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Chapter-III

MATERIAL AND METHODS


This chapter deals with the material and methods used to full
fill the objectives of the present investigations.
Evaluation study on farm pond was conducted in KarwadiNandapur watershed. Twelve farm ponds are constructed in Karwadi
-Nandapur watershed by State Deptt. of Agriculture Hingoli. These farm
ponds were evaluated their qualitative performance.
Description of watershed
Karwadi Nandapur watershed is a micro watershed of
Kayadhu river. The Kayadhu river watershed is sub watershed of
Godavari river. The Karwadi Nandapur watershed is located at
190 35' 5" N latitude and 770 14' 33" E longitude. This comes under
Kalamnuri tq of Hingoli district in Maharashtra state. The watershed falls
in semi arid tropics. The south west monsoon is the major sources of
rainfall during June to September. The total geographical area of Karwadi
Nandapur watershed

is 750 ha with undwating topographical. The

general slope of cultivated land in watershed ranges from 1 to 3 per cent.


However, at some locations maximum slope of 5 per cent is observed. In
non-cultivated degraded land maximum slope of 10 to 15 per cent is
observed.
Soil
The upper reaches Karwadi-Nandapur watershed is having
sloping land. The soils are shallow in depth and sandy soil. In the upper
reaches soils are unstable in nature. The top soil is undrain by soft
murum. The soil of cultivated area are medium deep with medium clay
content.
In general the soil of Karwadi-Nandapur watershed varieus
from sandy soil to medium black soils.
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The soils strata at the location of the farm pond is given


below.
Farm pond No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Soil type
Sandy (murum)
Sandy (murum)
Clay (black)
Sandy (murum)
Sandy (murum)
Sandy (murum)
Clay (black)
Clay (black)
Clay (black)
Sandy (murum)
Sandy (murum)
Sandy (murum)

Farm pond
The

farmers

of

Karwadi-Nandapur

watershed

have

constructed the twelve farm ponds in their fields during 2010 before
June. The farm pond were constructed in the field of following farmers
1) Deshmukh Baburao Bhagwanrao
2) Deshmukh Umakant Madhavrao
3) Degavkar Subhashrao Neminath
4) Chavan Baburao
5) Patil Tukaram
6) Patil Baburao
7) Chavan Kailash Bhujangrao
8) Markar Ganaji Tukaram
9) Shaikh Muktar Rup
10) Chavan Uttamrao Vittalrao
11) Chavan Shashirao Tukaram

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12) Chavan Ramesh Devrao


The photographs of farm ponds are shown in plate no.1 to 14
Observations:Following observation of farm ponds were recorded for
qualitative performance of farm pond
1)

Designed dimension of farm pond.


The dimensions of the farm ponds such as length, width & at

the top of farm pond & depth of farm pond monsoon season were before
recorded. Considering the soil types sad slope was assumed at 1:1 for
clay soil, 1.5:1 for clay loam soil & 2:1 for sandy / soft murum soil, the
designed dimension at the bottom of the farm pond were determined.
2)

Inlet & outlet size of the farm pond, before monsoon season. The

inlet & outlet dimensions such as width, depth & length were measured
before monsoon season.
3)

Dimension of farm pond embankment. The dimension of farm pond

embankment such as bottom width, top width, height and length of


embankment were recorded before monsoon season.
The existing dimensions of the farm pond, inlet and outlet
dimensions and dimensions of earthen embankment were also measured
after past monsoon. The observation on location of farm pond was also
recorded. The designed and existing capacity of the farm pond was also
determined by using following prismodial formula.

(A + 4B + C)
V =

xD
6

Where,
V

Volume of excavation (m3)

Area of excavation at the ground surface (m2)

Area of excavation at mid depth point (m2)

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Area of excavation at the bottom of pond (m 2)

Average depth of pond (m)

The designed and capacity dimensions of the farm pond will


be compelled.
Quantity of silt deposited
The area of silt deposited and depth of silt deposited in each
farm pond was measured and volume of silt deposited in each farm pond
was estimated.
Location of the farm pond :
The location of the farm pond was studied and it was
compared with the criteria suggested for site selection of farm pond.

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