You are on page 1of 57

PEOPLE-FRIENDLY DESIGN

CASE STUDIES AND PANEL


DISCUSSION
Nicole Walters

Human Factors and


Ergonomics Society
of Australia
SA Branch

Timings
9.00am to 9.20am

Welcome

Nicole Walters

9.25am to 9.45am

Greg Walters. State Manager, Sinclair Knight Merz

9.50am to 10.10am

Ben Luther. SQNLDR, ARDU ASO & Flight Test


Safety Officer, DSTO

10.10am to 10.20am

Stretch break

10.20am to 10.40am

Kevin Prunty. Management Systems and


Operations - SA & Victoria, GM Holden Ltd

10.40 am to 11.15am

(25 minutes) Group


exercise

11.20am to 11.50am

Panel discussion
(Speakers)

Guest Speakers

11.50am to 12.00pm

Wrap-up

Nicole Walters

Setting the context


People-friendly design is where human factors and
ergonomic principles are incorporated into design, so that
the person is considered a central and essential part of the
design process.

User-Centered Design
Systems designed to fit people (not vice-versa).
Reduces training time.
Minimises human error.
Improves comfort, safety, and productivity

Scope of Human Factors

Copied from Introduction to Human Factors 2010 Dr. Steve Kass, Department of Psychology, University of West Florida

Ergonomics in design
Everything people interact with!
Focuses upon human interaction with:
Products

Equipment
Facilities
Procedures

Environments
WHS harmonised legislative requirements

Safe Work Australia


Australian Work Health
and Safety Strategy 2012

2022
seven action areas

Healthy & Safe by Design

Australian Work Health and Safety Strategy 20122022

Healthy and safe by design


Action area
Hazards are eliminated or minimised by design

Structures, plant and substances are designed to


eliminate or minimise hazards and risks before
they are introduced into the workplace.

Work, work processes and systems of work are


designed and managed to eliminate or minimise

hazards and risks.


Australian Work Health and Safety Strategy 20122022

Why design for safety?


NOHSC Research finding (19972002)

Design contributed to 37% of work-related serious and fatal injuries


Most affected industries: mining, construction, transport,

agriculture, trade and manufacturing


Solutions exist for most of the identified design problems

Inferior design continues to be a significant contributor to


work-related serious injury in Australia

Safe Design Process


Integration of hazard identification and risk assessment
methods early in the design process to eliminate or minimise
the risks of injury throughout the life of the product being
designed.

A product may be:


Buildings, facilities, structures, layouts, configurations
Plant including machinery, equipment, appliances and tools

Substances and materials


Work methods and systems of work
ASCC 2006 Guidance on The Principles of Safe Design for Work

WHS Legislation
WHS Act - duties of PCBU that design plant, substances
and structures

WHS Regulations duties of designers in specific


regulations

e.g. hazardous manual tasks, noise, plant

Codes of Practice e.g.

Safe Design of Structures


Hazardous Manual Tasks
Managing Noise & Preventing Hearing Loss at Work

Human Considerations
Information
Theory

Anthropometrics

Strength
capability

Memory
Resources

Input Modalities

Visual acuity

Attention
Resources

Compatibility
Expectations

Acoustic
sensitivity

Five fundamental fallacies of Ergonomics


1. This design is satisfactory for me, therefore it will be satisfactory for
everybody else.
2. This design is satisfactory for the average person, it will therefore be
satisfactory for everybody else.
3. The variability of human beings is so great that it cannot possibly be catered
for in any design but since people are so wonderfully adaptable it doesn't

matter anyway.
4. Ergonomics is expensive and since products are actually purchased on
appearance and styling, ergonomics considerations can be conveniently
ignored.

5. Ergonomics is an excellent idea. I always design things with ergonomics in


mind but I do it intuitively and rely on my common sense so I don't need data.
Pheasant, Stephen (1988) 'Bodyspace: Anthropometry, Ergonomics and Design 'Taylor and Francis, London p. 8

Shhhh!................. Here comes one now!

We cannot change the Human Condition


but we can change the conditions
in which humans work.

James Reason

Speakers
Greg Walters -State Manager South Australia, Sinclair

Knight Merz
Ben Luther SQNLDR, ARDU ASO & Flight Test Safety
Officer, DSTO
Kevin Prunty -Management Systems and Operations - SA &
Victoria, GM Holden Ltd

How to incorporate HF in the design process?


Taking human factors into account as part of the
engineering /design /process requires the design of:
Equipment,
Products,
Operations,
Procedures,
Work environments.

such that they are compatible with the capabilities,


limitations and needs of the workers.

Approaches for Problem-Solving


Equipment Design change physical equipment
Task Design change how task is accomplished

Environmental Design change features of the work environment


Training change worker behavior by providing skills and teaching
procedures
Selection recognise individual differences in ability to accomplish
work

People Friendly
Design in the Built
Environment
Greg Walters SA State Manager SKM

People Friendly Design Human Factors


Basic Physiology (ergonomics)
Stressors

Cognition and Decision Making


Teamwork, Communication and Culture
Human Error

Basic Physiology Office Design and Fitout


Workspace Physiology
Office fit out considerations workstations, space, noise,

light, amenity, quiet rooms, how teams interact, open space v


offices, morale, cost

Workspace Design

Workstation Ergonomics

Stressors
Physiological
Nutrition (Well Being)
Illness (Health)
Psychological
Anxiety and Stress (Well Being)
Workload and Task Complexity
Sleep and Fatigue (Safety)

Environmental
Temperature and Humidity (Health and Safety)
Noise and Vibration (Health and Safety)

Stressors
Health and Well Being

Mental Health

Employee Assistance Program

Key Lessons Learned


The person is considered a central and essential part of
the design process.

People friendly design is more than just ergonomics.


Implementation takes leadership.

Making Planes
That Work
- human factors in aviation
Ben Luther

Problem Space
Aerodynamics: weight / space

Problem Space
Situational
Awareness

Problem Space
Crew

Benefits
Talent pool
Capability

Training
Cost
Safety

Technical Examples
Gauges

Technical Examples
Gauges

Technical Examples
Gauges

Engine
N1%

099.65
098.95
100.85
099.45

Prop%

099.35
099.05
098.80
099.75

Technical Examples
Placement (prioritisation)

Case Studies
PC-9 OLM
G-gauge
6.5 g

Case Studies
KC-30 pilot stick
Use in AAR

Conclusion
Complex problems complex solutions

Operating environment matters

People Centred
Manufacturing
Mr Kevin Prunty
Safety Business Partner GM Holden Ltd.

Building Cars with People as the Focus.


Our employees are our most precious asset.
The vehicle build process must not injure our workers.
Processes must be based on sound ergonomic principles.
Assembly process must be designed around the worker.

You cant manage what you dont measure!


Comparing apples with apples helps. Standardization and
leveraging global experience and support..

Case Studies.
Carpet Lifter
Designed around ergonomic manual

handling and safe and secure manipulation


of vehicle carpet.
Previously high ergonomic risk.

Case Studies.
Vehicle Battery Lifter
Designed around safe and secure

manipulation of Battery.
Previously awkward and heavy.

Case Studies.
VF Commodore - Front end access.
Designed to provide ergonomically sound
access to the front end of the vehicle for
fitment and assembly of components.
Earlier models (pre VE) required awkward

and unsafe access into engine bay.

Case Studies.
Tools utilised for ergonomic review.
GEST 2. (Global Ergonomic Screening Tool)

3DSSP Analysis.

Case Studies.

Case Studies.

Consultation
Group Exercise

Consultation
Consulting in the workplace with those
potentially affected by the design decisions.
Consultation involves the sharing of
information, giving workers a reasonable
opportunity to express their views and taking
those views into account before making
decisions on health and safety matters.

Group exercise
Break up into small groups and discuss the following:
Where does consultation fit into people-friendly design?
How can workers participate/contribute in the design process?
How are workers currently involved in the design process in
your workplace?
How can worker consultation be improved?

Each group to come up with at least two take home messages

Panel discussion

Panel Discussion
Panel discussion about the safety strategies of people
friendly designs:

Benefits of people-friendly design from a WHS, comfort


and efficiency perspective
Key lessons learned through the process.

Wrap up
What do you think of the five fundamental fallacies?
What are the key learnings from the session?

Human Factors and Ergonomic Society


www.ergonomics.org.au
www.ergonomics.org.au

Thank our speakers today

Five fundamental fallacies of Ergonomics


1. This design is satisfactory for me, therefore it will be satisfactory for
everybody else.
2. This design is satisfactory for the average person, it will therefore be
satisfactory for everybody else.
3. The variability of human beings is so great that it cannot possibly be catered
for in any design but since people are so wonderfully adaptable it doesn't

matter anyway.
4. Ergonomics is expensive and since products are actually purchased on
appearance and styling, ergonomics considerations can be conveniently
ignored.

5. Ergonomics is an excellent idea. I always design things with ergonomics in


mind but I do it intuitively and rely on my common sense so I don't need data.
Pheasant, Stephen (1988) 'Bodyspace: Anthropometry, Ergonomics and Design 'Taylor and Francis, London p. 8