandara,
Gondiya,Raigad,Sangli,
Sindhudurg, Ahmednagar,
Thane, Pune,Nanded,Beed,
(12 district.)

Nasik, Aurangabad, Jalna,


Parbhani, Gadchiroli, Dhule,
Hingoli, Jalgaon, Buldhana,
Ratnagiri,Nandurbar,Latur,
Akola,Chandrapur,Amaravati,
Solapur, Nagpur, Osmanabad,
Washim,Wardha,Yavatmal
(21 district.)
Jalana, Nasik, Aurangabad,
Jalgaon, Latur, Gadchiroli,
Buldhana, Hingoli, Akola,
Ratnagiri ,Amravati, Osmanabad,
Nandurbar, Solapur, Washim
Chandrapur, Nagpur,Dhule,
Wardha,Yavatmal
(20 district.)
Solapur,Dhule,Thane,Pune,
Wardha, Ratnagiri, Washim,
Nagpur, Chandrapur,Gadchiroli,
Amaravati, Yavatmal
(12 district.)

All
Classes
holdings

Schedule
Caste
holdings

Yavatmal
2.32 Ha.

Kolhapur
0.41 Ha.

1.31 Ha.

Kolhapur, Satara,
Sindhudurg, Sangli,
Gondiya, Bhandara,
Raigad,Thane,Nanded,
Beed, Pune, Ahmednagar ,
Parbhani
(13 district.)

Schedule
Tribes
holdings

Yavatmal
2.81 Ha.

Satara
0.74 Ha.

1.97 Ha

Other
holdings

Yavatmal
2.71 Ha.

Kolhapur
0.81 Ha.

1.65 Ha.

Satara,Sangli,Kolhapur,
Bhandara,Sindhudurg,
Raigad,Jalna,Gondiya,
Aurangabad,Parbhani,
Beed,Nanded,Jalgaon,
Hingoli, Buldhana,
Ahmednagar Akola,
Latur,Nandurbar,Nasik,
Osmanabad,
(21 district.)
Kolhapur,Satara,Gondiya,
Raigad,Bhandara,Thane,
Sangli, Sindhudurg,
Ahmednagar,Pune,
Gadchiroli, Nanded,Beed,
Nasik,
(14 district.)

Institutional
holdings

Dhule
12.00 Ha.

Kolhapur
2.38 Ha.

5.63 Ha.

Kolhapur, Sindhudurg,
Bhandara, Raigad,
Gondiya,Amaravati,
Nagpur,Ratnagiri, Jalgaon,
Buldhana, Sangli,
Nandurbar, Wardha,
(13 district.)

Aurangabad, Jalna, Dhule ,


Parbhani, Hingoli, Jalgaon,
Ratnagiri, Buldhana, Latur,
Solapur,Amravati,Chandrapur,
Nandurbar,Nagpur,Akola,
Osmanabad, Wardha,
Washim,Yavatmal
(19 district.)
Akola,Gadchiroli,Latur,Washim,
Pune,Nanded,Yavatmal,Satara,
Chandrapur,Nasik,Hingoli,Jalna,
Ahmednagar, Osmanabad, Thane,
Aurangabad, Beed,Parbhani,
Solapur, Dhule
(20 district.)

CONTENTS
Title
Chapter I

Introduction Report on Agricultural Census


2000-01 Maharashtra State.
Chapter II
Technical Notes Concept and definitions.
Chapter III
Finding of Agricultural Census 2000-01.
Chapter IV
District wise analysis.
GRAPHS
Percentage of operational holdings & area
operated by size class during 2000-01.
Number & area of operational holdings during
Agriculture Census 1970-71,1976-77, 1980-81,
1985-86, 1990-91, 1995-96 & 2000-01.
District wise Number of operational holdings
during 2000-01.
District wise Area of operational holdings during
2000-01.
District wise average size of operational holdings
during 2000-01.
District wise Number of operational holdings of
Scheduled Caste during 2000-01.
District wise Area of operational holdings of
Scheduled Caste during 2000-01.
District wise Number of operational holdings of
Scheduled Tribe during 2000-01.
District wise Area of operational holdings of
Scheduled Tribe during 2000-01.
District wise Number of Individual operational
holdings during 2000-01.
District wise Area of Individual operational
holdings during 2000-01.
District wise Number of Joint operational
holdings during 2000-01.
District wise Area of Joint operational holdings
during 2000-01.
District wise Number of Institutional operational
holdings during 2000-01.
District wise Area of Institutional operational
holdings during 2000-01.

Page No.
1-4
5-9
11 - 24
25 -26
27
29
31
33
35
37
39
41
43
45
47
49
51
53
55

Table No.1

Table No.2
Table No.3
Table No.4
Table No.5
Table No.6
Table No.
6A
Table No.7
Table No.8
Table No.9
Table
No.10
Table
No.11
Table
No.12
Table
No.12 A
Table
No.13
Table
No.14
Table
No.14 A.

APPENDIX I
Number of operational holdings and Area
operated during Agricultural Census 1970-71,
1976-77, 1980-81, 1985-86, 1990-91 , 1995-96
and 2000-01
Distribution of Number and Area of operational
holdings according to Sex and major size classes
Distribution of Number and Area of operational
holdings by Sex and social groups
Distribution of Number of operational holdings
according to Social groups for major size classes
Distribution of Area of operational holdings
according to Social groups for major size classes
Distribution of Average size of operational
holdings according to Social groups for major
size classes
Distribution of Percentage of operational
holdings according to types of holdings for
Social groups
Distribution of Number of operational holdings
according to Types of holdings for major size
classes
Distribution of Area of operational holdings
according to Types of holdings for major size
classes
Distribution of Average size of operational
holdings according to Types of holdings for
major size classes
Distribution of Number of operational holdings
according to types of holdings for Social groups
Distribution of Area of operational holdings
according to types of holdings for Social groups
District wise Number and Area of marginal,
small other and total operational holdings.
District wise Average size of operational
holdings by Social groups
District wise Number and Area of marginal,
small and other operational holdings with
institutional holdings
District wise Number and Area of operational
holdings according to Types of holdings
Percentage of each district to the State total for
Number of operational holdings and area

57

58
59
60
61
62
62
63
64
65
66
67
68 - 71
72
73 - 75
76
77

Table
No.14 B.
Table
No.14 C.
Table
No.15
Table
No.16
Table
No.17
Table
No.18
Table
No.19
Table
No.20
Table
No.21
Table
No.22
Table
No.23
Table
No.24

District wise percentage variation d in Number


and Area in 2000-01 over 1995-96
District wise Number, Area and percentage
according to Types of holdings in 2000-01.
District wise percent number and area of
operational holdings by Social groups
District wise distribution of Number and Area of
operational holdings according to size classes
and Social groups
District wise estimated Number and Area of
operational holdings by major size classes and
Tenancy status
District wise estimated Area by major size
classes and Land use
District wise estimated Number and Area of
operational holdings by major size classes and
Irrigation status
District wise estimated Number of operational
holdings by major size classes receiving
irrigation and area irrigated by different sources
District wise estimated number of Wells and
Tube wells by major size classes
District wise estimated Irrigated and Unirrigated
area by major size classes under different crops
District wise and Crop wise estimated number of
holdings and irrigated, unirrigated area by major
size classes
Tahsilwise and major size class wise number of
operational holding and their area

78
79-80
81 - 83
84 - 100
101 - 105
106 - 109
110 - 114
115 - 120
121 - 125
126 - 127
128 -413
414-421

Chapter I
Report on Agricultural Census 2000-2001 Maharashtra State.
1.1 Introduction :Agricultural Census is a quinquennial census conducted in the state once in five
years since its inception in 1970-71. So far, the seventh Agricultural Census has
been conducted, latest as 2000-01 census. Agricultural Census is conducted in all
States and Union territories in the country, at the instances of Ministry of
Agriculture and Co-Operation, Govt. of India, which provides cent per cent
financial assistance. This census was introduced in the country with the main object
of knowing the number and size of operational holdings of the cultivators, land
utilization, area under different crops, area irrigated by different sources etc.
Thus, seventh Agricultural Census with the reference year 2000-01 and as
reference period ( 1st July 2000 to 30th June 2001) conducted. Before the
commencement of the Agricultural Census, the year 2000-01 was declared as
Land Records Year with a view to update all the village level records by the
Revenue authorities, which is required for correct and authentic information on land
holding to be reflected during the conduct of the census.
1.2 Objectives :The importance of Agricultural Census is to know the structure and characteristics
of agriculture holdings. Besides the data of agricultural holdings ,on land use,
source of irrigation, cropping pattern and dispersal of operated area were also
collected on sample basis.
As a follow-up of Agricultural Census, Input Survey is conducted to the next year.
1

Thus, three stages involved in conduct of the Agricultural Census are, the
number and area of entire operational holdings collected through complete census
method constitute the first stage, the details of land particulars and other agricultural
characteristics collected on 20 % sampling basis constitute the second stage and the
conduct of input survey on 7 % sampling basis constitute the third stage.
1.3 Organization :Agricultural Census is a central sector plan scheme being implemented by the
Ministry of Agriculture, Deptt. of Agriculture & Co-Operation , Krishi Bhavan,
New Delhi. The Joint Secretary to the Govt. of India, Ministry of Agriculture, is
designated as Agricultural Census Commissioner.
In Maharashtra, the Principal Secretary to the Govt. of Maharashtra , Agricultural
Department is nominated as Agricultural Census Commissioner for the State. The
entire Agricultural Census operations in the State were carried out under his
guidance by census branch, headed by the Deputy Commissioner, Agricultural
Census and supporting technical / ministerial Staff.
In each district, Deputy collector in the Collectorate , mostly Resident Deputy
Collector is designated as Assistant Agricultural Census Commissioner and is
entrusted with responsibility of getting the census work completed in time and coordinating the census work in the district on behalf of the Collector. The Tahsildar
is designated as Tahsil Agricultural Census Officer and Sub-Divisional Officer is
also associated with the supervision and co-ordination of the census work in their
sub divisions, particularly for speeding up and completion of field work.

1.4 Finance :The scheme is 100 % financed by the Govt. of India, thus the entire
expenditure on the salaries and other allowances of the headquarter staff to the State
are borne by the Centre. This further includes the expenditure on printings of
instructions and schedules, tabulation of census data , honorarium, and printing of
report.
1.5 Methodology :The information with regard to the number and area of operational holdings is
collected on complete enumeration, for all the villages having operated area in the
State, through the method of retabulation of information available in the village
land records. The method of collecting all the relevant information needed is
obtained villagewise through the schedules listed below.
L-1 : In this schedule, the list of operational holders residing & operating within
the village and outside the same taluka is collected .
L-2 : In this schedule, the list of non resident operational holders operating within
the village is collected.
L-3: In this schedule , the village summary for the purpose of tallying the figures of
operational holdings at village level and also other basic infrastructure
facilities in the village are compiled.
T-1: In this main schedule, the number and area of operational holdings according
to sex, size classes, social groups and type of holdings are computed.
H : In this schedule, the details of operational holdings, like land utilization ,
tenancy status , sources of irrigation, type of crops grown etc., are collected in
the 20 % sampled villages selected under Timely Reporting of Agricultural
Intelligence Scheme.
3

The major size classes adopted for compiling information are as follows:
Marginal holdings

- Operational holdings with an area less than a

one hectare.
Small Holdings

- Operational holdings with an area one


hectare and above , but below two hectares.

Semi-medium holdings

- Operational holdings with an area 2 hectares


and above , but less than 4 hectares.

Medium holdings

- Operational holdings with an area 4 hectares


and above , but less than 10 hectares.

Large holdings

- Operational holdings with an area 10 hectares


and above.

1.6

Fieldwork and Supervision :-

The actual fieldwork of the Agricultural Census was carried out by the Village
Talathi / Patwari of the Revenue department. Effective supervision of the field
work was done by the concerned district / Tahsil level Revenue Officers like Sub
Divisional Officer, Tahsildar, Residential Naib Tahsildar and Circle Inspector etc.
under the overall charge of the District Collector.

Chapter II
Technical Notes : Concept and Definitions
1.

Operational Holding :-

All and which is used wholly or partly for agricultural production and is operated as
one technical unit by one person alone or with others without regard to the title,
legal form, size or location.
2.

Complete / Part -Holding :-

A holding is said to be complete holding if his entire operated area is located in


one village. If the operated area is spread over more than one villages, it would be
considered as part-holdings.
Taluka would be taken as the outer limit for consolidation of part holdings.
3. Technical Unit :An unit of land which is under the same management and has the same means of
production such as labour force, machinery and animals.
4.

Operated area :Operated area includes both cultivated and uncultivated area, provided part of

it is put to agricultural production during the reference period, if, for instance, an
operational holding consists of four survey numbers out of which one survey
number is put to non-agricultural uses, the total area of the operational holding will
be equal to the total geographical area of all the four survey numbers.
a)

Land Owned and Self-operated :-

Land for which the cultivator has the right to permanent heritable possession would
be considered as owned. This would include:
5

i)

Land held from Government or others under grant or lease or assignment


with right of permanent heritable possession with or without right of
transfer.

ii)
b)

Land operated under perpetual lease.

Self-Operated land would include :i)

Self cultivation.

ii)

Land cultivated through members of the family.

iii)

Land cultivated with the help of hired labour. Land owned and self
operated should not; include land leased out to others.

Leased in :-

Area leased in is defined as land taken on lease from others

without any permanent right of possession for the lease. Land may by leased in for
i)

Fixed money

ii)

Fixed produce

iii)

Share of produce

iv)

Usufructuary mortgage :- Ownership of the property remains with the


mortgager but the possession is with the mortgagee (i.e.the person to
whom the mortgage is made or given). Income from the property
accrues to the mortgagee and the mortgage is terminated as soon as the
full amount is realized.

v)
c)

Other terms to be specified.

Area Otherwise operated : This would include encroachment, lands forcibly

occupied, unauthorized or land in dispute etc., which cannot be treated as owned or


leased in, as per the definitions given above.
6

5.

Operational holder :

A person who has the responsibility for the operation of the agricultural holding and
who exercises the technical initiative and is responsible for its operation. He may
have full economic responsibility or may share it with others. The Operational
holder may be Individual / Joint / Institutional.
i)

Individual : If the holding is being operated either by one person or by


a group of persons who are the members of the same household, such
holding will be considered as an individual holding.

ii)

Joint : If two or more persons belonging to different households, share


jointly as partners in the economic and technical responsibility for the
operation of an agricultural holding, such holding will be considered as
joint holding.

iii)

Institutional : Holdings such as government farms, farms of sugarcane


factories, cooperative farms, lands managed by trusts would be treated
as institutional holdings.

iv)

Resident and non- Resident operational holdings :

a)

Resident operational holder: All the cultivators residing in a particular

village and cultivating some land within the same Tahsil are considered
resident cultivators of that village irrespective of whether they are cultivating
in that village or not.
b)

Non Resident Operational holder : An Operational holder operating


area in particular village but who reside outside that particular village
but within a same Tahsil he is a non resident operational holder for that
particular area.
7

6.

Wholly Irrigated, Partly Irrigated and Wholly Unirrigated

Holdings :
If the entire net sown area of an operational holding is equal to net area
irrigated, such holding is considered as wholly irrigated holding. In case part of
the net sown area is irrigated, it will be partly irrigated and if the entire sown
area has not received any irrigation during the reference year, such holding
would be wholly unirrigated.
7.

Land Utilization:

1.

Net sown area : Total area sown with crops and orchards may be sown
more than once in the same year but counted only once.

2.

Current fallow: Cultivated area, which is kept fallow during the current
year but was cropped in the previous year. For example, any seeding
area is not cropped in the same year, it may be treated as current fallow.

3.

Fallow land other than current fallow: All lands, which are taken up
for cultivation but are temporarily out of cultivation for a period not less
than one year and not more than five years.

4.

Other uncultivated land excluding fallow: This will include :i)

Permanent pastures and other grazing lands: All grazing lands,


whether they are permanent pastures and meadows or not. Village
common grazing lands would, however, be excluded.

ii)

Land under Miscellaneous Tree Crops: Cultivable land, which


is not included in the net area sown but is put to some agricultural
use. Land under casuarinas trees, thatching,
8

Grasses, bamboo bushes and other groves for fuel which are not
included under Orchards would be covered under this category.
5.

Culturable Waste : All lands available for cultivation whether

not taken up for cultivation or taken up for cultivation once but not cultivated
during the current year and the last five years or more in succession for one
reason or other. Such lands may be either wholly or partly covered with
shrubs and jungles, which are not put to any use. Land once cultivated but not
cultivated for five years in succession would also be included in this category.
6.

Not available for cultivation: This would include forest area

under non-agricultural use, barren and uncultivable land.

Chapter III
Findings of Agricultural Census 2000-01
Distribution of operational holdings: 3.1 Distribution of the number of operational holdings and area operated
based on sex and major size classes in 1995-96 and 2000-01 and percentage
variations in 2000-01 over 1995-96 is given in Table-2 of Appendix-I.
3.1.1 The total number of operational holdings in the state has increased from
106.53 lakhs in 1995-96 to 121.38 lakhs in 2000-01 showing an increase of
13.94 percent. The number of operational holdings in the size classes
marginal, small, semi-medium has increased, whereas the same has decreased
in medium and large size classes in 2000-01 over 1995-96. The percentage
decrease in medium and large size class is of the order of 8.26 percent and
25.11 percent respectively. The possible reasons attributed to increase in
holdings could be, fragmentation of holdings due to inheritance.
3.1.2 The total operated area of holding has increased from 198.80 lakh hectares in
1995-96 to 201.03 lakh hectares in 2000-01, thus registering a rise of 1.12
percent. The percentage increase in marginal, small and semi-medium size
classes observed is 26.93 percent, 11.31 percent and 4.03 percent respectively.
The percentage decrease observed in medium and large size classes is 10.23
percent and 28.79 percent respectively.
3.1.3 Of the total holding in the state in 2000-01, 84 percent are male holdings and
16 percent are female holdings, representing an area of 86 percent and 14
percent respectively out of the total operated area in the State.
11

3.1.4.

The number of male operational holdings in the state as per the 2000-01

Agricultural Census is 102.24 lakhs. Compared to the previous Agricultural


Census 1995-96, this number registered an increase of 10.40 percent.
However, for the same period a rise in female operational holding is of 36.57
percent. Although the number of operational holdings in male category has
gone up, the area operated by them has declined by 2.25 percent. Reverse is
true of Female holdings; where the area operated has increased by 24 percent.
3.2 Distribution of the number and area of operational holdings by sex and social
groups in 1995-96 and 2000-01 and percent variations in 2000-01 over 199596 is given in Table No.-3 of Appendix-I.
3.2.1 In 2000-01 Census, the share of scheduled caste holdings is 7.80 percent
scheduled tribe holdings is 6.43 percent and other communities is 85.77
percent. Increases in number of holdings has been observed in all social
groups in 2000-01over 1995-96. The rise in number of holdings of scheduled
caste and scheduled tribe groups in 2000-01 is of the ordered of 8.75 percent
and 14.65 percent respectively over 1995-96.
3.2.2 The share of area operated by scheduled caste and scheduled tribe is 6.23
percent and 7.70 percent respectively in the state. The area operated by
scheduled tribe in 2000-01 has increased in all groups except scheduled caste
,where it has decline by 2.85 percent between 1995-96 and 2000-01.
3.2.3 The proportion of male and female holdings in all social groups except
Scheduled tribes is almost same i.e.84 percent male and 16 percent female. In
the case of Scheduled tribes the proportion observed is 85 percent male and 15
percent female.
12

3.3 The distribution of number of operational holdings and area according to


social groups for major size classes in 1995-96 and 2000-01 and percentage
variations in 2000-01 over 1995-96 is given in Table No.4 and Table No.5 of
Appendix-I.
3.3.1 The size class wise number and area of operational holdings has increased in
marginal, small and semi-medium size classes in 2000-01 over 1995-96.
3.3.2 The increase in number of operational holdings in marginal, small and semi
medium classes observed is 24.37 percent, 13.54 percent and 5.68 percent
respectively. The decline observed in number of holdings in medium size
class is 8.26 and large size class is 25.11 between 1995-96 and 2000-01.
The area operated also shows the same trend .The decline observed in area
operated in medium and large size class is to the extent of 10.23 percent and
28.79 percent respectively for the same period.
3.3.3 The analysis of size class for schedule caste shows increase in number and
area of operational holding for marginal and small size classes between 199596 to 2000-01. However, the decline is observed in semi medium, medium
and large size classes.
3.3.4 The share of number of holding for marginal class, is 43.71 percent, small
class, 29.71 percent, semi medium class, 18.73 percent, medium class, 7.13
percent and large class, 0.72 percent. The corresponding share of area for
marginal class is 13.18 percent, small class 25.50 percent, semi medium class,
30.39 percent, medium class, 24.27 percent and large class, 6.66 percent in the
year 2000-01.
13

3.4 Average size of holding :


3.4.1 Table No. 6 & 9 of Appendix-I gives the distribution of the average size of a
operational holding according to the social groups for major size classes
during the year 1995-96 and 2000-01.
The average size of a holding for all social groups decreased from
1.87 ha. in 1995-96 to 1.66 hectares in 2000-01, thus, registering a decrease of
11.23 percent. The size class wise average size of holding in most of the
classes declined, whereas it increased slightly in Scheduled caste and
Scheduled tribe for marginal size class only.
3.4.2.The average size of holdings of scheduled caste declined from 1.47 ha. in
1995-96 to 1.31 ha. in 2000-01. In the scheduled tribe also the average
holdings decreased from 2.15 hectares to 1.97 hectares.
3.4.3.It would be seen from Table No. 9 of Appendix -I, related to distribution of
average size of operational holdings according to types of holdings, that for
major size classes the average size of holding decreased for all types of
holdings in 2000-01 over 1995-96. The average size of holding decreased in
individual holdings from 1.84 ha. to 1.64 ha.,in the case of joint holdings,
from 2.40 ha. to 2.03 ha. and in institutional holdings it decreased from 6.21
ha. to 5.63 ha. The percentage decrease for individual, joint and institutional
holdings observed is 10.87 percent, 15.42 percent and 9.34 percent
respectively .
3.5 Operational holdings by types :
3.5.1 Tables No. 7 & 8 of Appendix-I, shows the number and area of operational
holdings according to types of holding for different size classes. It is found
that the total number of operational holdings in the State is 121.38 lakhs.
14

It comprises individual holdings : 119.79 lakhs (98.69 %), joint holdings 1.25
lakh (1.03%) and institutional holdings : 33,254 (0.28 %).
3.5.2 The growth is observed in individual and institutional number of holdings by
16.62 percent and 125.18 percent respectively, The number in joint holdings
decreased by 65.74 percent between 1995-96 to 2000-01. Similar trend was
also found in area operated. The increase in area operated in the case of
individual holding is, 3.98 percent, institutional holdings 103.99 percent ; The
decrease in area registered in five year period in joint holdings is 71.07
percent.
3.5.3 In the case of individual type of holdings, the size class wise percentage share
of area is; marginal : 13.32 percent ; small: 25.82 percent semi medium: 30.66
percent, medium: 24.24 percent and large:5.55 percent .In the case of joint
type of holdings, the size class wise share of area is;marginal:9.53 percent,
small:16.53 percent , semi medium: 26.20 percent , medium :32.92 percent
and large:14.82 percent .
3.6 Distribution of Number of operational holding according to types of
holding for social groups :
3.6.1 Distribution of operational holdings and operated area among social groups is
given in the table No.10 & 11 of Appendix-I. It is observed that in all types of
holding the share of scheduled caste is 7.78 percent, scheduled tribe 6.41
percent and others, 85.54 percent .
3.6.2 Further, in respect of area operated in the state the share of scheduled caste is
6.17 percent scheduled tribe , 7.63 percent and others, 85.27 percent.
15

In individual type of holdings the number and area increase observed


between 1995-96 to 2000-01 is to the extent 16.62 percent and 3.98 percent
respectively. In joint type, of holdings the decrease has been observed both in
number and the area to the extent of 65.74 percent and 71.07 percent
respectively. The total picture however shows, increase in area in scheduled
tribe and other social groupings by 5.22 percent and 0.52 percent over 199596. The area represented by scheduled cast however, has gone down by 2.85
percent.
Analysis of sample Agricultural Census:
3.7 Tenancy Particulars of Operational holdings:
An operational holding may be wholly owned and self operated or partly
owned and partly leased in or wholly leased in or area otherwise operated.
The area otherwise operated is an area operated by the operational holder by
encroachment or through forcible occupation of government or private land.
3.7.1 Share of the operated holding by tenancy status :
Out of 121.38 lakh total holding in the state, during the 2000-01, wholly
owned and self operated holding were the highest i.e. 121.32 lakh (99.95 %),
followed by wholly leased & wholly otherwise operated holding (0.04 %) and
partly owned & partly leased in and otherwise operated holdings is 0.01 %
Table No.3) . Similar trend was also observed in area for tenancy status.

16

Table No.3
Distribution of operational holdings and operated area by
Tenancy Status
Sr.

Tenancy Holding

Holding
number

Area
hectare

Total holdings

12137627

100

20102804

100

Wholly owned & self operated


holdings

12131775

Wholly leased holdings

4
5

No.

3.7.2

99.95 20088392

99.93

2901

0.02

4298

0.02

Wholly otherwise operated


holdings

1768

0.02

4829

0.02

Partly owned partly leased in &


partly otherwise operated
holdings

1183

0.01

5290

0.03

Land Utilization :
In Agricultural Census, the operated area has been classified into six
broad categories viz.-, i.) Net sown area ii) Current fallow iii) Fallow land
other than current fallow iv) Other uncultivated land excluding fallow land,
cultivable waste, and vi) Not available for cultivation.
The districtwise distribution of estimated area by major size classes and land
use are given in Table No. 18 of Appendix-I.
Since, in the Agri. Census holding wise enumeration is done and is
Limited to holding which have at least some area under agriculture crop and /
or current fallows, whereas bulk of the area under forest, barren and
uncultivable lands, pastures etc. will not be covered under Agricultural Census
as they do not form any holding. The distribution of total operated area under
different land uses in 2000-01 is shown as on next page.
17

Table No.3.1
Distribution of total operated area under main land uses in 2000-01.
Sr.No.

Land use

Area

Net sown area

17732809

88

ii

Area under current fallow

1133115

Net cultivated area (i+ii)

18865924

94

Other uncultivated land excluding fallow land

224565

ii

Fallow land other than current fallow

262202

iii

Culturable waste land

265907

Total Uncultivated Land (i+ii+iii)

752670

Land not available for cultivation

484210

Total Operated area(A+B+C)

20102804

100

3.7.3

An important aspect of land utilization is the area used for cultivation.


This is indicated by the net cultivated area which is sum of the net sown plus
the area under current fallows . The net cultivated area is 94 percent of the
total operated area in 2000-01. Out of the remaining 6 percent, 4 percent is
uncultivated land and 2 percent not available for cultivation.

3.7.4 Districtwise estimated Number and Area of operational holdings by


major size classes and irrigation status:
The information on Districtwise distribution of irrigation is summarized in
respect of major size classes along with number and area of operational
holdings in Table No.19 of Appendix-I.
Based on net sown area during the 2000-2001, the wholly irrigated holdings
number 1379141 and the area, 1433179 hectares. The corresponding
percentage is 11.67 and 8.08, respectively. However, in respect of partly
irrigated, the share of number of holdings and area, to the net sown area is
18

9.46 percent and 13.63 percent respectively.Of the total partly irrigated 9.46
percent and 13.63 percent respectively. Of the total partly irrigated area , the
irrigated area is 946591 ha.or 5.34 percent and Partly unirrigated area is
1469571 ha or 8.29 percent to the net sown area.
The

percentage number of wholly unirrigated holdings to the total

number of holdings in the state work out to 78.87 percent. The area
represented by these wholly unirrigated holdings is 78.29 percent.
Source wise classification of irrigated holdings :
3.7.5

The total number of holding in the state is 121.38 lakh out of which wholly
irrigated holdings are 13.79 lakh and partly irrigated holdings, are 11.18
lakh.
The source wise number and area of operational holdings for major size
classes in different districts is shown in table No.20. of Appendix-I.
Table No. 3.2

Number of holdings and area irrigated by different sources in 2000-01.


Sr.No.

Source of Irrigation

Number of
holding

Area
Irrigated

% area by
source

Canal

431751

405157

17

Tanks

148009

153285

Wells

1387290

1400331

59

Tube Wells

84544

82994

Other Source

496353

338004

14

Total

2547947

2379771

100

19

The distribution of wells and tube wells in different districts with major
size classes given in Table 21 of Appendix-I. The total number of wells and
tube wells is 1347413 and 86814 respectively in 2000-01. The wells with
electric pump sets are 1273362. The wells having diesel pumpset are 15732
.Out of the total wells , 31944 wells are not in use . Out of the total irrigated
area, 59 percent is under well irrigation , 4 percent under tubewell; 17 percent
under canals ,6 percent under tanks and 14 percent under other sources of
irrigation.
3.8

Table No.23,of appendix-I, gives district wise ,crop wise estimated number
of holdings, irrigated and unirrigated area along with major size classes. On
the basis of this table, the findings are summarized as below. The further
details of area under different crop groups grown in Maharashtra are presented
in the following Table 3.3

20

Table -3.3
Area under different Crop groups in 2000-01 for All Social Groups
(Area in 000 ha)
Sr.
No.

Crop

1995-96

2000-01

Area

Area

Variation

Cereals

10582

75.58

9311

73.55

(-)12.01

Pulses

2237

15.98

2033

16.07

(-)9.07

Foodgrains (1+2)

12819

91.56

11345

89.62

(-)11.50

Sugarcane

560

4.00

627

4.95

11.96

Spices

112

0.80

48

0.38

(-)57.14

Fruits

316

2.26

371

2.93

17.41

All vegetables

194

1.38

152

1.20

(-) 21.65

Other food crops

116

0.92

14001

100

12659

100

(-)9.59

Total food crops


(1+2+3+4+5+6+7)
Oilseeds

1135

22.20

2011

35.20

77.18

Fibres

3310

64.75

3348

58.61

1.15

10

Drugs & narcotics

0.08

0.05

(-)25.00

11

Floriculture

0.05

12

Plantation

0.05

13

Aromatic plants

0.05

14

646

12.64

342

5.99

15

Green manure & fodder


crops
Other non food crop

17

0.33

5112

100

5713

100

16

Total non food crop


(8+9+10+11+12+13+14+15)
Grossed cropped area

19113

18372

(-)3.88

17

Net sown area

17245

17733

2.83

18

Intensity of Cropping

110.83

103.60

(-)6.52

21

(-)47.06

11.76

3.8.1

In 2000-01, the gross cropped area was 18371908 ha., out of which

area under food crops was 68.90 percent (12659000 ha.) and non food crops,
was 31.10 percent (5713000 ha).
In all food crops area,the cereal crops : 73.55 percent, pulses 16.07
percent , sugarcrops 4.95 percent , spices & condiments 0.38 percent,
fruitcrops, 2.93 percent vegetable crops, 1.20 percent and other crops 0.92
percent. Further it is found that, the food crop area decreased by 9.59 percent
in 2000-01 over 1995-96.
Cereals :3.8.2

The area decrease in cereals was to the extent of 12.01 percent in the
2000-01 over 1995-96. The decrease was mainly observed in Jowar, Bajra,
Wheat and Other cereals. Remarkable increase in area was observed in maize
.

Pulses :3.8.3 In respect of pulses, the area decreased was of the order of 9.07 percentover
the previous census. The area under Udid, Mug & Other pulses decreased.
However, the area under Gram and Tur increased over last census. This may
be due to extensive efforts .
Sugar Crops :3.8.4 The area under sugar crops increased by 11.96 over last census. This
might be due to the high returns from the crop in the report period.

22

Fruit Crops :3.8.5 The State Govt. has taken special efforts to promote fruit plantation in the
State due to which the fruit crop area increased by 17.41 percent over the
previous Census. The area increase are significant in Mango, Banana,
Orange, Cashewnut, Ber, Custard Apple.
Oil Seeds :3.8.6 The area under oilseeds in the year 1995-96 was 1134429 ha., which increased
to 2010532 ha. representing growth of 77.18 percent. In oilseed crops area
under Soyabean jumped from 940022 ha. to 1431365 ha. However area in
other oilseed crops like groundnut, Sesamum, Sunflower, Safflower, the
decreased considerably.

Fibre Crops: 3.8.7

It is observed that the area under crops like cotton, Jute, Mesta and
Sunhemp increased in 2000-01 over 1995-96. This led to increase in overall
growth in area of fibre crops by 1.15percent.

Cropping Intensity by Major size Classes: 3.8.8.

The cropping intensity is measured by gross cropped area divided by

net area sown ; multiplied by 100 and expressed in percentage. Cropping


intensity according to major size classes is shown in the Table No. 3.4.

23

Table No. 3.4


Cropping Intensity by Major size Classes in 2000-01
Major size
classes
Marginal
Small
Semi-Medium
Medium
Large
All classes

Gross cropped
area (ha.)
2562059
4910856
5682099
4246797
970097
18371908

Net area sown (ha.)


2454566
4736481
5487394
4106540
947828
17732809

Cropping Intensity
(%)
104.38
103.68
103.55
103.42
102.35
103.60

The cropping intensity at state level is 104 percent. It was maximum for
marginal holdings and minimum for large holdings. It indicates that cropping
intensity decreased with increase in size class of holdings.

24

Chapter IV
Districtwise Analysis
Operational Holdings & Operated Area :
4.1.1 Districtwise number and area of operational holding for the 2000-01 is
shown in Table 14 of appendix -I. From the data in the Table 14-A of
Appendix I it is seen that during the current census, the Districtwise
number of holding varied from 1.15 lakh in Gadchiroli district to 9.17
lakh in Ahmednagar district. The proportion of number of holding in
these districts to the state total was 0.95 percent and 7.55 percent
respectively. The distribution of area among different districts ranged
from 2.03 lakhs ha. in Gondiya district to 13.37 lakhs ha.in Ahmednagar
district. The proportion of this area to the state total was 1.01 percent and
6.65 percent respectively.
The Districtwise percentage distribution to the state total in this respect
is shown in the Table 14-A of Appendix-I.
Compared with the census in 1995-96, the number of operational holdings
increased maximum in Solapur district.
The maximum percentage of holding was in Ahmednagar (7.55%)
district, minimum in Gadchiroli (0.95%) district in 2000-01. In respect of
operated area, it decreased in ten districts and increased in fifteen districts.
The proportion of maximum increase in operated area was in Wardha district
and maximum decrease in Sindhudurg district over last census.

25

Districtwise average size of holding :4.2 The districtwise average size of operational holding is depicted in the table
12 A of Appendix I.
The average size of operational holding was lowest in Kolhapur district (0.79 ha.)
and the highest was Yavatmal district (2.70 ha.) The corresponding average size
of holding during last census 1995-96 was 0.91 ha. in Kolhapur and 2.92 ha.
Yavatmal district. In the remaining districts, it varied from 0.99 ha. to 2.43 ha. in
2000-01. The average size of operational holding had decreased in all the districts
in 2000-01 as compared with that in 1995-96.
Districtwise distribution of type of holding :4.3 The districtwise distribution of number & area as well as their percentage by
type of holding is shown in Table No.14-C of Appendix I. The data in this table
reveals that the district having very high proportion of individual holding were
Bhandara (99.93%), Gadchiroli (99.93%), Parbhani (99.92%) ,Jalna (99.90%),
Aurangabad (99.89%). The district with lowest proportion of individual holdings is
Ratnagiri (91.21%) . In respect of Joint holdings the highest proportion is in
Ratnagiri district (8.61%) followed by Raigad (7.18 %). Institutional holding ,
which accounted very little proportion, in the form of number of holding varied
negligibly in different districts. Institutional holdings accounted for very little
proportion of operated area i.e. between 0.12 percent to 3.08 percent.
Districtwise distribution of Tenancy status :
4.4 The districtwise percentage distribution of number of operational holding by
tenancy status is given in the Table No.17 of Appendix I. This Table indicates that
in all districts wholly owned status is major while rest of the tenancy status share is
negligible.
26