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karerobcM

r)aykarN_RsavRCav sarNa
mUldæanerobcMkarRsavRCav
Design research basics
 KMrUdMeNIrkar (Process model)
 lTæplénkargarRsavRCav
Artifact types:

 Artifact structure: matikaénGPiRkmRsavRCav

 karvaytémø
lkçN³karvaytémø (evaluation criteria)
GPiRkmkarvaytémø (evaluation approach)
Process model
 a problem-solving paradigm:
 seeks to create innovations that define the ideas,
practices, technical capabilities, and products
through which the analysis, design, implementation,
and use of information systems can be effectively
and efficiently accomplished [Tsichritzis 1997;
Denning 1997]
Design research process

knowledge
flows + operation and goal knowledge

process
circumscription
steps
Awareness of
Suggestion Development Evaluation Conclusion
problem

logical
formalism

abduction deduction

[Takeda,1990]
viFIsaRsþedaHRsaybBaða
-Inductive RbmUlTinñy½rYcbnÞab;mkEkécñeTACaBt’man
TUeTAmYysMrab;bgðajGHGag b¤ viPaK.enHKWCaRbePTsMNYr¬GVI¦
edIm,IQaneTAdl;karsnñidæanmYyedayEp¥keTAelIkarviPaKRTwsþI
nig karGnuvtþCak;Esþg.
-Deductive kareFVIBiesaFn_ edIm,IEsVgrkCMerIsepSg².
CaviFIeFVIetsþelIRTwsþI edIm,Isnñidæan karBitEtkarsnñidæanenHRtUv
BwgEp¥kelIkarGnuvtþRTwsþI c,ab; nig RTwsþI b£lT§pl .
-Retroductive EsVgrkynþkarmYyEdlmanlkçN³Gac
Bnül;GMBIKMrUFmµtamYy viFIenHRtUv)aneKeRbIR)as;sMrab;rkemIl
ynþkaredayBinitüelIKMrU karBiesaFn_.
-Adductive begáItRTwsþIedayEp¥kelIkarGnuvtþeRcInsar
enAkñúgbrisßanénsgÁm.
Artifacts
 are not exempt from natural laws or behavioral
theories
 artifacts rely on existing "kernel theories" that
are applied, tested, modified, and extended
through the experience, creativity, intuition, and
problem solving capabilities of the researcher
[Walls et al. 1992; Markus et al. 2002]
Design research outputs
[March & Smith, 1995]
 Constructs
 conceptual vocabulary of a problem/solution domain
 Methods
 algorithms and practices to perform a specific task
 Models
 a set of propositions or statements expressing relationships
among constructs
 abstractions and representations
 Instantiations
 constitute the realization of constructs, models and methods
in a working system
 implemented and prototype systems
 Better theories
 artifact construction
Design research outputs
constructs
better theories
emergent theory about
models
embedded phenomena
abstraction models
abstraction methods
knowledge as
operational principles constructs
better theories
abstraction

artifact as situated implementation instatiations


methods
constructs
[Purao , 2002]
Examples
 Open up a new area
 Provide a unifying framework
 Resolve a long-standing question
 Thoroughly explore an area
 Contradict existing knowledge
 Experimentally validate a theory
 Produce an ambitious system
 Provide empirical data
 Derive superior algorithms
 Develop new methodology
 Develop a new tool
 Produce a negative result
Artifact structure
 Structure of the artifact
 the information space the artifact spans
 basis for deducing all required information about the
artifact
 determines the configurational characteristics
necessary to enable the evaluation of the artifact
Evaluation criteria
 Evaluation criteria
 the dimensions of the information space which are
relevant for determining the utility of the artifact
 can differ on the purpose of the evaluation
Evaluation approach
 Evaluation approach
 the procedure how to practically test an artifact
 defines all roles concerned with the assessment and
the way of handling the evaluation
 result is a decision whether or not the artifact meets
the evaluation criteria based on the available
information.
Evaluation approach (2)
 Quantitative evaluation:
 originally developed in the natural sciences to study
natural phenomena
 approaches:
 survey methods
 laboratory experiments

 formal methods (e.g. econometrics)

 numerical methods (e.g. mathematical modeling)


Evaluation approach (3)
 Qualitative evaluation:
 developed in the social sciences to enable researchers
to study social and cultural phenomena
 approaches:
 action research
 case study research
 ethnography
 grounded theory
 qualitative data sources:
 observation and participant observation (fieldwork)
 interviews and questionnaires
 documents and texts
 the researcher’s impressions and reactions
Constructs
Structure Evaluation criteria Evaluation approach

meta-model of the construct deficit ontological analysis


vocabulary construct overload

construct redundancy

construct excess
Methods
Structure Evaluation criteria Evaluation approach
process-based meta model appropriateness laboratory research
intended applications completeness field inquiries

conditions of applicability consistency surveys

products and results of the case studies


method application action research
reference to constructs practice descriptions

interpretative research
Models

Structure Evaluation criteria Evaluation approach


 domain correcteness syntactical validation
 scope, purpose completeness integrity checking

 syntax and semantics clarity sampling using selective

 terminology flexibility matching of data to actual


 intended application simplicity
external phenomena or trusted
surrogate
applicability
integration tests
implementability
risk and cost analysis

user surveys
Instantiations
Structure Evaluation criteria Evaluation approach
executable implementation in functionality code inspection
a programming language usability testing
reference to a design model
reliability code analysis
reference to a requirement
performance verification
specification
supportability
reference to the
documentation
reference to quality
management documents
reference to configuration
management documents
reference to project

management documents
Conclusion

Good research results require a careful


design of the research methodology and
considerable evaluation efforts