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CONTENTS

FOREWORD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

xi

PREFACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix
GENERAL EDITORS AND CONTRIBUTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xxiii
EDITORS, CONSULTANTS, PILOT TEACHERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxv
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxix
SIGNS AND ABBREVIATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxiii

PART1: AUTHORS OF THE LATE REPUBLIC


HISTORY ESSAY: THE LAST CENTURY OF THE ROMAN REPUBLIC . . . . . . . . . 2
CHAPTER 1: GAIUS JULIUS CAESAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Reading 1: D bell Gallic 1.1 Gaul and Its Inhabitants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
Demonstrative Adjectives and Pronouns; Relative Pronouns
Asyndeton, Ellipsis
Reading 2: D bell Gallic 1.2 The Conspiracy of Orgetorix . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
Adjectives with Genitive in us and Dative in ; Participles Including
Gerunds and Gerundives
Hendiadys
Reading 3: D bell Gallic 1.3 Preparations to Leave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40
Gerunds and Gerundives in Purpose Constructions; Subjunctive
Purpose Clauses and Indirect Commands
Reading 4: D bell Gallic 1.45 The Death of Orgetorix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50
Ablative Absolutes; The Active Periphrastic
Litotes, Polysyndeton, Alliteration

Reading 5: D bell Gallic 1.67 Caesars Response to the Helvetians . . . . . . . . .62


Indirect Statements; The Passive Periphrastic, Review of Gerund and
Gerundive Uses
CHAPTER 2: GAIUS VALERIUS CATULLUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77
Reading 1: Carmen 1 The Dedication of Catulluss Libellus . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82
Complementary Infi nitives and Infi nitives with Impersonal Verbs;
Partitive Genitive; Diminutives
Reading 2: Carmen 5 A Thousand and More Kisses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92
Cum Clauses
Chiasmus, Sibilance, Anaphora
Reading 3: Carmen 8 Farewell, Girl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98
Imperatives and Prohibitions
Apostrophe, Rhetorical Question
Reading 4: Carmen 13 An Invitation to Fabullus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Conditional Sentences
Hyperbaton
Reading 5: Carmen 49 A Thank You . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Positive, Comparative, and Superlative Adjectives and Adverbs
Reading 6: Carmen 51 Love for Lesbia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Genitive and Dative Pronouns
Onomatopoeia, Transferred Epithet
CHAPTER 3: MARCUS TULLIUS CICERO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Reading 1: Pr Archi pot 4.24 Archias and Antioch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Result Clauses
Reading 2: Pr Archi pot 5.13 Archiass Reputation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
Comparison; Contraction of vi and ve
Reading 3: In Catilnam I 1.12 Ciceros Accusations Against Catiline . . . . . . . . 162
The Alternate Ending re
Irony
Reading 4: In Catilnam I 4.810; 5.1011 Revealing Catilines Plans . . . . . . . . 170
Relative Clauses of Purpose and Characteristic
Hyperbole, Metonymy, Tricolon
vi Latin for the New Millennium

Reading 5: In Catilnam I 6.1516; 7.1618 Alleged Attempts to Kill


Cicero; The Personified Patria Speaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
Parallelism, Ellipsis (Gapping), and Words to be Understood
Preterition, Metaphor, Personification, Oxymoron
Reading 6: In Catilnam I 13.3133 Ciceros Final Appeal to Catiline . . . . . . . . 196
The Volitive Use of the Present Subjunctive
Simile, Climax, Crescendo, Synecdoche
Reading 7: D amciti 5.206.22 The Benefits of Friendship . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
Correlatives

PART 2: AUTHORS OF THE AUGUSTAN AGE


HISTORY ESSAY: AUGUSTUS AND THE PRINCIPATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
CHAPTER 4: PUBLIUS VERGILIUS MARO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
Reading 1: Aeneid 1.111 Prologue and Invocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
Substantives (Adjectives Used as Nouns)
Epithet, Synchesis
Reading 2: Aeneid 1.421440 The Construction of Carthage . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
Supines
Extended Simile
Reading 3: Aeneid 2.201222 Death of Laocoon and His Sons . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
Reflexive/Middle Voice
Tmesis
Reading 4: Aeneid 2.547566 Pyrrhus and the Death of Priam . . . . . . . . . . . 266
Patronymics and Other Names
Hysteron Proteron, Anastrophe
Reading 5: Aeneid 2.705729 Flight from Troy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
Assimilation and Dative with Compound Verbs
Reading 6: Aeneid 4.160192 Aeneas and Dido in the Cave . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
Figures of Speech and Meaning
Epanalepsis

Contents vii

Reading 7: Aeneid 4.642666 Didos Suicide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296


Alternate Endings and Syncopated Words
Euphemism, Royal or Editorial We
CHAPTER 5: QUINTUS HORATIUS FLACCUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
Reading 1: Odes 1.5 The Changeability of Love . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
Deponent Verbs that Govern the Ablative Case
Reading 2: Odes 1.11 Seize the Day. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
Reading 3: Odes 1.23 Chloes Maturity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
Infi nitive of Purpose, Review of Purpose Constructions, and Review of
Infi nitive Uses
Reading 4: Odes 2.10 The Golden Mean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
Enjambment
Reading 5: Odes 3.30 The Immortality of the Poet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
CHAPTER 6: PUBLIUS OVIDIUS NASO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
Reading 1: Metamorphss 4.6577 [Pyramus and Th isbe]
The Chink in the Wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
Reading 2: Metamorphss 4.7896 Th isbes Arrival for a
Nightt ime Rendezvous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
Reading 3: Metamorphss 4.96127 Pyramuss Fatal Mistake . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
Genitive of Quality and Ablative of Quality
Antithesis, Golden Line
Reading 4: Metamorphss 4.128166 Lovers United in Death . . . . . . . . . . . 376
Review of Possession and Dative of Possession
Zeugma, Paradox
Reading 5: Metamorphss 10.243269 [Pygmalion]
Pygmalions Love for his Ivory Girl. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390
Indirect Questions; Fear Clauses
Assonance, Polyptoton
Reading 6: Metamorphss 10.270297 The Granting of
Pygmalions Secret Desire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400

viii Latin for the New Millennium

PART 3: AUTHORS FROM THE POST-ANTIQUE ERA


HISTORY ESSAY: WHY POST-ANTIQUE LATIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410
CHAPTER 7: DESIDERIUS ERASMUS AND OTHER
POST-ANTIQUE LATIN WRITERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413
Reading 1: Erasmus to Arnold Bostius A Dream Deferred and a
Fit of Depression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420
Reading 2: Erasmus on His Poem to Henry VII A Royal
Embarrassment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426
Reading 3: The Poet Andrelinus to Erasmus Mutual Admiration and a
Letter of Praise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432
Reading 4: Erasmus to Jodocus Jonas The Founding of a Special School . . . . . . . 436
Reading 5: Erasmus to Thomas Linacre, MD Self-Praise and Need of a
Prescription . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444
Reading 6: Erasmus to Thomas More A Portrait of a Lifelong Friendship . . . . . . . 448
Cum Circumstantial Clauses
Reading 7: Bishop John Fisher to Erasmus In Praise of Your Translation
Despite Printers Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454
Substantive Clauses of Result
Reading 8: Petrarch Ode to Vergil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462
Reading 9: John Parke In Praise of Horace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 468
APPENDIX A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473
Historical Timeline
APPENDIX B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479
Latin Meters
APPENDIX C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487
Figures of Speech/Literary Terms
APPENDIX D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493
Grammatical Forms, Paradigms, and Syntax
APPENDIX E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 559
Supplementary Grammar, Morphology, and Syntax

Contents ix

LATIN TO ENGLISH GLOSSARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 573


BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 605
PHOTOGRAPHY CREDITS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 609
INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 611

LIST OF MAPS
Latin-speaking World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxiv
Gaul . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
Helvetian Escape Routes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53
Ciceros Italy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
The Roman Forum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
The Travels of Aeneas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253

x Latin for the New Millennium

FOREWORD
Skeptics may scoff at the idea that another volume of Latin readings is needed in intermediate
level classrooms, but even the most dubious will be swayed by the latest addition to the Latin
for the New Millennium series. Th is Level 3 text strives to address all the deficiencies teachers
encounter with other transitional volumes and offers instead a comprehensive introduction
to a series of authors with every supportlexical, grammatical, historicalthat the reading
neophyte could need.
Most pleasing is the inclusion of all six of the authors so often read in the schoolsCaesar, Cicero, Catullus, Vergil, Horace, and Ovid. Too often teachers are forced to choose readers for one
or two authors to the exclusion of others. As a result some students have no exposure either to
prose or to poetry in meters other than dactylic hexameter. But this volume allows students to
experience a variety of both prose and poetic styles. The inclusion of a chapter devoted to postantique Latin continues the series commitment to reminding teachers and students alike that
there is an abundance of engaging and elegant Latin texts spanning the last millennium and
more, which we can and should be enjoying. The decision to incorporate letters of Erasmus, who
was at the center of the humanist movement of the fi fteenth and sixteenth centuries, opens for
students a window into the scholarly community of his time, in which Erasmus and his friends
and associates were remarkably interconnected. The inclusion of pieces by Petrarch and John
Clark on Vergil and Horace, respectively, nicely brings the reader back to the classical sources
from which the movement began.
The selections from each author are modest, which is precisely what is suitable for students
reading their fi rst extended, unadapted Latin. There is a nice variety in the readings from Cicero,
drawn from the Pr Archi, In Catilnam I, and De amiciti. All of the passages from Caesar and
several of those from Vergil appear also on the AP syllabus, giving students who read them in an
intermediate course and then go on to AP a leg up on the required reading, but more important,
exposure to those authors in a less harried, more supportive setting. Beginning the Aeneid or D
bell Gallic again will be like revisiting an old friend.
Equally as important as the variety of authors is the superb context that this text provides
through several historical essays and introductions, not only to each author but also to each reading selection. Many readers ask Latin students to deal with texts in a virtual vacuum, with very
little idea of the authors motivation or the audience for which each selection was composed.
Instructors are left to fi ll in knowledge gaps. Th is volume not only sets the scene for each passage but then, in the passage notes and in the Take Note sections, provides cultural details that
relate directly to customs and practices mentioned in the reading. All of these resources give students the means to apply top-down reading strategies to the text, anticipating what may be said
and relating it to what they already knowa critical skill for fluent readers to develop.

xi

Of great assistance to the student is the markup of the fi rst selection for each classical author.
Variations in font and the use of underlining and spacing all facilitate the breaking of the text
into intelligible chunks and highlight the syntactical structure of the Latin. In addition, words
that are missing by ellipsis are included in parentheses, as a way to acclimate the reader to the
compressed nature of the language. Of particular importance is the inclusion of the passage
again towards the end of the section without any markup, so that students can envision for
themselves the structure of the Latin and the necessary repetition of elements for understanding. Special attention has been given to the fi rst selections from Cicero, whose periodic style
can be so befuddling for inexperienced readers. The editors have applied the pass-through
system, adding a clause at a time and indenting clauses to indicate subordination and illuminate structure and meaning. All these supports lead the student to develop a sensitivity to
arrangement and style.
The editors of this Level 3 text know their students well; notes in other readers that do not
appear immediately adjacent to a text too frequently remain unconsulted; and so here vocabulary and notes for each section of the selection appear beneath and opposite the Latin. The
notes are thorough without being wordy or overwhelming, as can happen with overly zealous
commentators.
All of these elements discussed so far (context, notes, etc.) can be found in varying degrees in
a number of readers, albeit generally not executed nearly as well as in this volume. But this text
truly excels in the materials that follow each chunk of a reading, beginning with comprehension
questions and exercises.
The fi rst exercise after each passage draws students to a bottom-up assessment of the Latin, enhancing skills that enable them to understand the details of a passage, adding to the more global
assessment of meaning that top-down strategies provide. Here students must capture the nitt ygritt y details of the grammar, parsing words and analyzing structures. Then most selections are
followed by at least one Language Facta category used to introduce new grammar in the
Latin for the New Millennium Level 1 and Level 2 texts. In this volume the Fact concerns a syntactical element that is employed in the selection just read and serves as a review for students, and
so rather than suffer through a stilted and dull review of grammar undertaken at the beginning
of the course, students will refresh and strengthen their knowledge of syntax organically, as they
encounter it in their reading. Each of the Language Facts is immediately reinforced by an exercise whose content is drawn from the preceding and previous reading selections. The outcome
is thus twofold: the students attention is drawn to the syntactical form at the same time as their
understanding of the reading is enhanceda magnificent combination.
The text eschews traditional vocabulary lists; instead the editors have chosen to include sections entitled Vocabulary Building, with such varied content as names of peoples and rivers,
synonyms and antonyms, roots, prefi xes and suffi xes, and idioms. Other familiar features from
the earlier Level 1 and 2 texts are Study Tips and By the Ways, which point out sticky grammatical points, unusual features of Latin grammar or vocabulary, rhetorical and poetic devices,
and other intriguing bits of information.

xii Latin for the New Millennium

Finally, and perhaps most important for teachers of AP and any instructor who wants students
to be able to do literary analysis of Latin texts, an essay assignment is included for each reading
selection, in which students are asked to write a response that is supported by direct citation of
the Latin text. Th is kind of assignment prepares students not only for the demands of the AP
Latin curriculum, but for critical writing across many disciplines, where analysis of source material is vital to a successful argument.
While this is the third volume of the Latin for the New Millennium series, using a number of
familiar elements from the earlier levels, it can quite happily be used as a beginning reader in
any intermediate Latin classroom, following the completion of any introductory text or series.
The editors are to be applauded for assembling a well-conceived, remarkably complete, and thoroughly usable resource.
Jacqueline M. Carlon
Associate Professor of Classics
University of Massachusett s at Boston

Foreword xiii

PREFACE
Latin for the New Millennium, Level 3, will help you learn how to read unadapted passages of
Latin with ease and understanding. There are seven chapters in this book. The fi rst six chapters
include passages from Caesar, Catullus, Cicero, Vergil, Horace, and Ovid. The seventh chapter
contains passages from Erasmus and his correspondents as well as a reading from Petrarch
about Vergil and a poem praising Horace by an early American Latin poet, John Parke.
Latin for the New Millennium, Level 3, is indebted to Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers primary
author texts for high school, its Workbook Series, and its LEGAMUS Transitional Reader Series,
Latin for the New Millennium, Level 1 and Level 2, as well as to several other titles. The solid pedagogy, excellent scholarship, and success of these texts have been an inspiration to the development of Latin for the New Millennium, Level 3. Please consult the Acknowledgements pp. xxxxii
for a complete listing of these texts.

CHAPTER COMPONENTS
READING PASSAGES, VOCABULARY, AND NOTES
In Latin for the New Millennium, Level 3, each reading section begins with a Latin passage
taken from a Latin author. The fi rst passage in each section is designed to ease you into reading
the style of the author. You may fi nd certain words underlined, in different fonts, or in parentheses. Directions before the passage will explain how to use these special aids. The same reading passage will be repeated without adaptations after the adapted passage. For most authors
the remaining reading passages in each chapter will not feature these aids. You will fi nd in the
Cicero chapter, however, that the aids continue for the fi rst five reading passages owing to the
style of his Latin.
Each reading passage is followed by notes that include vocabulary entries, translation aids,
grammatical and syntactical features, historical and cultural material, and suggestions on
ways to interpret and analyze the Latin. The editors have endeavored to incorporate every new
vocabulary word and grammatical/syntactical item found in the reading selection in order to
assist you with reading the Latin passage. In addition, grammatical/syntactical explanations
and vocabulary entries may refer to words and topics already seen in Latin for the New Millennium, Levels 1 and 2. If the word has a different meaning or nuance or can be easily forgotten,
if the topic contains new information or is often confused or not remembered, or if the editors
felt that there was sufficient reason, the word or topic is included again. Translations can be

xv

easily recognized in the notes because they are surrounded by quotation marks. A new figure
of speech is defi ned in a By the Way, which also explains how the figure enhances the line or
passage. Figures of speech already introduced in a By the Way are usually indicated in the
notes. It is your responsibility to determine how the figure of speech enriches the line or passages in which it is included.
COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS
Comprehension questions follow the vocabulary and notes for each reading passage and are
designed to help you determine how well you understood the passage. Some comprehension
questions ask you to cite the Latin. For these questions you should fi nd the Latin words in the
passage that illustrate the answer you have given in English. Citing the Latin is an important
skill to master since you will be required to do this in the answers you write to essay questions
and on some standardized examinations.
VOCABULARY BUILDERS
Latin for the New Millennium, Level 3, does not ask you to master specific vocabulary words as
you were asked to do in the Vocabulary to Learn sections of the Levels 1 and 2 books. Yet one
of the goals of Latin 3 is to increase your vocabulary and thereby your ability to read Latin. To
this end, a Vocabulary Builder in which you will fi nd information and sometimes exercises on
ways to build your vocabulary will follow many of the Latin passages. Th is will include learning
Latin synonyms and antonyms, mastering an authors idioms, using derivative study to aid your
vocabulary development, and studying prefi xes, suffi xes, and Latin word families.
SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONSEXERCISE 1
Understanding Latin grammar and syntax underpins your ability to read and comprehend Latin
accurately. The short answer questions that follow each reading passage focus on the case, number, and use of nouns; the tense, voice, mood, person, and number of verbs; the use of subjunctive
verbs; the degree of adjectives and adverbs, the word(s) that an adjective modifies; and the tense,
voice, and use of infinitives and participles. In this book when you are asked for the form of a
Latin word, you are being instructed to identify the word as an infinitive, participle, or imperative.
LANGUAGE FACTS AND EXERCISES
As in Latin for the New Millennium, Levels 1 and 2, the Language Fact section provides information on grammar or syntax that you have already seen in the reading passage. Sometimes the
information will be new to you and, therefore, something that you need to master; at other times,
the information will be a review of a topic presented earlier in the book or in Levels 1 or 2. Sometimes a new piece of information is added to what is being reviewed.
The exercise(s) that follows the Language Fact section is designed to help you practice the Language Fact. You will often see in this exercise(s) phrases and sentences that will seem familiar to
you since many of these have been taken from or adapted from current or past reading passages.

xvi Latin for the New Millennium

ESSAY QUESTIONS
The ability to express yourself in writing is a skill that is necessary for state and standardized
tests, for university courses, and for the world of work. An essay question about each reading passage is included in Latin for the New Millennium, Level 3. It is helpful to think through or to jot
down the points you intend to make in your essay before you begin writing. When writing about
a piece of literature, it is necessary to support what you say with quotations (called citations)
from the passage in the original language and with a translation of the citation.
SCANSION EXERCISES
In Latin poetry, it is essential to know which vowels are long and which ones are short. For a
fuller discussion of Latin meter and scansion, see Appendix B. You will be asked to scan several
lines of Latin poetry at the end of each reading passage of Catullus, Vergil, Horace, and Ovid.

ADDITIONAL FEATURES
MEMORBILE DICT
In the Memorbile Dict section at the beginning of each chapter, a Latin quote from the chapters author is given and an explanation of the significance of this saying is presented. Learning
this quote will increase your understanding of the thoughts and ideas of the author.
STUDY TIPS
The same Study Tip icon that was used in Latin for the New Millennium, Levels 1 and 2, will notify
you of something to study or of a way to learn the information. Sometimes rhymes or mnemonic
devices are given as learning aids.
BY THE WAY
The By the Way icon that you saw in Latin for the New Millennium, Levels 1 and 2, called your attention to additional information of note. Th is By the Way icon serves the same function in Latin
for the New Millennium, Level 3, but also introduces new figures of speech (these special terms
are identified in small capital letters) and explains how these figures enhance the Latin under
discussion. Smaller points of grammar and syntax are also sometimes explained in a By the Way
instead of in the Language Fact sections, which focus on larger topics.
REMINDER
Latin for the New Millennium, Level 3, introduces many grammatical and syntactical topics along
with numerous figures of speech. In order to assist you with this new information, a Reminder
icon will be used to signal that information is being repeated. A Reminder is usually given only
once, although occasionally an additional Reminder is given when the information was presented much earlier in the text. Sometimes, too, you will be reminded about a grammatical or syntactical topic in the information on the given line in the Notes. If you realize that there is something
you need to refresh in your mind and there is no Reminder, you should consult the index to fi nd
the page on which the topic was fi rst presented.
Preface xvii

TAKE NOTE
As in Latin for the New Millennium, Level 2, a Take Note icon following the notes and vocabulary for a reading alerts you to additional information related to the reading passage. These help
you build your Latin reading skills and your understanding of the literature and the culture that
produced it.
HISTORICAL ESSAYS
Latin literature should be read and interpreted within the historical context that influenced the
writers of that time. For this reason Latin for the New Millennium, Level 3, offers two historical
overviews so that you can better understand the times of turbulence and transition in the fi rst
century bce and at the start of the fi rst century ce, an age that produced the six extraordinary
authors whose remarkable writings are presented in this book. The last chapter of this book contains selections from medieval and Renaissance writers of Latin and continues the theme, presented in Latin for the New Millennium, Level 2, of the importance of medieval and later Latin
literature that has spanned the millennia.

xviii Latin for the New Millennium

INTRODUCTION
Latin for the New Millennium, Level 3, introduces you to six authors of the classical period, Caesar, Catullus, Cicero, Vergil, Horace, and Ovid, and several authors from later centuries. Why
should you devote so much effort to reading the works of these authors in the original Latin
texts? Reading Latin literature in translation will allow you to understand the thoughts of the
ancient authorsthoughts that have shaped the culture of our worldbut reading the same authors in Latin allows you to see the subtleties and nuances of language and word order that often
cannot be captured in a translation. Examples illustrating this point follow.
In Poem 5 Catullus invites Lesbia to enjoy life and to love; Lesbia is the focal point of the living
and loving as is suggested by her occupying the center of the line.
Vvmus, mea Lesbia, atque ammus
Let us live, my Lesbia, and let us love
He next requests that she discount the rumors of rather stern old men. The repetition of s in
lines 23 subtly suggests the sound of the whispers of those very individuals who would disapprove of his and Lesbias love; all such rumors are to be valued at one cent:
rmrsque senum sevrirum
omns nius aestimmus assis!
and all rumors of rather stern old men
let us assess at one cent!
We can replicate the s sound in English to a certain extent, but it is difficult to do so in the
sustained way that Catullus accomplishes in his poem.
To reinforce his point that Lesbia should embrace love, Catullus reminds her of lifes brevity
by juxtaposing the renewal of nature against the inevitability of death for humankind (nbis, . . .
nox est perpetua na dormienda, lines 56). The repeated re (which, as a prefi x means back
or again) in line 4, a repetition that cannot be achieved in our English translation, calls to mind
natures cycles:
sls occidere et redre possunt;
suns are able to set and to return;
Play on sound and syllables as well as the word order all contribute to the impact of Catulluss poem.
In Book 2 of the Aeneid lines 524 and following, Vergil describes how Achilless son Pyrrhus
fi rst kills one of Priams sons in front of Priam and his wife and then kills Priam himself. The
Latin passage cited below paints a heartrending picture of Priam trembling (trementem) from
rage and old age and slipping repeatedlyfor this is what the participle lpsantem suggestsin
the copious blood of his son:
xxix

(Pyrrhus) . . . altria ad ipsa (Priamum) trementem


trxit et in mult lpsantem sanguine nt,
implicuitque comam laev, dextrque coruscum
extulit ac later capul tenus abdidit nsem.
(Aeneid 2.550553)
Pyrrhus drew to the altar itself Priam trembling
and slipping in the copious blood of his son,
and he entwined Priams hair with his left hand and
unsheathed with his right hand the gleaming sword and
buried it in Priams side up to the hilt.
Notice that Vergil has, in fact, located Priam in the middle of the pool of blood, with lpsantem,
which refers to Priam, framed by mult and sanguine (line 551). Th is example shows how the
flexibility of the Latin language enables Vergil to exploit word order to enhance the meaning of
the text.
In the First Catilinarian (5.11), Cicero eff usively gives thanks to the immortal gods and to Jupiter Stator, in whose temple the Senate is meeting, for allowing Cicero to escape so many times
from the dangers posed by Catiline:
Magna ds immortlibus habenda est atque huic ips Iov Statr, antquissim
custd hius urbis, grtia, quod hanc tam taetram, tam horribilem tamque
nfestam re pblicae pestem totins iam eff gimus.
Great gratitude must be given to the immortal gods and to this very Jupiter
Stator (Cicero refers to a statue of the god in the temple), the most ancient
guardian of this city, because we now have so often escaped this disease so
foul, so fear-inspiring, and so dangerous to the state.
In this passage Cicero emphasizes the word gratitude by placing grtia at the end of its clause
and separating the word from magna, the adjective at the beginning of the clause that modifies it,
with the result that great gratitude frames the entire main clause. English cannot replicate this
effect because, unlike Latin, its word order is less flexible. The quod clause also is notable because
Cicero uses a metaphor of disease here to refer to Catiline. Catiline is a pestis, an infectious and
contagious disease that is physically offensive (taeter can refer to the smell that accompanies illness), fear-inspiring (horribilem), and dangerous (nfestus). It is difficult to capture this metaphor
in translation and at the same time make clear that pestis signifies Catiline.
Julius Caesar begins his D bell Gallic by explaining why the Helvetians decided to invade
Gaul. Orgetorix, the richest and most noble of the Helvetians, had great ambitions to expand
their territory. As Orgetorix sets plans in place for the emigration of the Helvetians from their
lands, he decides to invite the leaders of the Sequanians and the Aeduans to participate in his
scheme to conquer all Gaul:

xxx Latin for the New Millennium

Perfacile fact esse ills probat cnta perficere, proptere quod ipse suae cvittis
imperium obtentrus esset.
He demonstrates to them that to bring about the undertakings is very easy to
do because he himself would obtain the command of his own state.
The language that Caesar uses to reflect Orgetorixs conversation with these leaders focuses
on the doability of his idea by repeating the base for to do in perfacile, fact, and perficere. It is
impossible to render this wordplay in English.
In Odes 1.5, the fi rst love poem of the Odes 13, Horace uses word order to focus the fi rst line
on the subject of his poem; a chiastic arrangement of nouns and adjectives (an ABBA order of
words that is very difficult to achieve in English), a slender boy and many roses, frames Pyrrha
(t): Quis mult gracilis t puer in ros. The Latin here provides a word picture of what is actually
happening in the poem, because the close proximity of the puer to the puella in line 1 is reinforced in line 2 where the puer is described as pressing her (urget):
Quis mult gracilis t puer in ros
perfsus liquids urget odribus
grt, Pyrrha, sub antr?
What slender youth, drenched with liquid perfumes, presses you amid
many a rose, Pyrrha, under [the shelter of] a pleasant grotto?
Several lines later (68) Horace uses a metaphor of the sea to describe Pyrrhas fickle character: aspera / nigrs aequora vents / mrbitur. [Her suitor] will wonder at the seas [now] rough
with black winds. The Latin also can be translated as [her suitor] will wonder at seas [now]
black with harsh winds if both adjectives are interpreted as transferred epithets; that is, the
adjective agrees in sense, but not in gender and form, with another noun. And so nigris could be
taken with aequora and aspera with vents. Chances are Horace intended both interpretations,
which in English, unlike Latin, are impossible to reproduce simultaneously.
Ovid uses word order in his story of Pyramus and Th isbe for a different effect. In predicting the
death of the two lovers, he writes at Metamorphss 4.108: na dus inquit nox perdet amants
(one night will destroy two lovers). The interlocked order of nouns and adjectives (an ABAB
order of words) closely intertwines the single night and the two lovers in a way that English cannot reproduce; what is more, the striking antithesis between the juxtaposed numerals one and
two cannot be replicated in English.
Reading the literature and thoughts of the ancients will broaden your education and sensitize
you particularly to classical allusions and sources. For example, in reading the story of the starcrossed lovers, Pyramus and Th isbe, in the chapter on Ovid, you will recognize that this story
very likely forms the source for one of Shakespeares greatest and most celebrated tragedies, Romeo and Juliet. Similarly, Ovids tale of Pygmalion inspired works of literature and art, including
the well-known musical My Fair Lady. In the chapter on Catullus, you will discover that poetry

Introduction xxxi

of the classical period can transcend time and seem as fresh and spontaneous as when it was
written over two thousand years ago. From Vergils Aeneid you will learn that literary heroes
suffer much personal loss and have to overcome seemingly insurmountable obstacles; the same
qualities characterize heroes in current literary works such as the Harry Potter series, in which
J.K. Rowling brilliantly recycles classical myth to suit the purposes and needs of her epic tale.
Ciceros D amciti reminds us of the universality of friendship and how essential interpersonal
relationships are to humankind. Caesars commentaries on the Gallic War, the only surviving historical document from the fi rst century bce to focus on this part of the world, provide
us with a fi rsthand account of the culture and civilization of Gaul, Germany, and Britain. For
some, seeing the continuity between the past and present western cultures offers one of the
principal att ractions for studying the classical world.

xxxii Latin for the New Millennium

THE LAST CENTURY


OF THE ROMAN REPUBLIC
The Roman Republic was founded on the principle of collegial rule. Power was divided among
many assemblies and magistrates. Except for the dictatorship, no magistracy was held by only
one man. Th is was intended to prevent tyranny. Collegial rule also allowed the powerful Roman
elite to satisfy their ambitions while serving the state. It was in the best interest of this class to
share power. If any one man became too powerful, it would prevent other families from exercising their right to participate. For many years this system worked well.

THE GROWTH OF ROMAN TERRITORIES DURING


THE SECOND CENTURY BCE
But the situation changed in the second century bce. Th is was a time of incredible yet disruptive
growth for Rome. Roman commitments overseas made it routine for politicians to govern far
from Rome, with their armies away from Italy for years at a time. It was impractical for the old
system of annual commands to work when campaigns took years to conclude. Yet the longer a
commander remained with his army, the more loyal they were to him. At the same time, because
many high-ranking politicians abused their power, especially in the provinces, the relationship
between Romans and non-Romans grew strained.
In Rome and Italy, the number of slaves Romans held increased substantially. They were often
employed on the very large Roman farms that developed during this period. As a result, the population of the city of Rome grew significantly as Romans and Italians left the countryside behind.
During this period questions began to be raised about the declining number and quality of
men qualified for service in the Roman army. Unlike todays US military, the Roman army had
a minimum property qualification. Those who did not meet it were unable to enlist. Presumably,
increasing the number of men qualified to serve would result in better armies.

TIBERIUS GRACCHUS
As a newly elected tribune (tribnus plbis) of the people in 133 bce, Tiberius Gracchus attempted to address this problem of a need for more men with the appropriate property qualifications to
serve in the militia with a plan to distribute publicly owned land to Roman citizens. A number of
politicians supported this proposal. But it was also controversial. Many wealthy citizens, including senators, were using far more than the (long-ignored) legal allotment. More disturbing were
the extraordinary actions Tiberius Gracchus took to ensure the bill would pass. He sidestepped
the Senate and took his bill directly to the Popular Assembly. When another tribune vetoed the
submission of his bill, Tiberius tried to expel him from the office of tribune. These actions were
ultimately perceived by many of the Roman elite as a threat to state security. When Gracchus

stood for election for an unprecedented consecutive term, serious rioting began in Rome, and he
and many of his supporters lost their lives. Even though the land redistribution bill was enacted,
the events surrounding Tiberius Gracchuss term set a dangerous example.

POPULRS AND OPTIMTS


Later Roman politicians, following the example of Tiberius Gracchus, exploited the office of tribune. They were labeled populrsmen who relied on popular support for political influence.
Circumventing the traditional position of the Senate as advisors for legislation and providers of
funds, populrs appealed directly to the assemblies themselves. Politicians who wished to keep
the Senate at the center of influence were called optimts.
Though weaker, the Roman Senate and elite remained very influential. Roman society was
traditional and conservative, and the nobility still dominated politics. Even populris politicians came from this elite group. Still, the tribuneship was used to force through legislation
that the Senate would oppose. Though their methods polarized the political world, their bills
often addressed real needs such as distributing land to veteran soldiers and stabilizing the cost
of grain.

GAIUS GRACCHUS
Nine years after the death of his older brother, Gaius Gracchus served as tribune (123122 bce).
His legislation was designed to appeal to a number of groups: the urban poor, the equits, and
military veterans. He had laws passed that sold grain at half-price to the urban poor, that transferred the courts that dealt with cases of corruption by provincial governors from the Senate
to the equits, and that created land holdings for veterans outside of Italy. Gaiuss unsuccessful
attempt to be elected as tribune for a third consecutive year resulted in a riot. To deal with these
protestors, the sents cnsultum ultimum, the fi nal decree of the Senate, was passed, which empowered the consuls to do what was necessary to protect and preserve the state. As a result of this
decree, Gaius and three thousand of his supporters were killed. By circumventing the Senate and
taking legislation directly to the people, the Gracchi brothers had set a dangerous precedent that
would be followed by other politicians determined to have their way by whatever means possible.

GAIUS MARIUS
Populris methods also allowed men outside the Roman nobility, such as Gaius Marius, to become influential. Marius was a talented general, and his victories made him so popular that he
was elected to the consulship for an unprecedented five consecutive terms (107101 bce). One
of Mariuss most consequential initiatives was that he opened the army to all Roman citizens,
regardless of whether they owned property or not. Marius chose to enlist men from all classes
because he needed recruits, and they clearly fought loyally and well. But, unlike todays professional military, Roman soldiers did not receive any benefits beyond the small stipend they were
paid and whatever rewards their general granted them. Marius and many generals to follow knew
it was beneficial to reward these men with land. Yet the Senate generally did not support such

History Essay: The Last Century of the Roman Republic 3

legislation because it would grant the general too much influence. Senatorial opposition to the
generals proposals caused soldiers to value their loyalty to their commander more than to the
Roman Senate and to the state itself.

CORNELIUS SULLA
Sulla had distinguished himself as a commander during the Social War. Th is was a rebellion of
Romes allies that ended by granting Italians Roman citizenship. Sullas success contributed to
his election as consul in 88 bce. He anticipated winning even more glory in the command he was
assigned against Mithridates VI, king of Pontus (today, northern Turkey). But Marius, an enemy
of Sulla, also desired this command. While Sulla was away fighting some of the last resistance
from the Social War, Marius and his ally Cinna had a motion passed that granted Marius the
command against Mithridates instead. When the news reached Sulla, he persuaded his soldiers
to march with him and took Rome by force. He then proceeded east to fight Mithridates.
During Sullas absence, Rome was in chaos. Although Cinna and Marius were driven from the
city, they recaptured it with their soldiers. Both men then rid Rome of their political enemies.
Their actions, however, would be no match for the ruthlessness that Sulla would show on his return to Rome in 82 bce. By this time both Marius and Cinna were dead, Marius of natural causes
and Cinna at the hands of mutinous soldiers. Sulla again took Rome by force at the batt le of the
Colline Gate. He was aided in his efforts to attain supremacy by Crassus and the future Pompey
the Great.
Sullas reign was truly one of terror. He published a list of enemies who were stripped of citizenship and whose property was to be confiscated by the state. The proscription list essentially
placed a bounty on the heads of thousands of citizens, justified or not, and provided a way to reward Sullas supporters while also eradicating his opponents. He also had a law passed that made
him dictator for an indefi nite period of time. Despite using the traditional magistracy of the
dictatorship, Sulla distorted its original intent, which was to guide the city during an emergency
not to exceed a period of six months. Th is office, which Sulla held for two years (8280), gave him
the authority to do as he wished.

SULLAS REFORMS
Sullas government reforms were extensive. In general, he tried to restore order by limiting potential abuses of Roman magistracies. These reforms included increasing the numbers of certain
magistracies so that provincial service would be limited to one year at a time. He also restricted
the powers of the tribune in two important ways: tribunes would have to receive senatorial approval before submitt ing a bill to the popular assembly, and tribunes could hold no other magistracy. By doubling the size of the Senate, he favored his supporters and diluted the opposition.
In 80 bce Sulla resigned all power and retired to his villa in Campania. He died soon afterwards, probably due to complications from a life of heavy drinking. He left a terrible legacy. Despite his attempts to stabilize Roman government, his ruthlessness and violence set a precedent
that others would follow. Sulla also made clear just how powerful a politician could be with an
army supporting him.
4 Latin for the New Millennium

THE RISE OF POMPEY THE GREAT


Shortly after Sullas death in 78 bce, civil unrest occurred again. In Spain the anti-Sullan governor Sertorius led an army of exiled Romans and Spanish tribesmen in revolt. Their resistance
was serious enough that the Senate sent Pompey and his legions to Spain to quell the rebellion
though he was a private citizen. Pompeys appointment was even more remarkable because he
had not yet been elected to any Roman magistracy. He had, however, made himself prominent as
a commander supporting Sulla in the 80s, and he remained influential despite his youth. Pompey
and Metellus, governor of the province Farther Spain (Hispnia Ulterior), coordinated efforts
against Sertorius, who was assassinated in 74 and whose army was fi nally defeated in 72.

WARS AGAINST MITHRIDATES AND SPARTACUS


At the same time Rome was fighting two other wars: the one was against Mithridates, to be concluded in 72, and the other was a local war, against Spartacus. Spartacus was a Th racian gladiator
and slave who in 73 led an uprising against Rome. His army defeated several Roman armies but
was eventually conquered by Roman forces led by the praetor Crassus who, like Pompey, was
given imperium, the right of command, with special privileges and extensive resources. Though
necessity demanded such arrangements, the Romans were right to suspect the potential for
abuse of power that these extraordinary commands provided.
The decade ended peacefully with all major wars against Rome concluded. As consuls for 70
bce, Pompey and Crassus revoked many of Sullas reforms, including restrictions on tribunes.
But this peace would not last because problems contributing to political instability had not really
been resolved. A greater willingness to resort to violence to advance ones agenda and the disregard for self-restraint and tradition were Sullas true legacies to the state.

POMPEY GIVEN IMPERIUM


In 67 bce Pompey was again called upon to serve the state. Piracy had risen in the Mediterranean
following on yet another war with Mithridates, a war that had resumed in 69. Pompey was asked
to deal with the pirates. He was given imperium with powers that gave him greater authority than
any of the (more senior) Roman governors in that region. He concluded the war in less than three
months, and his allies in Rome extended his imperium to the war against Mithridates. Both of
these commands were granted by the motions of tribunes and passed despite strong opposition
within the Senate.

THE RISE OF JULIUS CAESAR AND MARCUS TULLIUS CICERO


Around this period Julius Caesar began to rise to prominence. He was a member of a very old,
patrician Roman family that traced its origins back to Aeneas and Romulus but had not been
important for some time. Politically he clearly was aligned with populris interests and methods.
In addition, he was a nephew (by marriage) of Marius and throughout his political career demonstrated his opposition to Sulla. Caesar fi rst became well known during the aedileship he held
in 65 bce. Aediles were responsible for running state festivals. Ambitious politicians wishing to
become widely known spent huge amounts of money on lavish entertainments. Caesar went into
History Essay: The Last Century of the Roman Republic 5

great debt doing this. Though his generous spending paid off by his being elected to a praetorship
and then to Pontifex Maximus (the highest office in Roman state religion, which was principally
concerned with preserving peace with the gods, the px derum), at the same time he won
a reputation for outrageous behavior. He was, for example, suspected of supporting Catiline,
whose conspiracy against Rome was uncovered by Cicero, one of the consuls of 63 bce.
Ciceros background, philosophy, and political style were about as different from Caesars as
can be imagined. He became known through the eloquence and courage he demonstrated in
court, fi rst defending a man victimized by Sullas proscriptions, Sextus Roscius of Ameria, and
then prosecuting the corrupt governor of Sicily, Verres. Another speech that brought Cicero
fame was his defense of Archias, a poet and mentor, who was accused of assuming Roman citizenship illegally.
Cicero strongly believed in the ideals of the Republic. Th is is clear in his opposition to Catiline. Catiline had been frustrated in two unsuccessful campaigns for the consulship, and in 63
bce Cicero uncovered his plan to overthrow the state. He and many of his supporters withdrew
from Rome after Cicero dramatically revealed his plans during a Senate meeting in the fi rst of
four speeches he wrote against him. The fi rst Catilinarian oration is a model of Roman rhetorical
style. Catiline later died in batt le against a Roman army. A number of prominent Romans were
implicated in the conspiracy and were executed by Cicero, who had been authorized to do whatever was necessary to preserve the state through the passage of the sents cnsultum ultimum.

THE FIRST TRIUMVIRATE


By the end of the 60s bce, Pompey and Crassus had
become political outsiders unable to get the legislation
they each favored passed in the Senate. They joined
Caesar in a political arrangement often referred to as
the First Triumvirate. Pompey and Crassus would
support Caesar for the consulship, and Caesar would
ensure that their legislation was passed.
By the time of Caesars election to the consulship
for 59 bce, this political arrangement was common
knowledge. The optimate faction tried to block it by
arranging for Marcus Bibulus to be elected as Caesars consular colleague. But Caesar ensured that
Bibulus was publically humiliated early in their term.
Bibulus withdrew to his house for the remainder of
the year and occupied himself declaring unfavorable
omens, which would invalidate all of Caesars actions
as consul. But Caesar ignored these, passed his allies
Th is marble bust idealizes Caesars facial features but does recreate his
receding hairline. Tradition holds that Caesar was fond of wearing a
wreath so as to hide his baldness.

6 Latin for the New Millennium

legislation, and was given the command over Cisalpine and Transalpine Gaul. Pompey, Crassus,
and Caesar continued to work together. Caesar and Pompey strengthened their ties when Pompey
married Caesars daughter.
Caesar very quickly ensured that Rome was drawn into war with Gallic tribes after he took his
command in Gaul in 58 bce. He, Crassus, and Pompey would meet in 56 at Luca, a small town
just outside Roman territory, to negotiate continuing the triumvirate. Caesar would keep his
command of the Gallic provinces, Crassus would receive Syria, and Pompey would govern the
Spanish provinces.
During this period Cicero was driven into exile on the pretext of his having used the sents
cnsultum ultimum to execute Romans without due process. The real reason was that the tribune
Clodius Pulcher was exacting revenge for humiliating testimony Cicero gave against him years
earlier. Cicero would be obligated to support Pompey, Caesar, and Crassus because they allowed
him to return to Rome. Around this time Catullus wrote invective poems against some politicians, such as Caesar and Pompey, and ironical or unflattering poems to others, such as Cicero.
The First Triumvirate would begin to dissolve soon after 56 bce. Caesars daughter Julia died
in 54, and Pompey would soon marry the daughter of a prominent optimate. Crassus would die
during the Roman defeat at Carrhae in 53. Due to rioting, elections for 52 could not be held, and
Pompey was appointed sole consul with the support of the optimates. The situation suggested
that Pompey now was allied with the optimates.

CAESAR IN GAUL AND HIS RETURN TO ROME


Caesars command in Gaul was incredibly successful. There he wrote D bell Gallic, where he
reported on the wars he fought, as well as the customs and religion of the Gallic tribes, in elegant,
concise language. With his victory at Alesia in 52 bce, Transalpine Gaul was made peaceful and
Roman influence there grew steadily from the 50s onward. The wars made Caesar tremendously
wealthy and even more popular with the Roman people. However, his political opponents grew
still more hostile.
Caesars political survival depended on being able to move directly from his governorship to
an elected magistracy. Otherwise, he would be open to prosecution by his political enemies. But
special legislative action would be required for this to happencontenders for political office
had to declare their candidacies in person at Rome. Th is would require Caesar to lay down his
imperium, the power of command. As the end to Caesars governorship drew closer, debate over
his candidacy grew more heated. Caesar was ordered by the Senate to surrender his legions while
Pompey was allowed to retain his. When Caesar refused to obey, the Senate declared him a public enemy. In 49 bce he led his army into Italy, crossing the Rubicon River, the formal boundary
between Cisalpine Gaul and Roman territory. Civil war had begun again.

History Essay: The Last Century of the Roman Republic 7

THE DEATH OF POMPEY AND THE ASSASSINATION


OF JULIUS CAESAR
As Caesar marched on Rome, Pompey and his supporters withdrew to the Eastern provinces.
Caesar soon won a decisive victory over Pompey at Pharsalus in 48 bce. Pompey fled to Egypt,
where he was murdered by men hoping to win Caesars favor. Caesars victory over his opponents
was fi nal by 46.
Rome would not be at peace for long. Although Caesar elected not to follow the example of
Sulla by proscribing and executing his enemies, the extending of clmentia (mercy) to his opponents and allowing them to live, made these individuals resentful, for they now felt obligated
to him. In addition, litt le could be done politically without his approval. Finally, in February 44
bce, he declared himself dicttor perpetu, dictator for life. In addition, he was voted his own
priest as if he were a god. One month later, on the Ides of March, Caesar was assassinated by a
well-coordinated conspiracy made up of Caesars old enemies as well as his supporters.
Caesars assassins hoped that the Republic would be restored after Caesars death. But this
was nave. The recent past had shown that controlling Rome depended on controlling the urban
population and army. The next generation would consist of civil wars. The eventual victor, Caesars heir Octavian, would claim that he restored the Republic, while in reality, he ruled alone.
Rosemary Moore
The University of Iowa

8 Latin for the New Millennium

CHAPTER

GAIUS JULIUS CAESAR

emonstrative Adjectives and Pronouns; Relative Pronouns; Adjectives


with Genitive in us and Dative in ; Participles Including Gerunds and
Gerundives; Gerunds and Gerundives in Purpose Constructions; Subjunctive
Purpose Clauses and Indirect Commands; Ablative Absolutes; The Active
Periphrastic; Indirect Statements; The Passive Periphrastic, Review of Gerund
and Gerundive Uses
Asyndeton, Ellipsis, Hendiadys, Litotes, Polysyndeton, Alliteration

A series of nine panels by Andrea Mantegna (14311506) celebrates the triumphs of Caesar.
Inspired by written accounts of Caesars processions and by his study of Roman artifacts,
Mantegna painted the panels for Francesco Gonzaga, the Duke of Mantua. Th is panel
depicts the standard-bearers and tuba players, two key components in the Roman
armys communications.

MEMORBILE DICT

Gallia est omnis dvsa in parts trs.


Gaul as a whole is divided into three parts. (Caesar D bell Gallic 1.1)
With this simple, geographical description, Julius Caesar begins his seven books of commentaries concerning an extended war against Gaul that results in the Gallic peoples becoming Roman
and their descendants speaking a Latin-derived language.

INTRODUCTION TO CAESAR
Gaius Julius Caesar (10044 bce) is one of the most fascinating and significant figures in all
of Roman history. Renowned as a leading politician, an extraordinarily successful general, and
an accomplished orator, he also was an author of the fi rst rank. Caesar had a decisive and longlasting impact on Romes political institutions despite the fact that his life was cut short by assassination. Today his career still inspires both emulation and loathing, with its influence traceable
in such founding documents as our own Constitution of the United States.

THE ROMAN REPUBLIC DURING CAESARS FORMATIVE YEARS


The Roman Republic was in a state of upheaval during Caesars formative years. Two names
from this period stand out: Marius (15786 bce) and Sulla (13879 bce). Marius reformed the
Roman army to include the lower classes; he held an unprecedented seven consulships; and his
politics tended to support more popular leaders against the interests of the conservative aristocracy. Caesar had familial ties to Marius because Marius was married to Caesars aunt Julia. Sulla
was Mariuss former lieutenant, a great general in his own right, and dictator in Rome when
Caesar was in his teens. Sulla won supreme authority in Rome by marching on the city with
his army. He then reorganized the Roman constitution with two principal goals in mind: fi rst,
to restore the authority of the Roman Senate, which was dominated by the conservative aristocracy, and, second, to suppress the tribunes of the people, who often rallied Romes common
people to support legislation opposed by the conservative aristocracy. Politicians who used the
Senate to pass legislation and tried to limit the power of the tribunes were called optimts, the
best men; conversely, politicians who used the peoples assemblies and tribunes to pass legislation, instead of going through the Senate, were called populrs, men of the people. Neither
group represented a political party, but rather a style of politics and a loose set of alliances with
like-minded colleagues. Sulla was aligned with the optimts, Marius with the populrs, as was
Caesar. Sullas initial plan for political renewal also included proscriptions, which entailed writing the names of political enemies on lists that would be posted in public. Proscribed men were
hunted down and killed. Those who did the hunting and killing earned a right to a portion of
the proscribed mans estate.
Like Caesar, Pompey the Great (although he had not yet earned the title) was young at this time;
he profited from Sullas proscriptions, earning him the nickname teenage butcher (adulscentulus
carnifex). Caesar, on the other hand, because of his connection to Marius as well as his refusal to
divorce a wife whose populris family was hostile to Sulla, barely escaped proscription. Eventually
he had to travel to the East until things became safer in Rome. While in the East Caesar served in
the entourage of a Roman official and participated in battle where he earned the civic crown by
saving the life of a fellow citizen. Around this time pirates reputedly kidnapped Caesar. After the
ransom was collected and paid, the former hostage led an expedition to catch his captors, personally overseeing their crucifi xion. Caesar then traveled to Rhodes to study Greek rhetoric with
Apollonius Molon, the same outstanding teacher of rhetoric with whom Cicero studied. Although
Caesar was not as accomplished an orator as Cicero, he nevertheless was a very fine speaker.

10 Latin for the New Millennium

POLITICS
Caesars early career included numerous military and civil posts, in addition to his military experience and work as a prosecutor in Romes courts. In 65 bce he was elected to the aedileship. His
year in this office was notable for his staging of extravagant games, which was necessary for winning the favor of the voting public. In 63 bce Caesar was elected Pontifex Maximus, the highest
office in Roman religion. To secure Romes chief priesthood, he reputedly borrowed huge sums
of money for the purpose of bribing the voters. Individuals from prominent families sought election to a number of priesthoods because of the close connection between religion and politics.
The government at Rome at this time was hopelessly corrupt, a situation that Caesar exploited.
He had, in fact, borrowed so much money that his creditors went to court to prevent his departure for Spain, the province he was to govern in 61 bce. Crassus, the richest man in Rome, had to
personally guarantee Caesars debts before he was allowed to depart.

THE FIRST TRIUMVIRATE


With the profits Caesar made governing in Spain by conducting warfare with rebellious tribes
(generals and soldiers shared in the profits derived from war), he paid off his enormous debt
and prepared to run for election to the consulship. In this campaign he was able to enlist the
aid of Pompey the Great and Crassus. These two senior politicians were enemies, but Caesar
reconciled them and brokered a three-way alliance that would be mutually beneficial. (The triumvirate was formed against a mutual enemy, Cato and the optimts.) The alliance, which they
called friendship (amcitia), is frequently referred to as the fi rst triumvirate. Th is term implies an official commission sanctioned by the state, which it was not. Even if its public impact
was profound, their amcitia was, from a legal point of view, private. Caesar strengthened his
relationship with Pompey by offering his daughter Julia in marriage to him. After his election
to the consulship in 59 bce, Caesar used constitutionally dubious methods to pass legislation
that would benefit his friends, such as physically preventing his fellow-consul Marcus Bibulus
from participating so that he could not veto the proceedings. Hence, the year of 59 bce was referred to sarcastically by contemporaries as the consulship of Julius and Caesar, instead of the
consulship of Bibulus and Caesar.
Caesar received a proconsulship of Illyricum (located on the Adriatic coast opposite northern Italy) and the two Gauls, which consisted of Cisalpine Gaul (northern Italy) and Transalpine Gaul (the Mediterranean coast of what is now France) for a period of five years. After he
became involved in the conquest of the remainder of Gaul (roughly corresponding to what is
now France), Caesar realized that it would take him longer than the original five-year commission to accomplish the task. He renewed his alliance with Crassus and Pompey in 56 bce and
completed the conquest of Gaul by 50 bce. In the process Caesar flooded Roman markets with
slaves, acquired fabulous wealth, dispensed many political favors, and won the fierce devotion
of his soldiers.

Chapter 1 11

Caesars campaigns in Gaul established his reputation as an exceptional military commander. The Roman army was a highly
organized institution. Caesars tactical skills and the technological superiority of the Roman army were key components
in his success. A group of reenactors demonstrates the Roman testd, which facilitated the armys offensive maneuvers.

THE END OF THE FIRST TRIUMVIRATE


Roman politics had in the meantime entered into a critical phase. In 54 bce Julia, Caesars
daughter and Pompeys wife, died in childbirth. In 53 bce, leading a large contingent of Roman soldiers against Parthia, Crassus was defeated and died in batt le. Parthia ruled a territory
roughly equivalent to what is now Iraq and Iran. The defeat was humiliating for Rome. After
the deaths of Julia and Crassus, Pompey began drift ing into a closer alliance with leaders in the
Roman Senate who were opposed to Caesar. Before their political alliance fell apart, Caesar
had been promised by Pompey that he could celebrate a triumph, a military victory parade, in
Rome as well as run for a second consulship in absenti without giving up his proconsular imperium. Instead, after winning Pompey over to their side, leading senators felt powerful enough to
ruin Caesars career, which, constitutionally speaking, they were entitled to do. They ordered
12 Latin for the New Millennium

Caesar to lay down his command while at the same time allowing Pompey to retain his. When
Caesar refused to obey, the Senate declared him a public enemy. Caesar then marched his army
into Romes territory in the middle of winter in early January 49 bce. According to the Roman
historian Suetonius, as he crossed the Rubicon River in northern Italy, Caesar proclaimed iacta
lea est (the die has been cast) to indicate that there was no turning back. The Rubicon represented the boundary between the Cisalpine province and Roman territory, and thus to cross
the Rubicon with an army was considered an act of treason. Today people both quote the Latin
expression and refer to ones Rubicon to communicate the notion of a significant decision that
cannot be reversed.
Pompey and the Senate appear to have been taken by surprise by Caesars boldness. Many fled
to Greece. Caesar secured Italy and then moved operations to Greece where he defeated Pompey
at Pharsalus in 48 bce. Pompey fled to Egypt (still independent under the Ptolemies) where he
was assassinated. Caesar arrived in Egypt too late to engage Pompey, but he became involved
in a local dispute over who had the right to rule in Egypt. Caesar supported Cleopatra over her
brother. Because he arrived with so few soldiers, Caesar was at times in real danger, but eventually he prevailed. After sett ling affairs in Egypt, where he became romantically involved with
Cleopatra, Caesar moved on to the East where in 47 bce he penned his famous report from the
batt le of Zela: vn, vd, vc (I came, I saw, I conquered). But the civil war was not over yet. He
had to fight senatorial armies in North Africa (46 bce) and then in Spain (45 bce).

THE ASSASSINATION OF JULIUS CAESAR


After a bitter civil war Caesar was faced with the task of reestablishing constitutional government. He had in the interim been named dictator for life (dicttor perpetu [tempore]). The
dictatorship was convenient because it allowed Caesar to hold office continuously without the
necessity of annual election. The rest of the machinery of government ran as usual, but Caesar
determined who held positions of importance such as the consulship.
However, Caesar did not possess sole rule for long. During his short-lived administration he
attempted to sett le economic affairs by relieving, but not abolishing, debt. Th is satisfied neither
debtors nor creditors. He also reformed the Roman calendar by increasing the number of days of
the year from 355 to 365 with a regular leap year every four years. With only modest adjustments
later made by Pope Gregory XIII of the sixteenth century, we still use Caesars calendar today. It
seems fitt ing, therefore, that because of Caesars significant reform of the calendar, one month of
our year bears his name, the month of July.
After his victory in the civil war, Caesar, unlike Sulla, preferred to forgive rather than proscribe
his enemies, reckoning that people who owed their very lives to him would demonstrate future
gratitude. Th is policy contributed to Caesars early demise. Many of those whom he forgave
joined the successful conspiracy to assassinate him because they could not tolerate the notion of
Caesar as a dictator for life. The conspirators struck during a meeting of the Senate on March 15
(the Ides), 44 bcethe eve of Caesars planned departure for Parthia where he hoped to avenge
Crassuss humiliating defeat.

Chapter 1 13

Guillaume Lethiere (c. 17801832) communicates the mayhem of the crowd as the Roman people
come to view the body of the dead Caesar displayed at the Senate house.

CAESARS LEGACY
After Caesars murder, another round of civil war erupted, but not before the Senate declared
that Caesar was a god. In his will Caesar had adopted his great-nephew, Gaius Octavius (the son
of his sisters daughter), who assumed Caesars name, as did every subsequent Roman emperor.
Caesars name eventually passed into other languages with the meaning of emperor, such as
kaiser in German and czar in Russian. Caesar worship would be transformed into emperor worship, and this worship of the emperors after they died and while they lived became an important
element of Roman administrative policy during the empire. Th is element of Roman religion
eventually involved the Roman government in confl ict with Jews and early Christians.
But Caesars legacy goes beyond his calendar, his divinity, and his name. The people of Gaul
became Roman, and their descendants today speak a Latin-derived language. Caesars example
of a single individual assuming ultimate power has attracted imitators for thousands of years. In
North America fear of such would-be imitators inspired the framers of the US Constitution to
create a complex system of checks and balances to prevent any single individual from usurping
supreme constitutional authority on Caesars model.
Caesar is in every respect a pivotal historical figure. His career marks the end of the Roman
Republic, and his dictatorship served as the prelude to a constitutional reorganization that inaugurated the Roman Empire under his adoptive great-nephew Octavian (who became Augustus).
We still reckon time by Caesars reformed calendar, and our constitution continues to protect us
from those who might otherwise try to imitate him.
14 Latin for the New Millennium

CAESAR AS AN AUTHOR
Caesars literary fame rests on his surviving commentaries on the Gallic and Civil Wars:
Commentri d bell Gallic and Commentri d bell cvl. Caesar composed the fi rst seven
books of the Gallic War. Aulus Hirtius supplemented the work after Caesars death, contributing an eighth book. Caesar also wrote the three books of the Civil War. These books were
supplemented as well with books (authorship uncertain) on events in Egypt (the Alexandrian
War), North Africa (the Afr ican War), and Spain (the Spanish War). Caesar also wrote many
works that do not survive, including a work on Latin grammar. In light of the great number of
exceptions to grammatical rules found in other authors, the loss of this work is a bitter one given
Caesars fondness for clean and clear prose.
What were commentri? Roman governors and generals wrote official reports, which they
sent to the Senate. Caesars actual reports to the Senate are not what we read today. We read
reports modeled on the style of those reports. Why would Caesar have chosen a genre that
imitated such reports? Caesar was the politician who during his consulship fi rst published
minutes or proceedings of the Senate (acta Sents), much to the resentment of the conservative aristocracy, who preferred to sett le matters among themselves without public scrutiny.
When Caesar departed for Gaul, he probably chose commentri as a genre to publicize his
accomplishments among as wide a public as possible in a format that made it appear as if he
were sharing his official reports to the Senate with all Roman citizens. Caesar was also absent
from Rome for nine years. His dispatches on the Gallic War would have been devoured by
a public eager for news and would have been promoted by Caesars political allies. Similarly,
Caesars reports on the civil war were likely crucial in presenting Caesars side in this bitterly divisive confl ict. When were these books published? How were they published? Did they
appear serially or as a complete work? Were there revisions along the way? The answers to all
these questions remain disputed. We do have testimony, however, that although the genre was
in general conceived of as providing the raw materials for historians, Caesars commentri
were considered so polished that they dissuaded competitors from attempting to rewrite his
accounts, especially of his Gallic campaigns.
Caesars style has often been praised for its distinctive qualities. He tells his stories logically,
clearly, and without obscure Latin vocabulary. If readers compare his prose to his contemporary Cicero or to the later historian Livy, they will soon perceive why Caesars style is called
plain. His sentences, artfully constructed though they are, do not become involved in the
complex syntax of subordinate and relative clauses (a style called periodic). His use of rhetorical devices is more subtle. He writes as a dispassionate observer, as opposed to the outraged
orator or the emotional and moralizing historian.
Caesar also writes about himself in the third person. His intent in doing so has been the subject
of scholarly debate. His writing in the third instead of the fi rst person may have to do with his
original audience at Rome: a public eagerly listening to reports about the progress of the Gallic
war. Texts were often read aloud to larger groups who gathered to listen. If we compare, When
Caesar was informed of this, he decided to . . . to the sentence When I heard this, I reckoned I
should . . . , we can observe that the third person would seem more natural in reporting the great
Chapter 1 15

generals accomplishments in the wilds of Gaul to a large, diverse audience. Even upper-class
readers frequently employed slaves to read texts to them out loud. If Caesar were not writing letters to people personally, the fi rst person would have been jarring. Why would Caesar be
speaking to them directly, especially if they were in a group, and he was so far away in Gaul? With
the help of the third person, the focus of the reports was more squarely on Caesars actions rather
than his authorship, and their plain and unemotional style lent them a seeming objectivity.
Caesars commentri have persuaded many readers over thousands of years with this seemingly objective authority. A cursory glance, however, at the bitterly partisan times in which they
were written quickly reveals what was at stake for Caesar: his reputation, his public career, and
even his life, as the subsequent civil war and Caesars murder amply demonstrate.

16 Latin for the New Millennium

GAUL

Ta m e
si

Britannia

Londnium
s

Rh

Canti

g
el

ua

vi

Germn

Matro

Lutetia
Parsirum

Dnu

viu

Boi

Liger

br

ig

Venet

r
Ne

na

ae

nus

Portus
Dubris

ra

s Genva

Gallia
Cisalpna

um

ru

na

Al

r
ob

og

Lacus
Lemannus

Noria

ric

Ga

ar

Rhodanus

Gergovia

Raura Tuling
c
ti
Helv

Illy

TLANTICUS
CEANUS

Aedu
Gallia
Celtica

qu

Bibracte

Avricum

an

La

Alesia

Rubic

(H
dr

tic

G a l l i a Tr a n s a l p n a /
Gallia Narbnnsis

um

Massilia
Narb

Tiberis

Aqutn
P
R
NA
E
MON
T S

Rma

Hispnia

M a r e

I n t e r n u m
2012 Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, Inc.

READING 1
In the passage below, you will find certain words in a different font, some words underlined, and other
words in parentheses. The words in a different font are the words in a relative clause, including the relative pronoun, and the underlined words are the antecedents of relative pronouns. This method will help
you determine what the main clause of each sentence is.
In Latin prose and poetry, the reader often needs to understand or supply words that are not in the
Latin text. Words to be understood are in parentheses in the text below. When one or more words are
needed to complete the thought in one of two or more clauses, this is called ellipsis and is quite common in Latin.
Later in this chapter, the same passage of Latin will be seen again without the use of words in different
fonts and in parentheses.
In Chapter 1 of Book 1 of his Commentaries, Caesar comments on the valor of the Belgians and
Helvetians. The geographical description of Gaul that he provides does not include the Roman
province of Transalpine Gaul (modern Provence) in the southeastern part. Th is province was
already under the control of Rome and was one of the provinces he was assigned as governor, in
addition to Cisalpine Gaul and Illyricum.

GAUL AND ITS INHABITANTS


CAESAR D BELL GALLIC 1.1
1

Gallia est omnis dvsa in parts trs, qurum nam (partem) incolunt Belgae, aliam
(partem incolunt) Aqutn, (et) tertiam (partem incolunt) (e) qu ipsrum lingu
Celtae, nostr (lingu) Gall appellantur.

NOTES AND VOCABULARY


Line 1:

Gallia, -ae, f. Gaul; Gaul or the territories known today as France and northern Italy. From
the Roman perspective, the Alps divided Gaul on this side (cis) of the Alps (Gallia
Cisalpna) from the Gaul that was across (trns) the Alps (Gallia Trnsalpna). Another
Gaul was the area beyond the Alps, but along the Mediterranean, which the Romans
frequently called Prvincia or the Province.
omnis, omne all; omnis modifies Gallia; translate Gaul as a whole; that is, if one looks at the
entire territory, one fi nds three major ethnic groups among which it has been distributed.
dvid, dvidere, dvs, dvsum to divide; dvsa is the perfect passive participle serving as a
predicate adjective; with est, translate is divided.
pars, partis, f. part
trs, tria three; note that here the numeral follows, instead of precedes, the noun it modifies
for emphasis.
nus, -a, -um one
incol, incolere, incolu to inhabit, dwell in, live in; when transitive (taking a direct object)
as here, translate inhabit. In line 8, where incol is intransitive, translate dwell or live.

18 Latin for the New Millennium

Belgae, -rum, m. pl. the Belgians; the Belgians are located in northern Gaul along the
English Channel.
alius, alia, aliud another, other

STUDY TIP
The genitive, both singular and plural, of the relative pronoun qu, quae, quod is most
commonly translated whose. Sometimes, however, English usage dictates that the
genitive be translated of which.
Line 2:

Aqutn, -rum, m. pl. the Aquitanians; the Aquitanians are located on the Atlantic coast
above the Pyrenees, the mountains that separate the Spanish peninsula from Gaul.
tertius, -a, -um third
is, ea, id this, that, he, she, it; translate those. e is the antecedent of qu, and Caesar, like
many Roman authors, omits this antecedent. Note that the e, which needs to be supplied,
forms the subject of the understood incolunt.
ipse, -a, -um himself, herself, itself, themselves; ipsrum lingu literally translates by the
language of them themselves but a smoother translation is by their own language.
lingua, -ae, f. language

BY THE WAY
Note the omission of et between the second and third in a series. The omission of a
connective such as et or -que is called asyndeton (from the Greek meaning lack of
connection) and often occurs in Latin literature. The asyndeton enhances the brevity of this sentence. In this passage asyndeton occurs again in line 3 (before lgibus),
in line 14 (before vergit), and in line 15 (before spectant).
Line 3:

Celtae, -rum, m. pl. the Celts


noster, nostra, nostrum our
Gall, -rum, m. pl. Gauls; people from the Celtic territories of northern Italy as well as from
Transalpine Gaul.
appell (1) to name, call

STUDY TIP
Predicate nominatives and predicate adjectives rename, defi ne, or describe the subject
of the sentence. They are in the nominative case and are seen with a form of the verb
sum or with other intransitive verbs such as those that mean appear, be made, become, and be named. In line 3, the verb appellantur, are named, sets up the predicate nominatives Celtae and Gall.

Chapter 1 19

CAESAR D BELL GALLIC 1.1, CONTINUED

10

H omns lingu, nstitts, (et) lgibus inter


s differunt. Galls ab Aqutns Garumna flmen (dvidit), (Galls) Belgs Matrona
(flmen) et Squana (flmen) dvidit. Hrum omnium fortissim sunt Belgae, proptere
quod cult atque hmnitte prvinciae longissim absunt, minimque ad es
merctrs saepe commeant atque ea quae ad effminands anims pertinent
important. Proxim sunt Germns, qu trns Rhnum incolunt, quibuscum
continenter bellum gerunt. Qu d caus Helvti quoque reliqus Galls virtte
praecdunt, quod fer ctdins proelis cum Germns contendunt, cum aut sus fnibus

NOTES AND VOCABULARY


Line 3:

hic, haec, hoc this


nstittum, -, n. custom, habit
lx, lgis, f. law
inter, prep. + acc. among, between; translate from one another.

STUDY TIP
An ablative of respect shows in respect to what something is or is done. In line 3,
lingu, nstitts, lgibus are ablatives of respect; translate in language, . . .
Line 4:

Line 5:
Lines 56:
Line 6:

Line 7:

su, sibi, s, s himself, herself, themselves


differ, differre, distul, dltum to differ
Garumna, -ae, m. the Garonne River; flmen agrees with Garumna in case because the words
are in apposition.
Matrona, -ae, m. the Marne River.
Squana, -ae, m. the Seine River; the Matrona and Squana are the dual subject of a singular
verb because Caesar considered the two rivers as functioning as one boundary.
proptere quod: lit., on account of which; translate because.
cultus, cults, m. culture, civilization
hmnits, hmnittis, f. refi nement, human feeling, civilization
longissim, superlative adv. farthest
absum, abesse, fu, futrus to be away, be absent
minim, superlative adv. least
merctor, merctris, m. merchant; note that merctrs serves as the subject and is not being
modified by es. The prepositional phrase ad es is placed before the subject for emphasis.
comme (1) to come and go
atque, conj. and, and also
effmin (1) to weaken, make effeminate; translate ad effminands anims to weakening
courage. The verb pertine governs ad + acc. and thus ad effminands anims is not a
gerundive of purpose, although it seems like one at fi rst glance.

20 Latin for the New Millennium

animus, -, m. will, spirit, judgment, courage


pertine, pertinre, pertinu (+ ad + acc.) to extend (to), pertain to, reach (to)

STUDY TIP
Adjectives like proximus (line 8), and others that mean dear, near, kind, friendly and
the like, take the dative and, in English, are often followed by to or for. In line 8 the
dative is Germns.
import (1) to bring or carry in
proximus, -a, -um nearest, last, next, nearest
trns, prep. + acc. across
Rhnus, -, m. the Rhine river
quibuscum = cum quibus
Line 9:
continenter, adv. constantly, continuously
bellum, -, n. war
ger, gerere, gess, gestum to wage, carry on
qu d caus translate for this reason.
Helvti, -rum, m. pl. the Helvetians; a people who lived in the territory corresponding to
modern Switzerland.
quoque, adv. also
reliquus, -a, -um the rest of
virts, virttis, f. courage, manliness
Line 10:
praecd, praecdere, praecess, praecessum to surpass, precede
fer, adv. almost
ctdinus, -a, -um daily
proelium, -, n. batt le
contend, contendere, contend, contentum to struggle, fight
Lines 1011: aut . . . aut: either . . . or
suus, -a, -um his, her, its, their; this adjective refers to the subject of the sentence only, no
matter which word it modifies, which in this case is the Helvetians.
fnis, fnis, m. end, pl. boundaries, territory; fnibus: ablative of separation; translate from.
Line 8:

STUDY TIP
Cum can be either a preposition meaning with or a conjunction meaning when,
since, although. The preposition cum takes the ablative while the conjunction cum
takes a verb. The presence of an ablative or a verb in the vicinity of cum will help you
determine the words function, and, therefore, which meaning to use. As a preposition,
cum typically precedes the noun it governs but is usually joined to fi rst and second-person pronouns (e.g., tcum, mcum), to the reflexive pronoun (scum), and to interrogative and relative pronouns (as in line 8). As a conjunction, as in line 10, cum signifies
time when and takes the indicative mood.

Chapter 1 21

CAESAR D BELL GALLIC 1.1, CONTINUED

15

es prohibent aut ips in erum fnibus bellum gerunt. Erum na pars, quam Galls
obtinre dictum est, initium capit flmine Rhodan, contintur Garumn flmine,
cean, (et) fnibus Belgrum, attingit etiam ab Squans et Helvtis flmen Rhnum,
(et) vergit ad septentrins. Belgae ab extrms Galliae fnibus oriuntur, pertinent ad
nferirem partem flminis Rhn, (et) spectant in septentrinem et orientem slem.
Aqutnia Garumn flmine ad Prnaes monts et eam partem cean quae est ad
Hispniam pertinet; spectat inter occsum slis et septentrins.

NOTES AND VOCABULARY


Line 11:
Line 12:

Line 13:

Line 14:

prohibe, prohibre, prohibu, prohibitum to keep off, restrain, prevent


na pars: refers to the country or territory; translate one part of their (erum) territory.
obtine, obtinre, obtinu, obtentum to hold, obtain
dc, dcere, dx, dictum to say; in quam Galls obtinre dictum est, quam is the object of
obtinre; Galls is the accusative subject of obtinre; translate which it has been said the
Gauls hold.
initium, -, n. beginning
capi, capere, cp, captum to take, seize
Rhodanus, -, m. the Rhone River; the Rhone flows from Lake Geneva in Switzerland to the
Mediterranean.
contine, continre, continu, contentum to contain, keep, hem in, bound by
att ing, att ingere, att ig, att ctum to touch, reach, border (on)
etiam, adv. also
ab Squans et Helvtis: translate on the side of the Sequanians and Helvetians. The
Sequani were a tribe of eastern Gaul.
verg, vergere to slope, lie
septentri, septentrinis, m. the seven stars comprising the Big Dipper; north
extrmus, -a, -um farthest
orior, orr, ortus sum to rise, arise, originate
pertinent ad: translate extend to.

STUDY TIP
Remember that deponent verbs like orior in line 14, although passive in form, translate
actively in all indicative and subjunctive tenses.
Line 15:

nferior, nferius lower


Rhnus, -, m. the Rhine river
spect (1) to look at; translate as face (when the verb indicates a specific direction).
in, prep. + acc. into, toward
sl, slis, m. sun; orientis slis means the rising sun; translate the east.

22 Latin for the New Millennium

Line 16:
Line 17:

ad, prep. + acc. to, toward, near


occsus, occss, m. sett ing, fall; occsum slis means the sett ing of the sun; translate the
West.

TAKE NOTE
1. The province of Gallia Narbnnsis was organized about 120 bce. Its chief cities
were Massilia (Marseilles), an old Greek free city, and the capital, Narb (Narbonne), a Roman colony. The Romans called this part of Gaul closest to Italy on the
northwestern side Prvincia, or the Province. Today the French call it Provence.
2. The names of rivers in Latin are usually masculine, including those that belong
to the fi rst declension such as the Garumna, Matrona, and Squana. The Garonne
River forms the boundary between Aquitania and the Gaul Caesar calls Celtic. The
Seine River flows across northern Gaul and with the Marne River forms a boundary
with the Belgians.
3. In line 6, cultus indicates the outward characteristics of civilization (dress, habits of
life, etc.); hmnits, the moral characteristics (refi nement of thought and feeling,
education, etc.).

COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS
1. Name in both Latin and English the three parts of Gaul that Caesar outlines.
2. Which of these three parts is the bravest and why, according to Caesar?
3. Why are the Helvetians more courageous than the Gauls?

EXERCISE 1
1. In line 1, what Latin word is the antecedent of qurum?
2. In lines 12, what three Latin words modify the understood noun partem?
3. In line 2, what is the case and use of ipsrum?
4. What is the case and use of lingu in line 2?
5. In line 3, what is the tense, voice, and mood of appellantur?
6. In line 4, to what does s refer?
7. What is the case and use of Aqutns in line 4?
8. In lines 45, what are the Latin subjects of dvidit?
9. What is the case and degree of fortissim in line 5?
10. What is the case and use of cult in line 6?
11. What is the subject of commeant in line 7?
12. What is the antecedent of qu in line 8?
13. What is the case and use of virtte in line 9?
Chapter 1 23

14. In line 10, what is the subject of praecdunt?


15. In line 10, what is the case and use of proelis?
16. In line 11, to whom does es refer?
17. What is the antecedent of quam in line 11?
18. In line 12, what is the tense, voice, and mood of dictum est?
19. In lines 1214, na pars is the subject of what four verbs?

VOCABULARY BUILDER
It is easier to read passages of D bell Gallic if you know the geographical terms for the peoples
and places Caesar is discussing. Here are terms that will help you read Caesars Latin text. Which
of these can you fi nd on the map on p. 17?

PEOPLE

PLACES

Gall, -rum, m. pl. the Gauls


Belgae, -rum, m. pl. the Belgians
Aqutn, -rum, m. pl. the Aquitanians
Germn, -rum, m. pl. the Germans
Helvti, -rum, m. pl. the Helvetians
Squan, -rum, m. pl. the Sequanians
Hispn, -rum, m. pl. the Spaniards
Celtae, -rum, m. pl. the Celts

Gallia, -ae, f. Gaul


Belgica, -ae, f. Belgium
Aqutnia, -ae, f. Aquitania
Germnia, -ae, f. Germany
Helvtia, -ae, f. Helvetia
Hispnia, -ae, f. Spain
Gallia Celtica, -ae, f. Celtic Gaul (as opposed
to the Roman provinces of Gaul)

Aedu, -rum, m. pl. the Aeduans

RIVERS
Garumna, -ae, m. the Garonne river
Matrona, -ae, m. the Marne river
Squana, -ae m. the Seine river
Rhnus, -, m. the Rhine river
Rhodanus, -, m. the Rhone river
Using the Latin glossary to help you, what are the Latin adjectives that correspond to the peoples
listed above? Be careful since there are a few difficult ones in the list of people.
Example: Gall, -rum, m. pl. the Gauls

24 Latin for the New Millennium

Gallus, -a, -um Gallic

LANGUAGE FACT
DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS
hic, haec, hoc (See p. 508 in Appendix D for the paradigm of hic.)
The adjective forms of hic, meaning this or these, can modify a noun or serve as pronouns meaning he, she, it, they.
. . . ab hc cult atque hmnitte longissim absunt.
They are very far away from this civilization and
refi nement.

ADJECTIVE

H omns lingu, nstitts, lgibus inter s differunt.


(Caesar D bell Gallic 1.1.34)
All these [men] differ from one another in language,
customs, and laws.

PRONOUN

Hs ab Aqutns Garumna flmen dvidit.


The Garonne river divides them from the Aquitanians.

PRONOUN

ille, illa, illud (See p. 508 in Appendix D for the paradigm of ille.)
As an adjective, ille means that or those but as a pronoun means he, she, it, they.
. . . pertinent ad illam partem flminis Rhn.
They stretch to that part of the Rhine river.

ADJECTIVE

Proxim sunt ills, qu trns Rhnum incolunt.


They are next to those [men] who live across the Rhine.

PRONOUN

Helvti quoque reliqus ills virtte praecdunt.


The Helvetians also surpass the rest of them in courage.

PRONOUN

is, ea, id (See p. 507 in Appendix D for the paradigm of is.)


The adjective forms of is, ea, id when serving as pronouns mean he, she, it, but as adjectives
can also be translated as this, these, that, those.
Aqutnia Garumn flmine ad. . . . eam partem Ocean
. . . pertinet. (Caesar D bell Gallic 1.1.1617)
Aquitania stretches from the Garonne river to that part
of the Ocean.

ADJECTIVE

. . . sus fnibus es prohibent.


(Caesar D bell Gallic 1.1.1011)
They keep them from their borders.

PRONOUN

. . . ea quae ad effminands anims pertinent important.


(Caesar D bell Gallic 1.1.78)
They bring in those [things] which pertain to weakening
courage.

PRONOUN

Chapter 1 25

BY THE WAY
The demonstrative pronouns hic and ille may be used as a pair to refer to people or
things that have already been mentioned. In these instances, hic means latter (to remember: think of hook and ladder) and ille means former.

EXERCISE 2
Identify the demonstrative pronoun/adjective in each sentence, indicate whether it is being used
as a pronoun or an adjective, and translate the entire sentence.
1. Hrum omnium fortissim sunt Belgae.
2. Ill Belgae ab extrms Galliae fnibus oriuntur.
3. Erum na pars, quam Gall obtinent, initium capit flmine Rhodan.
4. Sus fnibus hunc prohibent.
5. Aqutnia ab e flmine ad Prnaes monts pertinet.
6. Hanc partem incolunt Belgae, illam Aqutn, et eam Gall.
7. In erum fnibus bellum gerunt.
8. Fer ctdins proelis cum ills contendunt.
9. Haec pars initium capit Rhodan flmine.
10. Ill Germn quibuscum continenter Belgae bellum gerunt incolunt trns Rhnum.

LANGUAGE FACT
RELATIVE PRONOUNS
qu, quae, quod (See p. 509 in Appendix D for the paradigm of qu.)
The relative pronoun qu, quae, quod who, whose, whom, which, that connects its own clause
to a word in another clause. Th is word in the other clause is called the antecedent. A relative clause
governs either an indicative or a subjunctive verb. Indicative verbs are used here. (See pp. 179180
and 542543 for relative clauses with subjunctive verbs.) The relative pronoun takes its number
and gender from its antecedent, but takes its case from its function in the clause that it introduces.
Look at these examples in which the antecedent is underlined and the relative clause is in bold.
Aqutnia Garumn flmine ad . . . eam partem cean quae est ad Hispniam
pertinet. (Caesar D bell Gallic 1.1.1617)
Aquitania stretches from the Garonne river to that part of the Ocean which is
near Spain.
Proxim sunt Germns, qu trns Rhnum incolunt.
(Caesar D bell Gallic 1.1.8)
They are nearest to the Germans who live across the Rhine.

26 Latin for the New Millennium

Ea quae ad effminands anims pertinent important.


(Caesar D bell Gallic 1.1.78)
They bring in those things which pertain to weakening [their] courage.
STUDY TIP
Sometimes the antecedent of a relative clause is an understood form of hic, is, or ille as
in the example below.
. . . tertiam (partem incolunt) qu ipsrum lingu Celtae, nostr Gall
appellantur (Caesar D bell Gallic 1.1.23)
Those who are called the Celts by their language, by ours the Gauls,
inhabit the third part.
BY THE WAY
When a form of the relative pronoun is found at the beginning of a Latin sentence, it is
sometimes being used to link the sentence to a noun or idea in the previous sentence.
Th is use is called the connecting qu and is translated by the corresponding form in
English of is, hic, or ille.
Qu in fnibus Gallrum bellum gerunt.
They wage war on the borders of the Gauls.
Qu d caus Helvti quoque reliqus Galls virtte praecdunt.
(Caesar D bell Gallic 1.1.910)
For this reason the Helvetians also surpass the remaining Gauls in courage.

EXERCISE 3
Translate.
1. Gallia est omnis dvsa in parts trs, qurum nam partem incolunt Belgae.
2. na pars, quae initium capit Rhodan, contintur Garumn flmine.
3. Qu cult atque humnitte prvinciae longissim absunt fortissim sunt.
4. Matrona, Squana, Garumna quae sunt tria flmina in Galli, sunt longissim.
5. Qu lingu, nstitts, lgibus inter s differunt.
6. Belgae qurum mlits sunt fortissim mults proelis cum Germns contendunt.
7. Mlits es grtis agunt ab quibus cibus ad castra importtur.
8. Belgae ab extrms fnibus qu sunt in Galli oriuntur.

Chapter 1 27

READING 1 REDUX
You are now ready to read the passage exactly as Caesar wrote it. For this reason the words in parentheses, the special fonts, and the underlined words are no longer used. You have already seen notes in
the first version of this passage, and you may refer to those notes if you need to. Additional notes for this
passage are given below the text.
1

10

15

[1] Gallia est omnis dvsa in parts trs, qurum nam incolunt Belgae, aliam Aqutn,
tertiam qu ipsrum lingu Celtae, nostr Gall appellantur. H omns lingu, nstitts,
lgibus inter s differunt. Galls ab Aqutns Garumna flmen, Belgs Matrona et
Squana dvidit. Hrum omnium fortissim sunt Belgae, proptere quod cult atque
hmnitte prvinciae longissim absunt, minimque ad es merctrs saepe commeant
atque ea quae ad effminands anims pertinent important, proximque sunt Germns,
qu trns Rhnum incolunt, quibuscum continenter bellum gerunt. Qu d caus Helvti
quoque reliqus Galls virtte praecdunt, quod fer ctdins proelis cum Germns
contendunt, cum aut sus fnibus es prohibent aut ips in erum fnibus bellum gerunt.
Erum na pars, quam Galls obtinre dictum est, initium capit flmine Rhodan,
contintur Garumn flmine, cean, fnibus Belgrum, attingit etiam ab Squans et
Helvtis flmen Rhnum, vergit ad septentrins. Belgae ab extrms Galliae fnibus
oriuntur, pertinent ad nferirem partem flminis Rhn, spectant in septentrinem et
orientem slem. Aquitnia Garumn flmine ad Prnaes monts et eam partem
cean quae est ad Hispniam pertinet; spectat inter occsum slis et septentrins.

NOTES AND VOCABULARY


Line 1:

Note how partem is to be understood from the word parts earlier in the sentence with both
aliam and tertiam.

BY THE WAY
It is called ellipsis when one or more words are needed to complete the thought in
one or more clauses. See p. 194 for more detailed information on ellipsis.
Line 2:
Line 9:

Notice that lingu is to be understood with nostr from the previous phrase. Th is is another
example of ellipsis.
sus fnibus is an example of an ablative of separation, which in some instances features the
preposition , ab and in other instances does not.

28 Latin for the New Millennium

Helvetia is the name Switzerland still uses on its currency and its stamps. The god Mercury, recognized
by his special cap, is an artifact from the days when Chur was a Roman foundation. Th is stamp
issued in 1986 celebrates the 2,000-year anniversary of the citys founding.

ESSAY
Caesar discusses the factorsthat he believescontribute to the bravery, fi rst of the Belgians and
then of the Helvetians. In a short essay identify these factors. Point out and explain the significance ofthe factor that he mentions in the case of the Belgians but not of the Helvetians.
What does this omission indicate?
Support your assertions with references to the Latin text. All Latin words must be copied or
their line numbers provided, AND they must be translated or paraphrased closely enough that
it is clear that you understand the Latin. Direct your answer to the question; do not merely summarize the passage. Please write your essay on a separate piece of paper.

Chapter 1 29

CHAPTER 1
GAIUS JULIUS CAESAR
AN INTRODUCTION TO CAESAR
Gaius Julius Caesar is considered one of Romes leading politicians (aedile
in 65 bce, pontifex maximus in 63, quaestor in 61, and consul in 59) and
most successful generals. An accomplished orator, he also was an author
of the fi rst rank. His impact on Romes political and religious institutions
was decisive and long-lasting despite the fact that his life was cut short by
his assassination in 44 bce.
Caesars literary fame rests on his surviving commentaries on the Gallic and Civil Wars: Commentri d bell Gallic and Commentri d bell
Cvl. Caesars actual reports to the Senate are not what we read today.
We read reports modeled on the genre of those reports. When Caesar
departed for Gaul, he probably chose commentri as a genre to publicize
his accomplishments among as wide a public as possible in a format that
made it appear as if he were sharing his official reports to the Senate with
all Roman citizens. Similarly, Caesars reports on the civil war were
likely crucial in presenting Caesars side in this bitterly divisive confl ict.
Caesars style has often been praised for its distinctive qualities. He
tells his stories logically, clearly, and without obscure Latin vocabulary.
Caesar also writes about himself in the third person. His intent in doing
so has been the subject of scholarly debate. Caesars commentri have
persuaded many readers over thousands of years with this seemingly objective authority. A cursory glance, however, at the bitterly partisan times
in which they appeared quickly reveals what was at stake for Caesar: his
reputation, his public career, and even his life, as the subsequent civil war
and Caesars murder amply demonstrate.

READING 1
Caesar discusses the Druids in some detail in this passage, one of two
groups that are respected among the Gauls.

THE DRUIDS AS PRIESTS AND ARBITRATORS


CAESAR D BELL GALLIC 6.13
1

[13] In omn Galli erum hominum qu aliqu sunt numer


atque honre, genera sunt duo. Nam plbs paene servrum
habtur loc, quae nihil audet per s, nll adhibtur cnsili.
Plrque, cum aut aere alin aut magnitdine tribtrum aut
iniri potentirum premuntur, ss in servittem dicant
nbilibus, quibus in hs eadem omnia sunt ira quae domins in
servs. Sed d hs dubus generibus alterum est druidum,
alterum equitum. Ill rbus dvns intersunt, sacrificia pblica

NOTES AND VOCABULARY


Line 1:
Line 2:

Line 3:

aliquis, aliquid some, someone, anyone, something, anything


numerus, -, m. account, number
hons, honris, m. mark of honor, office; honor, esteem; numer and
honre are ablatives of description.
genus, generis, n. type, kind
nam, conj. for
plbs, plbe or plbs, plbis, f. plebs, common people
habe, habre, habu, habitum to have, hold; habe often means
have but sometimes, as here, the verb means hold, consider.
locus, -, m. rank, position; locus often occurs in the ablative without
the preposition in to express place where.
aude, audre, ausus sum to dare; be careful to distinguish between
the forms of audi, audre, audv, audtum to hear and aude,
audre, ausus sum to dare.
adhibe, adhibre, adhibu, adhibitum (+ dat.) to invite, summon;
note nll = the dative nll here.
consilium, -(i), n. council, deliberation, decision, planning

2 Latin for the New Millennium: Latin 3 Select Latin Enrichment Readings

Line 4:

Line 5:

Line 6:

Lines 78:

Line 7:
Line 8:

plrque, plrrumque, m. pl. the majority, most people


cum, conj. translate whenever. Usually the conjunction cum means
when, since, although, but in some sentences when a general
condition is being expressed, cum means whenever.
aes alinum, aeris alin, n. debt; aes alinum means literally money
belonging to another.
tribtum, -, n. tribute, tax
iniria, -ae, f. wrongdoing, oppression, injury
potns, potentis powerful; potentirum is being used as a substantive
with the noun virrum understood.
prem, premere, press, pressum to suppress, press hard
ss: reduplicated form of the reflexive pronoun s
dic (1) to dedicate, give oneself; be sure to distinguish dic (1), a verb
of the fi rst conjugation, from the verb of saying dc, dcere, dx,
dictum, which belongs to the third conjugation.
nbilis, nbile noble; nbilibus is another substantive with the noun
virs understood. Here the word refers to the most distinguished of
the Knights (see line 8 below).
quibus and domins: datives of possession; eadem . . . quae signify
same . . . as. Translate quibus in hs eadem omnia sunt ira quae
domins in servs: who possess all the same rights toward these as
masters [possess] toward slaves.
is, iris, n. right, law, prerogative
alter. . . alter the one . . . the other
druidum . . . equitum genitives of possession; translate est as
consists of.
druids, druidum, m. pl. Druids
eques, equitis, m. here, knight (Gallic aristocracy)
ill: refers to the Druids because in the previous sentence they had
been mentioned fi rst, i.e., alterum est druidum, alterum equitum.
Ille refers to that one or the fi rst mentioned (the former), while h
refers to this one or these, i.e., the last mentioned (the latter).
Note that the Druids are referred to only by pronouns in the rest of
this passage.
dvnus, -a, -um holy, divine
intersum, interesse, interfu to take part in, attend to; this
compound verb, like many in Latin, governs the dative case.
sacrificium, -, n. sacrifice

Chapter 1: Gaius Julius Caesar 3

CAESAR D BELL GALLIC 6.13, CONTINUED


10

15

ac prvta prcrant, religins interpretantur: ad hs magnus


adulscentium numerus disciplnae caus concurrit, magnque
h sunt apud es honre. Nam fer, d omnibus contrversis
pblics prvtsque cnstituunt, et, s quod est admissum facinus,
s caeds facta, s d hrditte, d fnibus contrversia est, dem
dcernunt, praemia poensque cnstituunt; s qu aut prvtus
aut populus erum dcrt nn stetit, sacrificis interdcunt.
Haec poena apud es est gravissima. Quibus ita est interdictum,
h numer impirum ac scelertrum habentur, hs omns
dcdunt, aditum sermnemque dfugiunt, n quid ex contgine
incommod accipiant, neque hs petentibus is redditur,

NOTES AND VOCABULARY


Line 9:

Line 10:

Line 11:

Line 12:

Line 13:

prcr (1) to attend to, administer


religi, religinis, f. religion, religious rites
interpretor, interpretr, interprettus sum to interpret, explain
adulscns, adulscentis, m./f. young man, young woman, youth
disciplna, -ae, f. education, knowledge
caus, + preceding gen. for the sake of, because of; dont confuse this
use of caus with the noun causa, -ae, f. reason.
concurr, concurrere, concurr, concursum (+ ad) to flock (to) in
crowds, to assemble together
apud, prep. + acc. among; apud es = among the Gauls
fer, adv. nearly, almost, usually
contrversia, -ae, f. dispute
cnstitu, cnstituere, cnstitu, cnstittum to decide,
determine, judge
facinus, facinoris, n. crime
caeds, caedis, f. murder
facta: supply est.
hrdits, hrdittis, f. inheritance
fnis, fnis, m. end; pl. boundary
dem, eadem, idem the same

4 Latin for the New Millennium: Latin 3 Select Latin Enrichment Readings

Line 14:

Line 1415:
Line 15:

Line 16:

Line 17:
Line 18:

Line 19:

dcern, dcernere, dcrv, dcrtum to sett le, decide


praemium, -, n. reward
poena, -ae, f. punishment
s qu . . . populus: translate if anyone whatever individual or tribe . . . .
dcrtum, -, n. decision, decree; here, the ablative is used with the
intransitive verb stetit, which should be translated in the present
tense, abide by.
sacrificis: ablative of separation
interdc, interdcere, interdx, interdictum to banish (someone)
from
Quibus: dative after est interdictum. The pronoun refers to the persons
banished. Translate those who have been banished (lit., for those
whom it has been banished or for those for whom a decree of
banishment has been issued).
impius, -a, -um impious, wicked
scelertus, -a, -um criminal, outlawed
dcd, dcdere, dcess, dcessum to abandon, leave, withdraw;
hs is dative of separation used with a verb compounded with d.
aditus, adits, m. approach, encounter
serm, sermnis, m. talk, conversation
dfugi, dfugere, dfg to avoid
n quid = n aliquid; remember that after s, nisi, num, or n, all the
alis fall away.
contgi, contginis, f. contact
incommodum, -, n. disadvantage, misfortune, harm; incommod is a
partitive genitive (genitive of the whole) used with quid.
pet, petere, petv, pettum to demand, entreat, seek
redd, reddere, reddid, redditum to give back, restore, render

Chapter 1: Gaius Julius Caesar 5

CAESAR D BELL GALLIC 6.13, CONTINUED


20

25

30

neque hons llus commnictur. Hs autem omnibus druidibus


praeest nus, qu summam inter es habet auctrittem. Hc
mortu, aut s qu ex reliqus excellit dignitte succdit, aut, s
sunt plrs pars, suff rgi druidum, nn numquam etiam arms
d prncipt contendunt. H cert ann tempore in fnibus
Carntum, quae regi ttus Galliae media habtur, cnsdunt
in loc cnsecrt. Hc omns undique qu contrversis habent
conveniunt erumque dcrts idicisque parent. Disciplna in
Britanni reperta atque inde in Galliam trnslta esse exstimtur,
et nunc qu dligentius eam rem cgnscere volunt plrumque ill
discend caus proficscuntur.

NOTES AND VOCABULARY


Line 20:
Line 21:

Line 22:

Line 23:

Line 24:

commnic (1) to share


praesum, praeesse, praefu, praefutrum to preside over, be in
charge of
summus, -a, -um highest
auctrits, auctrittis, f. authority, power, influence
mortuus, -a, -um dead, deceased
s qu = s aliqu
reliquus, -a, -um remaining, left over
excell, excellere, excellu (+ abl.) to excel in, be superior in
dignits, dignittis, f. worth, reputation, authority
succd, succdere, success, successum to advance, become the
successor
pls, plris more, several
pr, paris equal; distinguish carefully between this adjective and the
noun pars, partis, f. part.
suff rgium, -(i), n. vote; suff rgi is an ablative of means; take with
contendunt.
numquam, adv. never; translate nn numquam sometimes.
prnciptus, prncipts, m. leadership, rule, fi rst place
contend, contendere, contend, contentum to fight, compete

6 Latin for the New Millennium: Latin 3 Select Latin Enrichment Readings

Line 25:

Line 26:
Line 27:

Line 28:

Line 29:

Line 30:

Carntes, Carntum, m. pl. a people in Gaul on both sides of the


Loire
regi, reginis, f. region, area
medius, -a, -um middle
cnsd, cnsdere, cnsd, cnsessum to hold sessions, encamp,
sett le
cnsecr (1) to consecrate, dedicate to the gods
hc, adv. here, to this place
idicium, -(i), n. trial, decision
pare, parre, paru (+ dat.) to obey; be careful to distinguish
between par (1) to prepare and pare, parre, paru to obey.
Dont confuse forms of the noun pars, partis, f. part or the
adjective pr, paris equal with either of these verbs.
disciplna, -ae, f. system, discipline, knowledge
reperi, reperre, repper, repertum to fi nd, discover
inde, adv. from there
trnsfer, trnsferre, trnstul, trnsltum to carry across, transfer
exstim (1) to consider, think, judge
dligns, dligentis careful, strict
cgnsc, cgnscere, cgnv, cgnitum to know, learn
ill: to that place
disc, discere, didic to learn, know

COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS
1. In Gaul, to what group are the plebs considered equivalent? Cite
the Latin.
2. Name the two types of men who are respected. Cite the Latin.
3. What are the Druids chief responsibilities?
4. What happens if people do not abide by their decisions?
5. What possible scenarios may occur when the chief Druid dies? Cite
the Latin.
6. Where did the practice of having Druids as arbitrators possibly
originate?

Chapter 1: Gaius Julius Caesar 7

READING 2
In 6.14 Caesar provides more information about the Druids, such as they
are exempt from military service, they do not entrust their doctrine to
writing, and they believe in transmigration of the souls; in 6.15 he discusses the Knights, who are very bellicose; in 6.16 he reveals how some
of the Gauls engage in human sacrifice and the role the Druids play in
these religious observances.

PRACTICE AND BELIEFS OF THE DRUIDS [14];


THE KNIGHTS [15]; AND HUMAN SACRIFICE [16]
CAESAR D BELL GALLIC 6.1416
1

10

[14] Druids bell abesse cnsurunt, neque tribta n cum


reliqus pendunt; militiae vactinem omniumque rrum habent
immunittem. Tants excitt praemis et su sponte mult in
disciplnam conveniunt et parentibus propinqusque mitt untur.
Magnum ibi numerum versuum discere dcuntur. Itaque anns
nn nll XX in discipln permanent. Neque fs esse exstimant
ea litters mandre, cum in reliqus fer rbus, pblics prvtsque
ratinibus, Graecs litters tantur. Id mihi dubus d causs
nstituisse videntur, quod neque in vulgum disciplnam efferr velint
neque es qu discunt litters cnfss minus memoriae studre;

NOTES AND VOCABULARY


Line 1:

Line 2:

bell: ablative of separation


absum, abesse, afu, afutrum to refrain, be absent from
cnsuesc, cnsuescere, cnsuv, cnsutum to become
accustomed to; consurunt is the contracted form of cnsuvrunt.
tribtum, -, n. tribute, tax
n, adv. together; dont confuse the adverb n that means together
with the number for one, nus, -a, -um.
pend, pendere, pepend, pnsum to pay
mlitia, -ae, f. the military, military service

8 Latin for the New Millennium: Latin 3 Select Latin Enrichment Readings

Line 3:

Line 4:
Line 5:
Line 6:

Line 7:

Line 8:

Line 9:

Line 10:

vacti, vactinis, f. exemption


immnits, immnittis, f. immunity, exception
excit (1) to rouse, inspire
sponte, f. (abl. only) of ones own accord
propinquus, -, m. relative, relation
versus, verss, m. verse, line (of poetry)
disc, discere, didic to learn thoroughly or by heart
nn nll: translate some; an example of litotes.
permane, permanre, permans, permnsum to remain
fs, n. indecl. right, divine law
exstim (1) to consider, judge, think
ea: translate these things or these principles.
littera, -ae, f. letter (of the alphabet); pl. writing
mand (1) to entrust, commit
cum, conj. when, since, although; use the concessive translation
although.
fer, adv. nearly, almost, usually
rati, ratinis, f. account, transaction, business; ratinibus refers to
accounts and general records
tor, t, sus sum (+ abl.) to use
mihi: notice the use of the fi rst person pronoun mihi. Caesars
reference to himself in the fi rst person in d bell Gallic is very rare.
causa, -ae, f. reason; be careful to distinguish between the look-alike
words: causa, -ae, f. reason, casa, -ae, f. hut, house, and csus,
css, m. misfortune.
nstitu, nstituere, nstitu, nstittum to set up, establish
vulgus, -, n. crowd, public; in vulgum to the general public, publicly
disciplna, -ae, f. doctrine
disc, discere, didic to learn, know
cnfd, cnfdere, cnfsus sum (+ dat.) to rely on, trust; translate
litters cnfss relying on writing.
stude, studre, studu (+ dat.) to study, apply oneself to

Chapter 1: Gaius Julius Caesar 9

CAESAR D BELL GALLIC 6.1416, CONTINUED

15

20

quod fer plrsque accidit ut praesidi litterrum dligentiam


in perdiscend ac memoriam remittant. In prims hoc volunt
persudre, nn interre anims sed ab alis post mortem trnsre
ad alis, atque hc maxim ad virttem excitr putant, met
mortis neglct. Multa praetere d sderibus atque erum mt,
d mund ac terrrum magnitdine, d rrum ntr, d derum
immortlium v ac potestte disputant et iventt trdunt. [15]
Alterum genus est equitum. H, cum est sus atque aliquod bellum
incidit (quod fer ante Caesaris adventum quotanns accidere
solbat, ut aut ips iniris nferrent aut inlts prpulsrent),

NOTES AND VOCABULARY


Line 11:

Line 12:

Line 13:

Line 1314:
Line 14:

fer, adv. almost, generally, for the most part


plrque, plrrumque, m. pl. the majority, most people
accid, accidere, accid to occur, happen to (+ dat. of person affected)
praesidium, -(i), n. help, assistance, protection
perdisc, perdiscere, perdidic to learn thoroughly, learn by heart;
the prefi x of perdiscend, like that of discere, shows that this material
must be overlearned to the point of being part of the person.
remitt, remittere, rems, remissum to relax, loosen, release
in prims: among the fi rst, especially
hoc: refers to what follows.
persude, persudre, persus, persusum (+ dat.) to convince,
persuade
intere, interre, interi/interiv, interitum to die
ab alis . . . ad alis: from one . . . to another
hc: ablative of means; by this. The pronoun here refers to what has
just been said.
maxim, adv. especially
virts, virttis, f. excellence, virtue
excit (1) to rouse, inspire; understand homins as the subject of
excitr.
put (1) to think
metus, mets, m. fear

10 Latin for the New Millennium: Latin 3 Select Latin Enrichment Readings

Line 15:

Line 16:
Line 17:

Line 18:

Line 19:

Line 20:

negleg, neglegere, neglx, neglctum to disregard


praetere, adv. besides, moreover
sdus, sderis, n. star, constellation
mtus, mts, m. motion, movement
mundus, -, m. world, universe
vs, vs, f. force, power, strength
potests, potesttis, f. power, authority
disput (1) to dispute, discuss, argue
iuvents, iuventtis, f. youth, young people
trd, trdere, trdid, trditum to pass on, hand down, teach
eques, equitis, m. knight; equitum is a genitive of possession; note
that the opening sentence of 15.1 picks up from 13.1: erum
hominum . . . genera sunt duo.
usus, uss, m. use, need
incid, incidere, incid, incasum to fall in, happen, occur; be careful
not to confuse incid, incidere, incid, incasum to happen with
incd, incdere, incd, incsum to cut into, cut short. The fourth
principal part incasum shows that this verb is a compound of cad
to fall, happen, while the verb with the fourth part incsum is from
caed to cut, kill.
adventus, advents, m. approach, arrival
quotanns, adv. annually, every year
sole, solre, solitus sum to be used to, be accustomed to
ut, ut, conj. so that, that, as, when; dont confuse this word with the
second principal part of utor, ut, usus sum to use.
nfer, nferre, intul, illtum to bring forward, infl ict
prpuls (1) to drive off, repel

Chapter 1: Gaius Julius Caesar 11

CAESAR D BELL GALLIC 6.1416, CONTINUED

25

30

omns in bell versantur; atque erum ut quisque est genere


copisque amplissimus, ita plrims circum s ambacts
clientsque habet. Hanc nam grtiam potentiamque novrunt.
[16] Nti est omnis Gallrum admodum ddita religinibus,
atque ob eam causam qu sunt adfect graviribus morbs quque
in proelis perculsque versantur aut pr victims homins
immolant aut s immoltrs vovent, administrsque ad ea
sacrificia druidibus tuntur; quod, pr vt hominis nisi hominis
vta reddtur, nn posse derum immortlium nmen plcr
arbitrantur, pblicque iusdem generis habent nstitta sacrificia.
Ali immn magnitdine simulcra habent, qurum contexta
vminibus membra vvs hominibus complent; quibus succnss
circumvent flamm exanimantur homins. Supplicia erum qu in
frt aut in latrcini aut aliqu noxi sint comprehns grtira

NOTES AND VOCABULARY


versor (1) to occupy oneself with, be engaged in
quisque, quidque, pron. each, each one, everybody
genere: in terms of birth
Lines 2122: ut quisque + superlative . . . ita: translate the more each . . . so the
more.
Line 22:
amplus, -a, -um powerful, strong, prominent
plrimus, -a, -um most, very great, very many
ambactus, -, m. vassal
Line 23:
nam: translate only.
grtia, -ae, f. influence, favor
potentia, -ae, f. force, power
nsc, nscere, nv, ntum to learn, recognize; in perfect tenses,
to know
Line 24:
nti, ntinis, f. nation, race, people
admodum, adv. very, quite, just about
dd, ddere, ddid, dditum to devote, give up
Line 21:

12 Latin for the New Millennium: Latin 3 Select Latin Enrichment Readings

Line 25:

Line 26:
Line 27:

Line 28:
Line 29:
Line 30:

Line 31:

Line 32:

Line 33:

Line 34:

religi, religinis, f. piety to the gods; (pl.) religious observances,


religious matters
adfici, adficere, adfc, adfectum to affect, impair
gravis, grave serious, severe
morbus, -, m. sickness, disease
proelium, -(i), n. batt le, fight
immol (1) to sacrifice
vove, vovre, vv, vtum to pledge, devote
administer, administr, m. assistant
nisi, conj. unless, if not, except
nmen, nminis, n. divine will, divine power, divinity
plc (1) to calm, appease
arbitror (1) to consider, judge, think; note that arbitror is a synonym
of put and existim, both appearing in these passages written by
Caesar.
pblic, adv. on behalf of the state, as a community, publicly
nstitu, nstituere, nstitu, nstittum to put in place, establish,
build; translate habent nstitta sacrificia have sacrifices
established.
immnis, immne huge, enormous
simulcrum, -, n. likeness, image, representation
contex, contexere, contexu, contextum to weave together,
entwine
vmen, vminis, n. twig, basket
membrum, -, n. limb, part
comple, complre, complv, compltum to fi ll, complete; ali is
the subject
succend, succendere, succend, succnsum to set fi re to, light
circumveni, circumvenre, circumvn, circumventum to
enclose, surround
exanim (1) to kill
supplicium, -, n. supplication, punishment, execution
frtum, -, n. theft , trick
latrcinium, -, n. robbery, banditry
noxia, -ae, f. harm, crime
comprehend, comprehendere, comprehend, comprehnsum to
capture, arrest

Chapter 1: Gaius Julius Caesar 13

CAESAR D BELL GALLIC 6.1416, CONTINUED


35

ds immortalibus esse arbitrantur, sed, cum ius generis cpia


dficit, etiam ad innocentium supplicia dscendunt.

NOTES AND VOCABULARY


Line 35:
Line 36:

deus, -, m. god; ds is the irregular dative/ablative plural.


dfici, dficere, dfc, dfectum to fail, run out
innocns, innocentis innocent, blameless
dscend, dscendere, dscend, dscnsum to fall, stoop, resort to,
lower oneself

COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS
1. What is not required of the Druids, unlike others?
2. Why do they not entrust information to writing?
3. How does Caesar characterize the Knights?
4. Why do the Gauls engage in human sacrifice?

14 Latin for the New Millennium: Latin 3 Select Latin Enrichment Readings

The Dying Gaul. Marble replica of one of the sculptures in


the ex-voto group dedicated to Pergamon by Att alus I to commemorate the victories over the Galatians in the 3rd and 2nd
centuries BCE. A detail of this statue is on the cover. Capitoline Museums, Rome. ( Wikimedia Commons)

Chapter 1: Gaius Julius Caesar 15

READING 3
In Book 3 of the Civil War, Caesar describes how Pompey fled to Egypt
after the batt le of Pharsalus and how he is killed by one of King Ptolemys
men and by a former supporter who served with him in the war against
the pirates.

POMPEY ASKS KING PTOLEMY FOR ASYLUM


CAESAR D BELL CVL 103
1

103. Ibi cs rx erat Ptolemaeus, puer aette, magns cpis cum


sorre Cleopatr bellum gerns, quam paucs ante mnsibus per
sus propinqus atque amcs rgn expulerat; castraque Cleopatrae
nn long spati ab ius castrs distbant. Ad eum Pompius
msit, ut pr hospiti atque amciti patris Alexandr recipertur
atque illus opibus in calamitte tegertur. Sed qu ab e miss
erant, cnfect lgtinis offici, lberius cum mlitibus rgis
conloqu coeprunt esque hortr ut suum officium Pompi
praestrent nve ius fortnam dspicerent. In hc erant

NOTES AND VOCABULARY


Line 1:

Line 2:

ibi, adv. at that time


csus, css, m. chance; distinguish carefully between this fourth
declension noun and the fi rst declension noun casa, -ae, f. hut,
house.
Ptolemaeus, -, m. Ptolemy
aetas, aettis, f. age; aette is an ablative of respect. At that time
Ptolemy was around 13 years of age.
Cleopatra, -ae, f. Cleopatra; at that time Cleopatra was around 19
years of age.
quam: the relative pronoun refers to Cleopatra.
mnsis, mnsis, m. month; translate paucs ante mnsibus, which is
an ablative of degree of difference, a few months earlier; literally
before by a few months.

16 Latin for the New Millennium: Latin 3 Select Latin Enrichment Readings

Line 3:

Line 4:

Line 5:

Line 6:

Line 7:

Line 8:

Lines 89:
Line 9:

propinquus, -, m. relative
rgnum, -, n. kingdom; rgn is an ablative of separation.
expell, expellere, expul, expulsum to drive out, expel
castra, -rum, n. (military) camp; note plural form with singular
meaning.
spatium, -(i), n. distance; long spati is an ablative of degree of
difference with distbant.
ius: refers to Ptolemy.
dist (1) to stand apart
Pompius, Pomp, m. Pompey (the Great)
mitt, mittere, ms, missum to send a request; the ut clause is in
apposition to the notion of request implied in the verb.
pr (prep. + abl.) by virtue of, in return for
hospitium, -(i), n. hospitality, guest-host relationship
patris: King Ptolmeys father; Ptolemy XII Auletes stayed with
Pompey when he was in exile in the 50s bce.
Alexandr: ablative used instead of the locative for place where.
recipi, recipere, recp, receptum to receive
illus: refers to Ptolemy
ops, opium, f. power, resources
calamits, calamittis, f. misfortune
teg, tegere, tx, tctum to protect
qu: translate those who.
ab e: refers to Pompey
confici, conficere, confc, confectum to complete
lgti, lgtinis, f. embassy, mission
officium, -, n. duty
lberius, comparative adv. too freely
conloquor, conloqu, conloctus sum to speak with
coep, coepisse to begin (defective verb)
hortor (1) to urge
suum officium praestre: translate that they discharge their duty.
nve, adv. and not
dspici, dspicere, dspex, dspectum to look down on

Chapter 1: Gaius Julius Caesar 17

CAESAR D BELL CVL 103, CONTINUED


10

numer complrs Pomp mlits, qus ex ius exercit accepts


in Syri Gabnius Alexandram trdxerat bellque cnfect apud
Ptolemaeum, patrem puer, relquerat.

NOTES AND VOCABULARY


Line 10:
Line 11:

Line 12:

complrs, complrium several


ius: refers to Pompey
in Syri: After Pompeys campaign in Syria, some of his troops were
left behind there to defend the recently annexed territory.
Gabnius, -, m. Aulus Gabinius, now one of Caesars officers;
although previously Gabinius had been a strong supporter of
Pompey and had served as one of his officers, during the Civil Wars
he supported Caesar.
trdc, trducere, trdx, trductum to lead across
apud, prep. + acc. with, in the presence of
relinqu, relinquere, relqu, relictum to leave behind

COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS
1. What age was King Ptolemy at this time? Cite the Latin.
2. Who helped King Ptolemy drive Cleopatra out of his kingdom?
3. What request did Pompey make of King Ptolemy?
4. Whom did Gabinius bring to Alexandria? Cite the Latin.

18 Latin for the New Millennium: Latin 3 Select Latin Enrichment Readings

Sphinx and Pompeys Pillar in Alexandria, Egypt. Medieval travelers to Egypt believed that Pompey must have been buried here and that the capital of the red Aswan granite column contained
his head. Thus this pillar was named Pompeys pillar when in fact the pillar was built in the 4th
century in honor of the Emperor Diocletian who had captured Alexandria. ( 2013 Shutterstock
Images LLC)

Chapter 1: Gaius Julius Caesar 19

READING 4
Key advisers to Ptolemy decide to kill Pompey. Lucius Septimius, who
formerly had served in one of Pompeys campaigns, assists with executing the murder.

THE DEATH OF POMPEY


CAESAR D BELL CVL 104
1

10

104. Hs tunc cgnits rbus, amc rgis, qu propter aettem


ius in crtine erant rgn, sve timre adduct, ut poste
praedicbant, sollicitt exercit regi, n Pompius Alexandram
Aegyptumque occupret, sve dspect ius fortn, ut
plrumque in calamitte ex amcs inimc exsistunt, hs qu
erant e miss palam respondrunt eumque ad rgem venre
iussrunt; ips, clam cnsili init, Achillam, praefectum rgium,
singulr hominem audci, et L. Septimium, tribnum mlitum,
ad interficiendum Pompium msrunt. Ab hs lberliter ipse
appelltus et qudam ntiti Septim prductus, quod bell
praednum apud eum rdinem dxerat, nviculam parvulam

NOTES AND VOCABULARY


Line 1:

Line 2:

Line 3:

cgnsc, cgnscere, cgnv, cgnitum to learn; in perfect


tenses, to know
amc rgis: these included Achillas, army commander or prefect,
mentioned in line 7; Pothinus, royal guardian; and Theodotus of
Chios, the young kings tutor
ius: refers to Ptolemy
in crtine erant rgn: translate were acting as regents; literally:
were in the administration of the kingdom.
sve . . . sve, conj. whether . . . or
addc, addcere, addx, adductum to influence
poste, adv. afterwards
praedic (1) to allege

20 Latin for the New Millennium: Latin 3 Select Latin Enrichment Readings

Line 5:

Line 6:

Line 7:
Line 8:

Line 9:

Line 10:

Line 11:

sollicit (1) to offer bribes to, stir up


sollicitt exercit regi: either supply by Pompey with this
ablative absolute or construe the ablative absolute as part of the n
clause that follows.
regi, reginis, f. region; be careful not to confuse the many Latin
words that begin with reg- such as rx, rgis, m. king (cf. line 1);
rgnum, -, n. kingdom (cf. line 2); rgn (1) to rule; reg to rule,
guide; rgius, -a, -um royal; and from this line regi region.
plrumque, adv. very often
exsist, existere, exsist to prove to be, show oneself
hs: indirect object of respondrunt, one of the two main verbs of this
sentence
e, adv. there; be careful not to confuse this adverb with the ablative
singular masculine and neuter forms of is, ea, id.
palam, adv. in the open, in public
clam, adv. secretly (in contrast to palam in line 5)
inre cnsilium: to form a plan
singulris, singulre remarkable, extraordinary
singulr . . . audci: ablative of description
L. Septimius: Lcius Septimius, a Roman officer who had served in
Pompeys campaign against the pirates
hs: refers to Achillas and Septimius
lberliter, adv. generously, kindly
ipse: refers to Pompey
qudam, quaedam, quoddam, indefinite pron. and adj., certain, a
certain
ntitia, -ae, f. acquaintance
prdc, prdcere, prdx, prductum to induce
praed, praednis, m. pirate
rdinem dxerat: translate had commanded a division.
nvicula, -ae, f. small vessel, skiff; note how the double diminutive,
nviculam parvulam, adds poignancy to the passage.

Chapter 1: Gaius Julius Caesar 21

CAESAR D BELL CVL 104, CONTINUED


cnscendit cum paucs sus; ibi ab Achill et Septimi interficitur.
Item L. Lentulus comprehenditur ab rge et in custdi nectur.
NOTES AND VOCABULARY
Line 12:

Line 13:

cnscend, cnscendere, cnscend, cnscnsum to board, go on


board
paucs sus: pauc is being used as a substantive here. Understand virs
or mlitibus.
L. (Lucius) Lentulus: consul in 49 bce and one of Pompeys strongest
supporters
comprehend, comprehendere, comprehnd, comprehnsum to
seize
nec (1) to kill

COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS
1. Who replied to Pompeys request?
2. What was their response? Cite the Latin.
3. What did they later say caused them to make this response?
4. Whom did they send to kill Pompey?
5. Why did Pompey trust Septimius enough to board the boat? Cite
the Latin.

22 Latin for the New Millennium: Latin 3 Select Latin Enrichment Readings

CHAPTER

GAIUS VALERIUS CATULLUS

omplementary Infinitives and Infinitives with Impersonal Verbs; Partitive


Genitive; Diminutives; Cum Clauses; Imperatives and Prohibitions;
Conditional Sentences; Positive, Comparative, and Superlative Adjectives and
Adverbs; Genitive and Dative Pronouns
Chiasmus, Sibilance, Anaphora, Apostrophe, Rhetorical Question, Hyperbaton,
Onomatopoeia, Transferred Epithet

Antonio Zucchi (17261795) depicts the poetic tradition of Cupid inspiring the Greek poet
Sappho in his painting Sappho Taking Notes from Love. Catullus highly esteemed the
poetry of Sappho and emulated her work in his own love poetry.

MEMORBILE DICT

Vvmus, mea Lesbia, atque ammus.


Let us live and love, my Lesbia. (Catullus 5.1)
In this often quoted line, Catullus links living and loving, and later in the poem he recommends
a life of love since humans are ultimately mortal.

INTRODUCTION TO CATULLUS
Gaius Valerius Catullus is considered one of Romes most beloved and influential poets. The time
during which he lived, however, was tumultuous, characterized by the aftermath of Sullas dictatorship (8279 bce), by the slave revolt of Spartacus (7371 bce), by the conspiracy of Catiline
to overthrow the state (63 bce), and by the jockeying for power by three ambitious and ruthless
men, Crassus, Caesar, and Pompey, in the years 70 bce and following. Periods of civil unrest
often generate great literary works, and the collection of Catulluss poetry is no exception. This
body of literature represents some of the most original and brilliant poetry of the time, and it
was considered a classic already by the early 40s and late 30s bce when Vergil and Horace began
writing poetry.

CATULLUSS LIFE
Catullus was born around 84 bce and died in Rome some thirty years later, around 5452 bce.
He was born in Verona, Italy, to a wealthy and prominent family. According to Suetonius (fi rst
century ce), Catulluss father entertained Julius Caesar at his home in Verona. Like other young
men from well-to-do provincial families, Catullus was sent to Rome to receive an education that
would lead to a career in law and/or politics. From his poetry we learn that Catullus served on
the staff of the praetorian governor Gaius Memmius who was assigned the province of Bithynia
(5756 bce), which in modern times approximates the territory now occupied by north central
Turkey. Although Catulluss year abroad in Bithynia was fi nancially disappointing, his assignment to this province apparently afforded him the opportunity to visit the grave of his brother
who had died and was buried in the vicinity of ancient Troy.

LESBIA
Catullus wrote poems on many topics, including love, friendship, poetry, marriage, his own and
his friends experiences in the provinces, and social mores. His poems also contain sometimes
bitter attacks on rivals for the affections of a beloved, on friends who betray him, on political
figures, on social upstarts, and on inferior poets. But he is most well known for the series of love
poems about a woman whom he refers to as Lesbia. Most critics believe that the Lesbia poems
are based on a real-life experience.
The name Lesbia alludes to the Greek lyric poetess Sappho of Lesbos, whose love poetry influenced Catullus. The name is intended to suggest a woman possessing the irresistible combination of great intelligence and passion. Almost certainly Lesbia is a pseudonym for the very
aristocratic Clodia, wife of Quintus Caecilius Metellus Celer (who held the consulship shortly
before his death in 59 bce) and the older sister of the notorious Clodius Pulcher, one of whose
more risqu exploits involved disguising himself as a woman in order to infi ltrate the exclusively
female religious festival of the Bona Dea in 62 bce. The love affair proved to be tempestuous
because Catullus the lover expected fidelity from his lady while Lesbias/Clodias apparently

78 Latin for the New Millennium

fl irtatious character att racted the attention of a number of admirers. One of these admirers was
Marcus Caelius Rufus, who betrayed his friend Catullus by becoming involved with Lesbia/
Clodia (this is hinted at in Poem 77). Cicero provides us with a picture of this fascinating woman
in the Pr Caeli (56 bce), where he ruthlessly maligns Clodias character. In his speech on Caeliuss behalf, Cicero defends his protg from several charges, one of which was plott ing to poison
Clodia, and argues that the entire trial was motivated by Clodias deep resentment that her lover
broke off the affair with her.
It is important to recognize that Catullus the poet has created a character Catullus who is the
central figure in his poetry. Th is character is called the poets persona and can be witt y, charming, playful, romantic, arrogant, foul-mouthed, whining, and verbally abusive. The infatuation of
this character with Lesbia has great importance for the poetry because the intense and obsessive
quality of his love for her serves as a predominant theme that integrates the entire collection.
From a Roman perspective, Catulluss relationship with Lesbia was unusual because he describes his love for her as transcending the physical. As a result, Catullus struggles to express the
unique quality of this love and resorts to using vocabulary that characterizes male friendship and
social/political networks among Romes male elite (e.g., foedus, fids, amcitia).

THE NEOTERICS
During the middle of the fi rst century, a literary revolution took place in Republican Rome. Catullus and like-minded poets of his generation discovered in Alexandrian literature of the third
century bce (for example, the poet Callimachus) literary values that were relevant and adaptable
to their own literary ideals. Like their Alexandrian predecessors, these poets were interested
in experimenting with meter, language, content, style, and genre. They preferred short poems
over long, discursive epics and personal poetry over that concerned with the public sphere. They
embraced the qualities of originality, erudition, and refi nement, infusing Latin poetry with new
life by introducing to it the language of the man on the street. Conversational language having to
do with charm and wit and their opposite notions (lepidus/illepidus, venustus/invenustus, legns/
inlegns, urbnus/inurbnus, and salsus/insulsus) often is featured in poems having to do with
social correctness. Diminutives, also characteristic of informal language, permeate the poetry,
adding to the effect Catullus is trying to achieve, whether it is wit, irony, sarcasm, sadness, or affection. Cicero refers to these individuals as the neoterics or new poets.
The poetry is lively and entertaining, and the characters Catullus introduces are unforgettable,
from Suffenus who is sophisticated until he sets his hand to composing poetrythen he is more
rustic than the rustic countrysideto Rufus, who has a bad case of body odor, to Egnatius, who
is so socially inept he grins all the time, including on the wrong occasions. The principal topics
of love and friendship transcend time; the poetry seems as relevant and original today as when
Catullus composed it over two thousand years ago.

Chapter 2 79

CATULLUSS LIBELLUS
The poetry of Catullus made its way into the Middle Ages by the slimmest of threads. A single
manuscript of the poetry came to light in Verona near the start of the 14th century; fortunately
several copies of this manuscript were made before the original disappeared as mysteriously as
it had appeared. The extant collection consists of three major parts: the polymetra (160), short
poems that are composed in a variety of meters, but mostly in hendecasyllables; the long poems
(6168b), which form the centerpiece of the collection, unified by the theme of marriage; and the
elegiac epigrams (69116), short poems written in elegiac couplets.
The question of whether the order of the poems reflects the hand of Catullus or that of a posthumous editor has been the subject of intense debate. Some scholars are now of the opinion
that Catullus organized all (and not just part) of the transmitted text because the organization
resembles that in later collections of Latin poetry, where ring patterns of thematically paired poems emerge as the unifying principle. Just as Catullus experimented with form, meter, and content in the individual poems, so the organization of the collection on the basis of length, meter,
and, to a certain extent, theme seems experimental, the result, perhaps, of Catulluss deciding to
assemble and integrate his best work in a single body of poetry. Verbal repetition often signals relationships between thematically related poems. For instance Poems 49 and 58 are linked by the
nearly identical phrases Romul neptum (49.1) and Rem nepts (58.5), which, in turn, suggest a
link between the poems recipients, Cicero and Caelius (who almost certainly is the same person
as Ciceros protg, M. Caelius Rufus). Recognition of these relationships serves to enhance the
interpretation of individual poems. For example, Poems 107 and 109 both deal with the theme
of reconciliation of Catullus and Lesbia. While Poem 107 describes Catulluss ecstatic happiness
that he and Lesbia are a couple again, Poem 109 reacts to this totally unexpected development,
with Catullus having doubts that his lady is capable of making a permanent and exclusive commitment to him alone. The correspondence of Poem 109 to 107, therefore, tempers the rapturous
joy of the fi rst of the two poems.

CATULLUSS LEGACY
Catullus appears to be the fi rst poet in Greek or Latin who decided to write about a particular
love-affair in depth in a related collection of poems (R. O. A. M. Lyne, The Latin Love Poets [Oxford, 1980] 21). Th is innovation inspired later writers of Latin love poetry (Propertius, Tibullus,
and Ovid). Roughly one-fourth of the short poems in the collection (both the polymetrics and
elegiacs), together with the long poem 68B, chronicle the on-again, off-again love affair between
Lesbia and Catullus in his persona as infatuated lover. Th is series contains some of Catulluss
most memorable and remarkable literary pieces that are so engaging that we share in the lovers
desire, joy, anguish, anger, frustration, and despair. It seems appropriate, therefore, that Catullus
principally is celebrated as a poet of love.

80 Latin for the New Millennium

Our English word paper is derived from the Latin papyrus, which refers
to the parchment-like material made from the papyrus plant, which grew
abundantly in the Nile river delta. Pliny the Elder describes the process
of making paper in his Historia Natrlis 13.7482. Th is image is helpful
in visualizing the libellus Catullus discusses in his dedicatory poem (see
p. 82).

Chapter 2 81

READING 1
In Latin prose and poetry, the reader often needs to understand or supply words that are not in the
Latin text. Words to be understood are in parentheses in the text below. Different fonts point out words
that belong together.
In Poem 1 Catullus dedicates his new book of poems to Cornelius Nepos, whom you met in
Latin for the New Millennium, Chapter 8 of Level 1 (see p. 123) and then you met him in each
chapter of Level 2, where you read selections from his biography of Ciceros confidant and friend
Att icus. Like Catullus, Att icuss contemporary Cornelius Nepos (11024 bce) hailed from Cisalpine Gaul. Catullus compliments his friend in this poem by describing his and Neposs literary
achievements in similar terms.

THE DEDICATION OF CATULLUSS LIBELLUS


CATULLUS CARMEN 1
Meter: Hendecasyllable (for the meter see Appendix B.)
1

10

Cui dn (hunc) lepidum novum libellum


rid modo pmice expoltum?
Cornl, tibi: namque t solbs
mes esse aliquid putre ngs
iam tum, cum (t) ausus es nus talrum
omne aevum tribus explicre carts
docts, Iuppiter, et labriss.
qur hab tibi quidquid hoc (est) libell
qulecumque; quod, patrna virg,
pls n maneat perenne saecl.

NOTES AND VOCABULARY


Line 1:

Line 2:

cui: the dative of quis, meaning to whom


dn (1) to give
lepidus, -a, -um charming, delightful
libellus, -, m. litt le book; libellus is the diminutive of liber, libr, m. book; see the Language
Fact later in this chapter on p. 89.
ridus, -a, -um dry
modo, adv. just now, recently
pmex, pumicis, f. pumice stone
expoli, expolre, expolv, expoltum to polish

82 Latin for the New Millennium

Line 3:

Line 4:

Line 5:

Cornel: refers to Cornelius Nepos.


namque, conj. for; namque is an emphatic form of nam.
sole, solre, solitus sum (semi-deponent) to be accustomed
aliquid: something; i.e., something noteworthy
put (1) to think; putre mes ngs esse: indirect statement, to think that my trifles were.
ngae, -rum, f. pl. trifles
cum, conj. when
aude, audre, ausus sum (semi-deponent) to dare
nus = slus
talus, -a, -um Italian

STUDY TIP
Semi-deponent verbs have active forms and active meanings in the present, imperfect,
and future tenses but in the perfect tenses the forms are passive with active meanings.
Some examples of semi-deponent verbs are aude, audre, ausus sum to dare; gaude,
gaudre, gvsus sum to rejoice; and sole, solre, solitus sum to be accustomed.
Line 6:

Line 7:

aevum, -, n. age, history, time


trs, tria three
explic (1) to explain
carta, -ae, f. a sheet of papyrus; here, volume
doctus, -a, -um learned, knowledgeable
Iuppiter: translate this nominative of exclamation by Jove!
labrisus, -a, -um full of (involving) work

BY THE WAY
Qur can be written as one word or as two, qu r. As an interrogative, qur means
how? or why? As a relative, qur means therefore, on which account. In line 8,
however, it is a simple adverb meaning therefore.
Line 8:

Line 9:

Line 10:

qur, adv. therefore


tibi: a reflexive pronoun; translate have this book for yourself.
quisquis, quidquid whoever, whatever
quliscumque, qulecumque of whatever sort
patrna, -ae, f. patroness, protectress
virg: indirect reference to the muse; translate maiden.
perennis, perenne lasting a long time, eternal
saeculum, -, n. age, generation; saeclum is the syncopated form of saeculum.
n . . . saecl: this phrase is an ablative of comparison to be taken with pls, more than one
generation.
maneat: a subjunctive expressing a wish, sometimes called the optative subjunctive.
Translate May it . . . (See Appendix D, p. 540, for more information on this topic.)

Chapter 2 83

TAKE NOTE
1. In the time when Catullus was writing, a Roman book manuscript was rolled up
and stored, and unrolled to be read. To make up a roll, papyrus was soaked and cut
into strips, which were then joined together to create one sheet of varying length.
The sheets were then joined together to produce a roll, and the sheets were polished
with pumice to provide a smooth writing surface. When stored, a Roman book resembled a roll of wallpaper. Pumice also was used to smooth the ends of a roll of
papyrus, which is what Catullus refers to in line 2.
2. Be careful to distinguish the adverb modo that means just now, recently, only from
mod, the ablative singular of modus, -, m. manner, method. You can tell the difference only by the final long vowel. When the adverb modo is seen twice in a sentence,
the pair means sometimes . . . sometimes or now . . . now or at one time . . . at
another time. The phrase non modo . . . sed etiam means not only . . . but also.
3. Cornelius Nepos was born in a small town in northern Italy near Verona, the birthplace of Catullus and home of Shakespeares legendary couple, Romeo and Juliet.
According to Catullus, Corneliuss work (entitled Chronica), like his own collection of poetry, is characterized by innovation and literary achievement. In addition,
Catullus indicates that Neposs history of three volumes exhibits doctrna learning, a quality highly esteemed by Catullus and his fellow poets. The excessively
flattering praise in lines 57 lends a humorous touch to Catulluss tribute, which
correlates with the poets modesty regarding his own accomplishment.

COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS
1. Make a list of phrases and words that Catullus uses to describe his book. Provide the Latin
and their English equivalents.
2. If these words describe not only the physical book but also the poems it contains, what is
Catullus telling us about his poetry?
3. Why would Catullus use words like ngae that might indicate that the poems were unimportant?

EXERCISE 1
1. In line 2, what Latin word does rid modify?
2. In line 2, what case is expoltum and why?
3. What case is Cornl in line 3?
4. What word is complementary to solbs in lines 34?
5. Translate ausus es (line 5).
6. In line 6, what case and use is tribus carts?
7. What Latin word does labriss (line 7) modify?
84 Latin for the New Millennium

VOCABULARY BUILDER
Here are some English derivatives based on words in Poem 1. From what Latin word in the poem
is each derived? Give the Latin vocabulary entry and the English meaning for each word.
1. perennial
2. novice
3. putative
4. arid
5. secular
6. explicate
7. laborious
8. patron

LANGUAGE FACT
COMPLEMENTARY INFINITIVES AND INFINITIVES WITH
IMPERSONAL VERBS
Complementary Infinitives
A complementary infi nitive completes the meaning of another verb in the sentence. Complementary infi nitives do not take an accusative subject. Consider these examples.
namque t solbs . . . putre (Catullus 1.34)
for you were accustomed to think . . .
cum ausus es . . . explicre (Catullus 1.56)
when you dared to explain . . .
Infinitives with Impersonal Verbs
Many impersonal verbs also govern an infi nitive. The person doing the action in these phrases is sometimes in the dative case and other times in the accusative.
Nn libet mihi scrbere magnum librum.
It does not please me to write a large book.
Oportet m scrbere doctum libellum.
It is necessary for me to write a learned litt le book.

Chapter 2 85

Here is a list of some of the verbs that take complementary infi nitives and impersonal expressions that govern an infi nitive.
Verbs Governing a Complementary
Infinitive

Impersonal Verbs Governing an


Infinitive

possum, posse, potui to be able, can

libet (+ dat.) it is pleasing

aude, audre, ausus sum to dare

placet (+ dat.) it is pleasing

sole, solre, solitus sum to be accustomed

visum est (+ dat.) it seemed

coep, coepisse to have begun

oportet (+ acc.) it is necessary

dubit (1) to hesitate

pudet (+ acc.) it shames

dbe, dbre, dbu, dbitum to ought

licet (+ dat. or acc.) it is allowed, permitted

dsin, dsinere, dsv, dsitum to cease

necesse est (+ dat. or acc.) it is necessary

EXERCISE 2
Translate. Identify whether each sentence contains a complementary infi nitive, an infi nitive
with an impersonal verb, or an infi nitive in an indirect statement (see pp. 7273 in the Caesar
chapter of this book).
1. Cornl, dubitsne mes esse aliquid putre ngs?
2. Necesse est m omne aevum tribus explicre carts.
3. Placet mihi scrbere lepidum novum libellum.
4. Sci meum libellum rid modo pmice expoltum esse.
5. Licet tibi habre quidquid hoc est libell.
6. Meus libellus pls n manre perenne saecl potest.
7. Cornlius existimvit s omne aevum tribus carts explictrum esse.

LANGUAGE FACT
PARTITIVE GENITIVE
Most genitive case nouns translate with the word of. Sometimes there is a better or more natural way to translate genitive nouns. The partitive genitive expresses the whole of which a part
is being described.
optima pars libell . . .
the best part of the litt le book
quidquid hoc libell . . . (Catullus 1.8)
whatever this (is) of a litt le book
this litt le book, such as it is

86 Latin for the New Millennium

LITERA L TRA NSLATION


MORE NATURA L
TRA NSLATION

EXERCISE 3
Fill in the blank with the genitive of the phrase requested. Give a literal and then a more natural
translation of each sentence.
Example: quantum est hominum betirum (homins betirs)
literal: how much there is of rather blessed people
natural: however many happy people there are
1. quantum est __________ (homins doctirs)
2. quidquid est __________ (ngae)
3. tantum __________ (pecnia) habs
4. aliquid __________ (bonum)
5. nihil __________ (novum)

Chapter 2 87

READING 1 REDUX
You are now ready to read the poem exactly as Catullus wrote it. For this reason, the words in parentheses and the special use of fonts are no longer used. You have already seen notes in the first version
of this poem and you may refer to those notes if you need to. Additional notes are given below the text.
CATULLUS CARMEN 1
1

10

Cui dn lepidum novum libellum


rid modo pmice expoltum?
Cornl, tibi: namque t solbs
mes esse aliquid putre ngs
iam tum, cum ausus es nus talrum
omne aevum tribus explicre carts
docts, Iuppiter, et labriss.
qur hab tibi quidquid hoc libell
qulecumque; quod, <> patrna virg,
pls n maneat perenne saecl.

NOTES AND VOCABULARY


Line 1:

Lines 12:
Line 3:
Line 8:
Line 9:

Poem 1 is the only formal introductory poem contained in the collection. Th is poem may have
been intended to serve as an introduction to the entire work. If so, the diminutive libellus
does not reflect the size of the collection (a small book), but rather reflects the modest
tone characteristic of the poem as a whole with regard to Catulluss achievement.
lepidum novum. . . expoltum: these adjectives apply to the external appearance of the book
as well as to the poetry contained within the book.
Cornl: Cornelius Neposs Chronica, the three-volume history referred to in this line, is not
extant. Cornelius was friends not only with Catullus and Cicero but also with Att icus.
hab tibi: an abrupt, colloquial phrase with legalistic overtones suggesting the transfer of real
property: essentially Catullus says, Take it in as-is condition.
The symbol < > is supplied by editors and indicates there is a missing word, syllable, or phrase
in the text. Here we know that there has been an omission of a word or syllable as the line is
hendecasyllabic (having eleven syllables) but has only ten syllables. The text can easily be
restored by the addition of .
<> patrna virg: Note that Catullus does not ask the Muse for inspiration, a request one
would expect in an introductory poem, but rather asks her to assure the immortality of the
work.

88 Latin for the New Millennium

LANGUAGE FACT
DIMINUTIVES
Many languages have special forms that indicate something is a smaller version of something
else. Diminutives often imply affection and cuteness as well.
So in Spanish perro is dog but perrito is puppy, and you might affectionately call your
father papito instead of pap. We have diminutives in English too. A piglet could never be
confused with a pig, and if you had an hour, you might fi nish reading a booklet but never
a book. Other examples in English include kitchenette, gosling (a lot smaller than a goose!),
and diskette.
Catullus likes and often coins diminutives. Their meaning is usually clear if you know the word
from which they derive.
STUDY TIP
Latin diminutives tend to have the letter l in their endings, e.g., -lus, -lum, -ella.

EXERCISE 4
Fill in the following chart. All the words are used by Catullus in his other poems.
Diminutive

Meaning

Latin Word from Which It Is Derived

libellus

litt le book

liber, book

ocellus

__________

oculus, eye

frgidulus, -a, -um

__________

frgidus, cold

labellum

__________

labrum, lip

flsculus

__________

fls, flower

misellus, -a, -um

__________

miser, wretched, lovesick

amculus

__________

amcus, friend

versiculus

__________

versus, a verse, line of poetry

Chapter 2 89

ESSAY
Use your answers to the fi rst two comprehension questions on p. 84 to help you write this essay.
Discuss what qualities characterize good literature based on the information presented in
Poem 1.
Support your assertions with references drawn from throughout the poem. All Latin words
must be copied or their line numbers provided, AND they must be translated or paraphrased
closely enough so that it is clear you understand the Latin. Direct your answer to the question; do
not merely summarize the passage. Please write your essay on a separate piece of paper.

SCANSION
Name the meter and scan the following lines.
iam tum, cum ausus es nus talrum
omne aevum tribus explicre carts
docts, Iuppiter, et labriss.

90 Latin for the New Millennium

A mosaic of one of the Evangelists (the authors of the Gospels of the Christian New Testament)
demonstrates the continuity of Roman influence in the Byzantine world. The Evangelist is
dressed in a Roman toga and sandals. He has unrolled his papyrus with its Greek script.
Catulluss collection of poems would have been written on a similar papyrus scroll.

Chapter 2 91