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Sumatran tiger

2 Evolution

The Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) is a rare

tiger subspecies that inhabits the Indonesian island of
Sumatra. It has been listed as Critically Endangered on
the IUCN Red List in 2008 as the population was estimated at 441 to 679 individuals, with no subpopulation
larger than 50 individuals and a declining trend.[1]

Analysis of DNA is consistent with the hypothesis that

Sumatran tigers became isolated from other tiger populations after a rise in sea level that occurred at the
Pleistocene to Holocene border about 12,0006,000
years ago. In agreement with this evolutionary history,
the Sumatran tiger is genetically isolated from all living
mainland tigers, which form a distinct group closely related to each other.[3]

The Sumatran tiger is the only surviving member of the

Sunda Islands group of tigers that included the now extinct Bali tiger and Javan tiger.[2] Sequences from complete mitochondrial genes of 34 tigers support the hypothesis that Sumatran tigers are diagnostically distinct from
mainland populations.[3]

3 Distribution and habitat


A Sumatran tiger at Tierpark Berlin, Germany.

Sumatran tigers persist in isolated populations across

Sumatra.[9] They occupy a wide array of habitats, ranging from sea level in the coastal lowland forest of Bukit
Barisan Selatan National Park on the southeastern tip
of Lampung Province to 3,200 m (10,500 ft) in mountain forests of Gunung Leuser National Park in Aceh
Province. They have been repeatedly photographed at
2,600 m (8,500 ft) in a rugged region of northern Sumatra, and are present in 27 habitat patches larger than 250
km2 (97 sq mi).[10]

Sumatran tiger in the Melbourne Zoo

Pocock rst described the Sumatran tiger on the basis of

several skull, pelage and striping features in which it is
distinct from the Indian and Javan tigers. It is darker in
fur colour and has thicker stripes than the Javan tiger.[4]
Stripes tend to disintegrate into spots near their ends, and
lines of small dark specks between regular stripes may be
found on the back, anks and hind legs.[5] The frequency
of stripes is higher than in other subspecies.[6]

Males have a prominent ru, which is especially marked In 1978, the Sumatran tiger population was estimated
in the Sumatran tiger.[7]
at 1,000 individuals,[11] based on responses to a ques[12]
In 1985, a total of 26 protected arThe Sumatran tiger is one of the smallest tiger tionnaire survey.
approximately 800 tigers
subspecies. Males weigh 100 to 140 kg (220 to 310 lb)
was estimated that 400
and measure 2.2 to 2.55 m (87 to 100 in) in length be500
parks and two protected
tween the pegs with a greatest length of skull of 295 to
335 mm (11.6 to 13.2 in). Females weigh 75 to 110 kg
(165 to 243 lb) and measure 215 to 230 cm (85 to 91 in) At that time the largest population, comprising 110-180
in length between the pegs with a greatest length of skull individuals, was reported from the Gunung Leuser National Park.[15] However, a more recent study shows that
of 263 to 294 mm (10.4 to 11.6 in).[5]


the Kerinci Seblat National Park in central Sumatra has

the highest population of tigers on the island, estimated
to be at 165190 individuals. The park also was shown
to have the highest tiger occupancy rate of the protected
areas, with 83% of the park showing signs of tigers.[16]
There are more tigers in the Kerinci Seblat National Park
(KSNP) than in all of Nepal, and more than in China,
Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam combined.[17][18]

tied including great argus pheasant, pigtail macaque,

porcupine, Malay tapir, wild pig, greater and lesser
mouse-deer, muntjac and Sambar deer.[9] As Sumatran
tigers are apex predators in their habitat, the continuing
decline in their population numbers is likely to destabilize
food chains and lead to various ecosystem changes when
these prey species experience a release from predation
pressure and increase in numbers.[21]

5 Threats

Ecology and behaviour

Wild Sumatran tiger

Sumatran tigers strongly prefer non-cultivated forest and

make little use of plantations of acacia and oil palm even
if these are available. Within natural forest areas they
tend to use areas with higher elevation, lower annual rainfall, farther from forest edge, and closer to forest centres.
They prefer forest with dense understory cover and steep
slope, and they strongly avoid forest areas with high human inuence in the forms of encroachment and settlement. In acacia plantations they tend to use areas closer to
water, and prefer areas with older plants, more leaf litter
and thicker sub-canopy cover. Tiger records in oil palm
plantations and in rubber plantations are scarce. The
availability of adequate vegetation cover at the ground
level serves as an environmental condition fundamentally
needed by tigers regardless of the location. Without adequate understory cover, tigers are even more vulnerable to
persecution by humans. Human disturbance related variables negatively aect tiger occupancy and habitat use.
Variables with strong impacts include settlement and encroachment within forest areas, logging and the intensity
of maintenance in acacia plantations.[19] Camera trapping
surveys conducted in southern Riau revealed an extremely
low abundance of potential prey and a low tiger density in
peat swamp forest areas. Repeated sampling in the newly
established Tesso Nilo National Park documented a trend
of increasing tiger density from 0.90 individuals per 100
km2 (39 sq mi) in 2005 to 1.70 individuals per 100 km2
(39 sq mi) in 2008.[20]

Group of people at a tiger trap with a tiger in Soepajang, Bovenlanden Padang, on Sumatra's west coast. (Circa 1895)

Major threats include habitat loss due to expansion of

palm oil plantations and planting of acacia plantations,
prey-base depletion, and illegal trade primarily for the domestic market.[1]
Tigers need large contiguous forest blocks to thrive.[19]
Between 1985 and 1999, forest loss within Bukit Barisan
Selatan National Park averaged 2% per year. A total of
661 km2 (255 sq mi) of forest disappeared inside the
park, and 318 km2 (123 sq mi) were lost in a 10-km
buer, eliminating forest outside the park. Lowland forest disappeared faster than montane forest, and forests
on gentle slopes disappeared faster than forests on steep
slopes. Most forest conversion resulted from agricultural
development, leading to predictions that by 2010 70% of
the park will be in agriculture. Camera-trap data indicated avoidance of forest boundaries by tigers. Classication of forest into core and peripheral forest based on
mammal distribution suggests that by 2010, core forest
area for tigers will be fragmented and reduced to 20% of
remaining forest.[22]

Kerinci Seblat National Park, which has the largest

recorded population of tigers, is suering a high rate of
deforestation in its outer regions. Drivers are an unsustainable demand for natural resources created by a human
population with the highest rate of growth in Indonesia,
In the Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park, nine prey and a government initiative to increase tree crop plantaspecies larger than 1 kg (2.2 lb) of body weight were iden- tions and high-intensity commercial logging, ultimately

promoting forest res. The majority of the tigers found in
the park were relocated to its center where conservation
eorts are focused, but issues in the lowland hill forests
of the outskirts remain. While being highly suitable tiger
habitat, these areas are also heavily targeted by logging efforts, which substantially contributes to declines in local
tiger numbers.[23] A major driver for forest clearance are
oil-palm plantations, which form a major part of Indonesias economy. Global consumption of palm-oil has increased ve-folds over the past decade, presenting a challenge for many conservation eorts.[24]
The expansion of plantations is also increasing greenhouse gas emissions, playing a part in anthropogenic
climate change and thus further adding to environmental pressures on endangered species.[25] Climate-based
movement of tigers northwards may lead to increased
conict with human populations. From 1987 to 1997,
Sumatran tigers reportedly killed 146 people and at least
870 livestock. In West Sumatra, Riau, and Aceh a total of A Sumatran tiger at Melbourne Zoo, Australia.
128 incidents were reported. 265 tigers were killed and
97 captured in response. 35 more tigers were killed from
1998 to 2002. From 2007 to 2010, the tigers caused the
death of 9 humans and 25 further tigers were killed.[26]
Despite being given full protection in Indonesia and internationally, tiger parts are still found openly in trade in
Sumatra. In 1997, it was reported that an estimated 53
tigers had been poached and their parts sold throughout
most of Northern Sumatra. Numbers for all of Sumatra are likely to be higher. It was also found that many
of the tigers had been killed by farmers claiming that
the tigers were endangering their livestock. These tigers
would then be sold to gold shops, souvenir shops, and
pharmacies.[27] Farmers are probably the main hunters
of tigers in Sumatra.[27] In 2006, surveys were conducted
over a seven-month period in 28 cities in seven Sumatran provinces and nine seaports. A total of 326 retail outlets were surveyed, and 33 (10%) were found to
have tiger parts for sale, including skins, canines, bones
and whiskers. Tiger bones demanded the highest average
price of US$116 per kg, followed by canines. There is evidence that tiger parts are smuggled out of Indonesia. In
July 2005, over 140 kg of tiger bones and 24 skulls were
conscated in Taiwan in a shipment from Jakarta.[28]


Panthera tigris is listed on CITES Appendix I. Hunting is

prohibited in Indonesia.[7]

A Sumatran tiger at San Antonio Zoo and Aquarium, Texas.

populations.[29] By August 1999, the teams of the STP

had evaluated 52 sites of potential tiger habitat in Lampung Province, of which only 15 were intact enough
to contain tigers.[30] In the framework of the STP, a
community-based conservation programme was initiated
to document the tiger-human dimension in the park
in order to enable conservation authorities to resolve
tiger-human conicts based on a comprehensive database
rather than anecdotes and opinions.[31]
In 2007, the Indonesian Forestry Ministry and Safari
Park established cooperation with the Australia Zoo for
the conservation of Sumatran tigers and other endangered species. The program includes conserving Sumatran tigers and other endangered species in the wild, efforts to reduce conicts between tigers and humans, and
rehabilitating Sumatran tigers and reintroducing them to
their natural habitat. One hectare of the 186-hectare
Taman Safari is the worlds only Sumatran tiger captive
breeding center that also has a sperm bank.[32]

In 1994, the Indonesian Sumatran Tiger Conservation

Strategy addressed the potential crisis that tigers faced
in Sumatra. The Sumatran Tiger Project was initiated
in June 1995 in and around the Way Kambas National
Park in order to ensure the long-term viability of wild
Sumatran tigers and to accumulate data on tiger lifehistory characteristics vital for the management of wild Indonesias struggle with conservation has caused an up-


surge in political momentum to protect and conserve 7.2 Prehistoric

wildlife and biodiversity. In 2009 Indonesias president
Ngandong tiger (Panthera tigris soloensis)
made a commitment to substantially reduce deforestation
and policies across the nation[33] requiring spatial plans
Trinil tiger (Panthera tigris trinilensis)
that would be environmentally sustainable at national,
provincial and district levels.
Over the past decade
Wanhsien tiger (Panthera tigris acutidens)
there has been about US $210 million invested into the
tiger law enforcement activities that supports forest forest ranger patrol as well as the implementations of front
8 References
line law enforcement activities by the Global Tiger Recovery Plan, which aims to double the number of wild
[1] Linkie, M., Wibisono, H. T., Martyr, D. J., Sunarto, S.
tigers by 2020.[34]
A 2008 study utilized simple spatial analyses on readily available datasets to compare the distribution of
ve ecosystem services across tiger habitat in central
Sumatra.[33] The study examined a decade of law enforcement patrol data within a robust mark and recapture
statistical framework to assess the eectiveness of law
enforcement interventions in one of Asias largest tiger
habitats.[33] In 2013-2014, Kerinci Seblat experienced an
upsurge in poaching, with the highest annual number of
snare traps being removed for a patrol eort similar to
previous years. Evidence is scarce and misunderstood on
whether the strategies implemented to diminish poaching are succeeding despite the investment of millions of
dollars annually into conservation strategies.
A 2010 study examined a dierent strategy for promoting Sumatran tiger conservation while at the same time
deriving a nancial prot, by promoting tiger-friendly
vegetable margarine as an alternative to palm oil. The
study concluded that consumers were willing to pay a
premium for high quality margarine connected with tiger
An 110,000-acre conservation area and rehabilitation
center, Tambling Wildlife Nature Conservation, has been
set up on the edge of a national park on the southern tip
of Sumatra (Lampung).[36] On 26 October 2011, a tigress
who had been captured with an injured leg in early October delivered three male cubs in a temporary cage while
waiting for release after her recovery.[37]
On 3 February 2014 three Sumatran tiger cubs were born
to a ve-year-old tigress[38] in London Zoo's Tiger Territory, a 3.6m facility to encourage endangered subspecies
of tiger to breed.[39]

See also



(2008). Panthera tigris ssp. sumatrae. IUCN Red List of

Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. International Union
for Conservation of Nature.

[2] Mazk, J. H. & Groves, C. P. (2006). A taxonomic revision of the tigers (Panthera tigris)"
(PDF). Mammalian Biology 71 (5):
[3] Cracraft, J., Feinstein, J., Vaughn, J., Helm-Bychowski,
K. (1998). Sorting out tigers (Panthera tigris): Mitochondrial sequences, nuclear inserts, systematics, and conservation genetics (PDF). Animal Conservation 1 (2):
139150. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1795.1998.tb00021.x.
[4] Pocock, R. I. (1929). Tigers. Journal of the Bombay
Natural History Society 33: 505541.
[5] Mazk, V. (1981). "Panthera tigris" (PDF). Mammalian
Species 152 (152): 18. doi:10.2307/3504004.
[6] Kitchener, A. (1999). Tiger distribution, phenotypic variation and conservation issues. Pages 1939 in: Seidensticker, J., Christie, S., Jackson, P. (eds.) Riding
the Tiger. Tiger Conservation in human-dominated landscapes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, ISBN
[7] Nowell, K., Jackson, P. (1996). Tiger Panthera tigris (Linnaeus 1758) in: Wild Cats: status survey and conservation action plan. IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group, Gland,
[8] Sumatran tiger. World Wide Fund for Nature. Archived
from the original on 2014-12-25.
[9] OBrien, T. G., Kinnard, M. F. and Wibisono, H.
T. (2003). Crouching tigers, hidden prey: Sumatran tiger and prey populations in a tropical forest
landscape. Animal Conservation 6 (2): 131139.
[10] Wibisono, H. T. & Pusarini, W. (2010). Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae): A review of conservation status. Integrative Zoology 5 (4): 313
23. doi:10.1111/j.1749-4877.2010.00219.x. PMID

Bali tiger

[11] Poston, Lee (2013-10-29). The nal days of the Sumatran tiger?". CNN. Archived from the original on 201311-09.

Javan tiger

[12] Borner, M. (1978). Status and conservation of the Sumatran tiger. Carnivore 1 (1): 97102.

[13] Santiapillai, C., Ramono, W. S. (1987). Tiger numbers

and habitat evaluation in Indonesia, pp. 8591 in: Tilson,
R. L., Seal, U. S. (eds.) Tigers of the World: The Biology, Biopolitics, Management, and Conservation of an Endangered Species. Noyes Publications, New Jersey, ISBN
[14] Tilson, R. L., Soemarna, K., Ramono, W. S., Lusli, S.,
Traylor-Holzer, K., Seal, U. S. (1994). Sumatran Tiger
Populations and Habitat Viability Analysis. Indonesian
Directorate General of Forest Protection and Nature Conservation, and IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley.
[15] Griths, M. (1994). Population density of Sumatran tigers
in Gunung Leuser National Park, pp. 93102 in: Tilson,
R., Soemarna, K., Ramono, W. S., Lusli, S., TraylorHolzer, K., Seal, U. (eds.) Sumatran Tiger Population and
Habitat Viability Analysis Report. Directorate of Forest
Protection and Nature Conservation and IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, Minnesota.
[16] Wibisono HT, Linkie M, Guillera-Arroita G, Smith J A,
Sunarto; et al. (2011). Gratwicke, Brian, ed. Population
Status of a Cryptic Top Predator: An Island-Wide Assessment of Tigers in Sumatran Rainforests. PLOS ONE 6
(11): e25931. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0025931. PMC
3206793. PMID 22087218.
[17] Kutarumalos, Ali (2011-04-28). Road-building plans
threaten Indonesian tigers. The Jakarta Post. Archived
from the original on 2014-01-02.
[18] No humour, not this time 26th of April 2011. 21st
Century Tiger. 2011-04-26. Archived from the original
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[19] Sunarto, S., Kelly, M. J., Parakkasi, K., Klenzendorf,
S., Septayuda, E., Kurniawan, H. (2012). Gratwicke,
Brian, ed. Tigers Need Cover: Multi-Scale Occupancy Study of the Big Cat in Sumatran Forest and
Plantation Landscapes. PLoS ONE 7 (1): e30859.
[20] Sunarto, S. (2011), Ecology and restoration of Sumatran
tigers in forest and plantation landscapes (PhD dissertation), Virginia Tech, archived from the original on 201305-26
[21] Periyar Tiger Reserve.
Retrieved 2015-10-29.

[22] Kinnaird, M. F.; Sanderson, E. W.; O'Brien, T. G.;

Wibisono, H.; Woolmer, G. (2003). Deforestation
trends in a tropical landscape and implications for forest mammals (PDF). Conservation Biology 17: 245257.
[23] Linkie, Matthew (2003). Habitat Destruction and
Poaching Threaten the Sumatran Tiger in Kerinci Seblat National Park, Sumatra.
Oryx 37.
[24] Campbell, Charlie. Palm Oil Is Killing the Sumatran
Tiger. Time (0040-718X). Retrieved 2015-10-29.

[25] Aldred, Jessica. Sumatran deforestation driving climate change and species extinction, report warns. the
Guardian. Retrieved 2015-10-29.
[26] Wibisono, Hariyo T.; Pusparini, Wulan (2010-12-01).
Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae): A review of
conservation status. Integrative Zoology 5 (4): 313
323. doi:10.1111/j.1749-4877.2010.00219.x. ISSN
1749-4877. PMID 21392349.
[27] Plowden, Campbell (1997). The Illegal Market in Tiger
Parts in Northern Sumatra, Indonesia. Oryx 31: 59.
[28] Ng, J. and Nemora. (2007). Tiger trade revisited in
Sumatra, Indonesia. Trac Southeast Asia, Petaling Jaya,
[29] Franklin, N., Bastoni, Sriyanto, Siswomartono, D., Manansang, J. and R. Tilson (1999). Last of the Indonesian tigers: a cause for optimism, pp. 130147 in: Seidensticker, J., Christie, S. and Jackson, P. (eds). Riding the tiger: tiger conservation in human-dominated landscapes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, ISBN
[30] Tilson, R. (1999). Sumatran Tiger Project Report No. 17
& 18: July December 1999. Grant number 1998-0093059. Indonesian Sumatran Tiger Steering Committee,
[31] Nyhus, P., Sumianto and R. Tilson (1999). The tigerhuman dimension in southeast Sumatra, pp. 144145 in:
Seidensticker, J., Christie, S. and Jackson, P. (eds). Riding the tiger: tiger conservation in human-dominated landscapes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, ISBN
[32] Boediwardhana, Wahyoe (2012-12-15). Sumatran tiger
sperm bank. The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 2014-10-23.
[33] Bhagabati, Nirmal K.; Ricketts, Taylor; Sulistyawan,
Thomas Barano Siswa; Conte, Marc; Ennaanay, Driss;
Hadian, Oki; McKenzie, Emily; Olwero, Nasser;
Rosenthal, Amy (2014-01-01).
Ecosystem services reinforce Sumatran tiger conservation in land
use plans. Biological Conservation 169: 147156.
[34] Linkie, Matthew; Martyr, Deborah J.; Harihar, Abishek;
Risdianto, Dian; Nugraha, Rudijanta T.; LeaderWilliams, Nigel; Wong, Wai-Ming (2015-08-01).
EDITOR'S CHOICE: Safeguarding Sumatran tigers:
evaluating eectiveness of law enforcement patrols and
local informant networks. Journal of Applied Ecology
52 (4): 851860. doi:10.1111/1365-2664.12461. ISSN
1365-2664. Missing |last6= in Authors list (help)
[35] Bateman, Ian J.; Fisher, Brendan; Fitzherbert,
Emily; Glew, David; Naidoo, Robin (2010-04-01).
Tigers, markets and palm oil:
market potential for conservation.
Oryx 44 (02): 230234.
doi:10.1017/S0030605309990901. ISSN 1365-3008.
[36] Williams, Ian (2010-11-19). On the prowl for maneating tigers. NBC News. Archived from the original
on 2013-11-13.

[37] Tambling Ketambahan Tiga Anak Harimau. Media Indonesia. 2011-11-01. Archived from the original on
2012-04-07. English translation at Google Translate
[38] Sumatran tiger cubs born at London Zoo. BBC News.
2014-03-12. Archived from the original on 2014-03-25.
Retrieved 2015-01-15.
[39] Aldred, Jessica (2014-03-13). Sumatran tiger triplets
born at London zoo. The Guardian. Archived from the
original on 2014-10-24. Retrieved 2015-01-15.

External links
Species portrait Panthera tigris". International
Union for Conservation of Nature/SSC Cat Specialist Group. Archived from the original on 2014-1112. and short portrait P. t. sumatrae". International
Union for Conservation of Nature/SSC Cat Specialist Group. Archived from the original on 2014-1213.
Sumatran Tiger Trust Conservation Program.
World Association of Zoos and Aquariums.
Archived from the original on 2015-03-01.
Tiger Facts Sumatran Tiger. The Tiger Foundation. Archived from the original on 2013-12-31.



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